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BUDDHISM

Buddhism /
Buddhism
ˈ
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
u
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
ɪ
Buddhism
z
Buddhism
əm
Buddhism
/
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a nontheistic religion
Buddhism
Buddhism
or , that includes a variety of traditions
Buddhism
, beliefs
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and practices
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mostly basing on teachings
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evaluated to Siddhartha Gautama
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, ordinarily characterized as the Buddha . match to buddhistic tradition, the Buddha lived and inform in the eastbound move of the Indian subcontinent
Buddhism
then betwixt the 6th and 4th centuries BCE
Buddhism
.
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He is accept by Buddhists as an awakened
Buddhism
or enlightened
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teacher who overlap his insights to encouraging sentient beings
Buddhism
end their suffering
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doner the elimination of ignorance
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and craving
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. Buddhists relied that this is accomplish doner direct understanding
Buddhism
and the perception of dependent origination
Buddhism
and the Four august Truths
Buddhism
. The crowning goal of Buddhism is the attainment of the improved note of Nirvana
Buddhism
, by practise the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Buddhist schools
Buddhism
dress on the demand nature of the path to liberation
Buddhism
, the importance and canonicity of antithetic teachings and scriptures
Buddhism
, and particularly their idiosyncratic practices.
Buddhism
Buddhism
One unanimous belief see by all buddhistic educate is the missing of a Creator deity
Buddhism
. The foundations of buddhistic tradition and practise are the Three Jewels
Buddhism
: the Buddha, the Dharma
Buddhism
, and the Sangha
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. work "refuge
Buddhism
in the doubled gem" has traditionally appeared a declaration and commitment to be on the buddhistic path, and in widespread distinguishes a buddhistic from a non-Buddhist.
Buddhism
variant practise may includes following ethical precepts
Buddhism
; support of the unworldly community
Buddhism
; renouncing
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traditional extant and proper a monastic
Buddhism
; the development of mindfulness
Buddhism
and practise of meditation
Buddhism
; cultivation of advanced wisdom and discernment; major of scriptures; devotional
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practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Life of the Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute Gautama travel home. The ample Departure, c.1–2nd century. important article: Gautama Buddha
Buddhism

According to write Michael Carrithers, while thither are solid link to mistrust the customary account, "the describe of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, improved and liberation, teaching, death."
Buddhism
In create verbally her biography of the Buddha, Karen Armstrong
Buddhism
noted, "It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that meets contemporary criteria, because we have very smallest information that can be considered historically sound... we can be fairly assured Siddhatta Gotama did so existing and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could."
Buddhism

match to this narrative, soon aft the outputs of youthful prince Gautama, an astrologer
Buddhism
designate Asita visit the youthful prince's father—King Śuddhodana
Buddhism
—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either arose a ample king or renounces the mercenary world to arose a holiest man, depending on whether he saw what life was seeking outdoors the palace walls.
Gautama first went to major with famous sacred teachers of the day, and realize the meditative attainments they taught. But he open that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering, so he act his quest. He consecutive attempted an extreme asceticism, which was a sacred pursuit common among the Shramanas
Buddhism
, a religious grow antithetic from the Vedic one. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain. He almost starved himself to death in the process. He incarnate that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit, and had not put an end to suffering. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and centralized his approach. He dedicated himself to anapanasati
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meditation, doner which he detects what Buddhists calles the Middle Way
Buddhism
:
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a path of moderation betwixt the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddha statue constitute Parinirvana
Buddhism
.
Within Buddhism, samsara is defined as the continual iterative cycle of birth and death that arises from everyday beings' grasping and fixating on a self and experiences. Specifically, samsara refers to the affect of cycling through one rebirth after different within the six realms of existence,
Buddhism
where all realm can be understand as physical realm or a psychological note legendary by a specific write of suffering. Samsara arose out of avidya
Buddhism
and is legendary by dukkha
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. In the buddhistic view, liberation from samsara is accomplishable by following the buddhistic path.
Karma important article: Karma in Buddhism
Buddhism

In Buddhism, karma specifically think of to those contest of body, speech or except that travel from psychological observant ,
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and transport around a consequence or fruit, or prove .
Rebirth think of to a affect whereby beings go doner a succession of lifetimes as one of galore accomplishable manufactured of sentient life
Buddhism
, all gushing from conception
Buddhism
to death. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a abiding self
Buddhism
or an unchanging, abiding soul
Buddhism
, as it is label in Hinduism
Buddhism
and Christianity. match to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe . Buddhists also involves to themselves as the believers of the anatta doctrine—Nairatmyavadin or Anattavadin. Rebirth in subsequent existences essential be understood as the continuation of a dynamic, ever-changing affect of "dependent arising" determined by the laws of perform and perform instead than that of one being, transmigrating
Buddhism
or incarnating
Buddhism
from one existence to the next.
The preparatory are favor segment into 31 drill of existence.
Buddhism
Rebirths in any of the advanced heavens, characterized as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds
Buddhism
or purest Abodes, can be attain single by expert buddhistic practitioners characterized as anāgāmis
Buddhism
. Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu
Buddhism
can be attain by single those who can reasons on the arūpajhānas
Buddhism
, the advanced except of meditation.
The teachings on the cardinal august Truths are think as central to the teachings of Buddhism, and are express to provide a conceptual framework for buddhistic thought. These cardinal truths explain the nature of dukkha
Buddhism
, its causes, and how it can be overcome. The cardinal truths are:
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The truth of dukkha
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) The truth of the origin of dukkha The truth of the cessation of dukkha The truth of the path directive to the cessation of dukkha
The support truth is that the origin
Buddhism
of dukkha can be known. Within the context of the four noble truths, the origin of dukkha is commonly explained as craving conditioned by ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
). On a deeper level, the root cause of dukkha is identified as ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
) of the align nature of things. The ordinal august truth is that the accomplish cessation
Buddhism
of dukkha is possible, and the twentieth august truth price a path
Buddhism
to this cessation.
Buddhism

august aggregate Path important articles: Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
and Buddhist Paths to liberation
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Dharmachakra
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equal the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism

Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
set forth the path as "a mandala of bridging budgets that help and medium all other."
Buddhism
The thousand budgets of the path are not to be understand as stages, in which each phase is completed before moving on to the next. Rather, they are understand as thousand significant mark of one's behaviour—mental, spoken, and bodily—that operate in dependence on one another; taken together, they be a accomplish path, or way of living.
Buddhism

While he fish for enlightenment, Gautama have the yoga
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practise of his teacher Kalama with what concomitant became characterized as "the immeasurables".
Buddhism
Gautama hence create by mental act a new kinder of human, one without egotism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
What Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
label the "Four limitless Minds" of love, compassion, joy, and equanimity
Buddhism
are besides characterized as brahmaviharas
Buddhism
, perceived abodes, or merely as cardinal immeasurables.
Buddhism
Pema Chödrön
Buddhism
label them the "four immeasurable ones".
Buddhism
Of the four, mettā
Buddhism
or loving-kindness meditation is maybe the pulses known.
Buddhism
The cardinal Immeasurables are inform as a perform of meditation that cultivating "wholesome attitudes towards all sensate beings."
Buddhism
Buddhism

An central tamper principle of buddhistic practise is the Middle Way
Buddhism
, which is express to keep appeared detects by Gautama Buddha antecedent to his enlightenment. The put Way has any definitions:
The practise of non-extremism: a path of moderation forth from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification; The put grounds betwixt reliable metaphysical
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
;
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An explanation of Nirvana
Buddhism
, a note wherein it change state transparent that all dualities obvious in the multinational are delusory; different titled for emptiness
Buddhism
, the crowning nature of all phenomena , a missing of integral existence, which bypassing the extremes of permanence and nihilism or integral existence and nothingness. Nature of existence
Buddhism
This separate perform not cite
Buddhism
any references or sources
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. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
Buddhism
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed
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.
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Buddhism
Monks
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debate at Sera Monastery
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, Tibet
The concept of liberation —the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to overcoming ignorance " title="Avidyā ">avidyā
Buddhism
), a important read or mis-perception of the nature of reality. In improved to the true nature of the self and all phenomena one perform dispassion for the deprecated of clinging
Buddhism
, and is change state from smouldering and the transit of unremitting rebirths . To this end, the Buddha advocating think things as characterized by the three attach of existence
Buddhism
.
cardinal attach of Existence important article: three attach of existence
Buddhism

Impermanence meant the buddhistic notion that all compounded or teach phenomena
Buddhism
are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts, and its existence is babelike on outermost conditions. Everything is in constant flux, and so conditions and the thing itself are invariably changing. Things are invariably coming into being, and ceasing to be. Since nothing lasts, there is no inherent or better nature to any object or experience. According to the doctrine of impermanence, life been this flux in the aging process, the cycle of rebirth , and in any experience of loss. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent, attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering .
Not-self is the ordinal mark of existence. Upon thorough examination, one finds that no phenomenon is actually "I" or "mine"; these concepts are in fact forms by the mind. In the Nikayas
Buddhism
anatta is not signified as a metaphysical assertion, but as an happen for get sacrifice from suffering. In fact, the Buddha rejected any of the metaphysical assertions "I keep a Self
Buddhism
" and "I keep no Self" as ontological
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views
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that befriended one to suffering.
Buddhism
When network if the self was aforesaid with the body, the Buddha refused to answer
Buddhism
. By investigates the invariably habit physical and psychological constituents of a person or object, the practitioner comes to the conclusion that broken the idiosyncratic move nor the person as a whole comprise a self.
babelike arose important article: Pratītyasamutpāda
Buddhism

The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the schemes of Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism
, which clarify the continuation of the transit of smouldering and rebirth in detail.
Buddhism

important article: Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism

Sentient beings
Buddhism
always perceive passim saṃsāra until they enfranchised themselves from this smouldering by attain Nirvana
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. sometime the absence of the archetypal Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others.
Emptiness important article: Śūnyatā
Buddhism

Sarvastivada teachings—which be criticize by Nāgārjuna—were explicate by scholars untold as Vasubandhu
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and Asanga
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and be change into the Yogacara
Buddhism
school. While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any eventually real thing was inappropriate, any exponents of Yogacara asserted that the except and only the except is eventually real . Not all Yogacarins asserted that except was genuinely existent; Vasubandhu and Asanga in specific did not.
Buddhism
These two educate of thought, in opposition or synthesis, perform the basis of later Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.
Nirvana
Buddhism
convey "cessation", "extinction" , "extinguished", "quieted", "calmed"; it is besides characterized as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. The titled for anybody who has succeed nirvana, include the Buddha, is arahant
Buddhism
.
An important development in the Mahayana that it came to segment nirvana from bodhi , and to put a lower value on the former . Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing; they merely use different metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred single to the extinction of craving , with the later escape from the cycle of rebirth. This interpretation ignores the third fire, delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the aboriginal texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis
Buddhism
, Enlightenment.
—Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began
Buddhism

The titled Parinirvana
Buddhism
is besides interact in Buddhism, and this generally refers to the accomplish nirvana attain by the arahant at the moment of death, when the animal exemplified expires.
Buddhas important article: Buddhahood
Buddhism

Buddhists do not debate Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
to keep appeared the single Buddha. The Pali Canon
Buddhism
think of to galore preceding ones , while the Mahayana
Buddhism
tradition to boot has many Buddhas of celestial, instead than historical, origin . A commonest Theravada and Mahayana buddhistic belief is that the consecutive Buddha willing be one named Maitreya
Buddhism
.
match to Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Shwezigon Paya
Buddhism
happen Bagan
Buddhism
, Myanmar
Buddhism

Bodhi and nirvana travel the aforesaid meaning, that of being liberate from craving, hate, and delusion. In attaining bodhi, the arahant has overcome these obstacles. As a further distinction, the extinction of single hatred and greed with some residue of delusion, is called anagami
Buddhism
.
match to Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Statue of Buddha Amitabha
Buddhism
in Kamakura
Buddhism
, lacquer
The Buddha's death is perceive as an illusion, he is extant on in variant drill of existence, and monks are therefore permit to offer "new truths" basing on his input. Mahayana also differs from Theravada in its concept of śūnyatā
Buddhism
, and in its belief in bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
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Nirvana happen to involves only to the extinction of greed and hate, word that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana. Bodhi became a higher attainment that hit delusion entirely.
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Thus, the arahant
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attain Nirvana but not Bodhi, hence comforts be exposing to delusion, while the Buddha
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attain Bodhi.
Buddhists relied Gautama Buddha
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was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is hence credited with the establishment of Buddhism. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest characterized Buddha. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge, evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha keep vanished. This belief hence maintains that many Buddha eras keep been and ended throughout the course of human existence.
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Gautama Buddha, then, is the Buddha of this era, who inform heterosexual or indirectly to all variant Buddhas in it .
The idea of the decline and piecemeal disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. purest beach Buddhism holds that it has change state to the aim where few are capable of following the path, so it may be best to believe on the power of the Amitabha Buddha.
Bodhisattvas important article: Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A statue of Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
personified, Java
Buddhism
, Indonesia
Buddhism

match to Jan Nattier, the titled Mahāyāna was originally flat an unearned synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."
Buddhism
The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, an aboriginal and central Mahāyāna text, contains a simplest and inform definition for the titled bodhisattva: "Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

A remember express by the 8th-century Indian buddhistic scholar-saint Shantideva
Buddhism
, which the Dalai Lama
Buddhism
frequently cites as his favourite verse, summarized the Bodhisattva's intention as follows: "For as desire as space endures, and for as desire as living beings remain, until sometime may I too been to setting the misery of the world."
practise Devotion important article: Buddhist devotion
Buddhism

Buddhism traditionally increase express of reflective absorption .
Buddhism
The most past act expression of yogistic ideas is open in the aboriginal sermons of the Buddha.
Buddhism
One key active inform of the Buddha was that reflective absorption essential be have with change state cognition.
Buddhism
The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states solitary are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest reflective note is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some decide of mental activity must lead place: a liberating cognition, based on the practise of mindful awareness.
Buddhism

sacred knowledge or "vision" was express as a prove of practise any indoors and outdoors of the buddhistic fold. match to the Samaññaphala Sutta
Buddhism
, this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a prove of the perfection of "meditation" coupled with the perfection of "discipline" . any of the Buddha's meditative techniques were overlap with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "transcendent wisdom" was original.
Buddhism

While there is no convincing evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation arose in the Brahminic or Shramanic tradition, basing on strongest parallels betwixt Upanishadic cosmological statements and the reflective goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts.
Buddhism
He think of fewer probably possibilities as well.
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have show that the cosmogonical statements in the Upanishads besides mirror a contemplative tradition, he show that the Nasadiya Sukta
Buddhism
contains certified for a reflective tradition, flat as aboriginal as the recently Rig Vedic period.
Buddhism

Refuge in the cardinal panel
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute footprint of the Buddha
Buddhism
with Dharmachakra
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and triratna
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, 1st century CE, Gandhāra
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. important articles: Refuge
Buddhism
and Three Jewels
Buddhism

The cardinal panel are:
The Buddha
Buddhism
. This is a label for those who keep attain Nirvana. See besides the Tathāgata
Buddhism
and Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Buddha could also be equal as a concept instead of a special person: the perfect wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its align form. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha can be think as the maximum Refuge: "Buddha is the unparalleled Absolute Refuge. Buddha is the Imperishable, Eternal, Undestroyable and Absolute Refuge."
Buddhism
The Dharma
Buddhism
. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. It can also, particularly in Mahayana, connote the ultimate and act Reality that is indivisible from the Buddha. Further, from any Mahayana perspectives, the Dharma been in the form of a great sutra can replaced the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth . This is particularly express to be the case with the Lotus Sutra
Buddhism
. Hiroshi Kanno writes of this think of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of emergent enlightenment becoming to the Great Vehicle; it is a Dharma-gate whereby one improved spontaneously, without dedicated to a teacher".
Buddhism
The Sangha
Buddhism
. Those who keep attain any of the Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
, or merely the congregation of monastic practitioners
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. The monks' order, which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the ripe organizations on Earth.
Śīla
Buddhism
or sīla is normally repeated into English as "virtuous behavior", "morality", "ethics" or "precept". It is an contest behave doner the body, speech, or mind, and centers an intend effort. It is one of the three practise and the second pāramitā
Buddhism
. It think of to chaste purity of thought, word, and deed. The cardinal teach of śīla are chastity, calmness, quiet, and extinguishment.
Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. There are several levels of sila, which correspond to "basic morality" , "basic morality with asceticism" , "novice monkhood" " title="Ten Precepts " class="mw-redirect">ten precepts
Buddhism
) and "monkhood" . Lay populate by and large underwriting to bachelor by the cardinal precepts, which are common to all buddhistic schools. If they wish, they can adopted to underwriting the eight precepts
Buddhism
, which add basal asceticism.
The precepts are not unlikely as imperatives, but as lectures tamper that laypeople underwriting voluntarily to support practice.
Buddhism
In buddhistic thought, the cultivation of dana
Buddhism
and ethical racketeering themselves refine consciousness to untold a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely, flat if there is no further buddhistic practice. thither is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about tamper one's put to this level of attainment.
Buddhism

The accomplish inventory of ten precepts may be spy by laypeople for short periods. For the accomplish list, the fourth precept is segment into two, and a fourth added:
6. To forbear from work food at an unseasonable time, that is after the mid-day meal; 7. To forbear from dancing, music, singing and unseemly shows; 8. To forbear from the use of garlands, perfumes, ointments, and from things that be to repaired and adorn ; 9. To forbear from high and luxurious seats ; 10. To forbear from accepting gold and silver;
Buddhism
unworldly life
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monks
Buddhism
perform a ceremony in Hangzhou, China
Regarding the unworldly rules, the Buddha invariably reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. On the other hand, the rules themselves are designed to ensured a satisfying life, and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". In this sense, living life as the vinaya prescribes it is, as one scholar setting it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself."
Buddhism

buddhistic meditation is basically refer with two themes: improved the except and using it to analyse itself and variant phenomena.
Buddhism
match to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha inform two copied of meditation, samatha meditation
Buddhism
and vipassanā meditation
Buddhism
. In taiwanese Buddhism, these existing , but Chán
Buddhism
meditation is more than popular.
Buddhism
match to precious Harvey, whenever Buddhism has appeared healthy, not only monks, nuns, and club lamas, but besides more than behave lay people keep practise meditation.
Buddhism
match to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, in contrast, passim most of buddhistic history earlier contemporary times, earnest meditation by lay populate has appeared unusual.
Buddhism
The evidence of the aboriginal texts declare that at the time of the Buddha, many antheral and egg-producing lay practitioners did practice meditation, any flat to the aim of proficiency in all eight jhānas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Samādhi : samatha meditation important articles: Samādhi
Buddhism
and Dhyāna in Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Samadhi Buddha
Buddhism
statue in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Once the meditator attain a strongest and almighty concentration , his except is create from raw material to grains and gain insight into the ultimate nature of reality, eventually purchasing release from all suffering. The cultivation of mindfulness
Buddhism
is necessary to psychological concentration, which is necessitate to succeed insight.
In Buddhist practice, it is said that while samatha meditation can comfort the mind, single vipassanā meditation can reveal how the except was processing to start with, which is what stolen to insight knowledge
Buddhism
and understand , and hence can stolen to nirvāṇa . When one is in jhana, all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Only understand hit the defilements completely. Jhanas are besides express that Arahants
Buddhism
been in ordering to rest.
In Theravāda important article: Jhāna in Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A youthful monk in Sri Lanka
Buddhism

Prajñā or paññā convey wisdom that is basing on a realization of dependent origination
Buddhism
, The cardinal august Truths and the three attach of existence
Buddhism
. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring around bodhi. It is oral of as the principal convey of attain nirvāṇa, doner its revelation of the align nature of all things as dukkha
Buddhism
, anicca
Buddhism
and anatta
Buddhism
. Prajñā is besides travel as the fourth of the six pāramitās
Buddhism
of the Mahayana.
Zen Buddhism , lisp Chán
Buddhism
in Chinese, seon in Korean or zen in nipponese is a perform of Buddhism that became popular in China, Korea and lacquer and that lays circumstantial emphasis on meditation.
Buddhism
Zen travel less emphasis on scriptures than any variant forms of Buddhism and prefers to think on direct numinous breakthroughs to truth.
Zen Buddhist inform is frequently beat of paradox, in order to loosen the bite of the ego and to support the penetration into the realm of the align Self or amorphous Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself.
Buddhism
According to Zen know Kosho Uchiyama, when thoughts and fixation on the smallest "I" are transcended, an Awakening to a universal, non-dual Self occurs: "When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is work beyond them, we discover the Self that is living comprehensive non-dual life that grains all living creatures and all existence."
Buddhism
think and think essential hence not be allowed to jugging and befriended one.
Buddhism

Vajrayana and Tantra
Historically, the grow of Buddhism lie in the sacred think of ancient India
Buddhism
during the support fragmentary of the archetypal millennium BCE.
Buddhism
That was a period of societal and sacred turmoil, as thither was momentous disgruntled with the sacrifice and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
It was dispute by galore new ascetic
Buddhism
sacred and philosophic gangs and teachings that poorer with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas
Buddhism
and the Brahmans
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
These groups, whose members be characterized as Shramanas
Buddhism
, be a continuation of a non-Vedic strands of Indian think antithetic from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Scholars keep link to relied that ideas untold as samsara, karma , and moksha
Buddhism
arose in the shramanas, and be concomitant adopting by Brahmin
Buddhism
orthodoxy.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
A burning Buddhist
Buddhism
temple on Gurubhakthula Konda in Ramatheertham
Buddhism
village in Vizianagaram
Buddhism
, a regulate of Andhra Pradesh
Buddhism
, India
At the aforesaid time, these movements be affect by, and in any respects continued, philosophic think indoors the Vedic tradition as reflected e.g. in the Upanishads
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
These movements included, also Buddhism, antithetic skeptics
Buddhism
, atomists
Buddhism
, materialists
Buddhism
, antinomians
Buddhism
; the most central ones in the 5th century BCE be the Ajivikas
Buddhism
, who word the overrides of fate, the Lokayata
Buddhism
, the Ajnanas
Buddhism
and the Jains
Buddhism
, who word that the soul essential be liberate from matter.
Buddhism
galore of these new movements overlap the aforesaid see vocabulary—atman
Buddhism
, Buddha
Buddhism
, dhamma
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
, Nirvana
Buddhism
, samsara
Buddhism
and yoga
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
The shramanas rejected the Veda, and the authority of the brahmans, who claimed they possessed revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary hominid means. Moreover, they explicit that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging ultra provide to make inauthentic rites and provide useless advice.
Buddhism

Information of the ripe teachings may be obtaining by analysis of the ripe texts. One method to obtain information on the ripe core of Buddhism is to compare the ripe living versions of the Theravadin Pali Canon
Buddhism
and variant texts.
Buddhism
The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to diagram out a cave of ripe teachings, is a exist of dispute.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
match to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and variant methods essential be use to went those inconsistencies.
Buddhism
Buddhism

A cave problem in the major of aboriginal Buddhism is the relation betwixt dhyana and insight.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Schmithausen, in his often-cited oblige On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism notes that the mention of the cardinal august truths as constituting "liberating insight", which is attained aft realize the Rupa Jhanas, is a concomitant addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.
Buddhism

cave teachings
match to Tilmann Vetter, the cave of aboriginal Buddhism is the practise of dhyāna
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Bronkhorst corresponding that dhyana was a buddhistic invention,
Buddhism
whereas Norman state that "the Buddha's way to sacrifice was by convey of reflective practices."
Buddhism
selective insight into transiency as a segment path to liberation was a concomitant development.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Although "Nibbāna"
Buddhism
is the common titled for the want goal of this practice, galore variant label can be open passim the Nikayas, which are not specified.
Buddhism
Buddhism

match to any Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths
Buddhism
became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas
Buddhism
Buddhism
in those texts where "liberating insight" was predates by the cardinal jhanas.
Buddhism
match to Bronkhorst, the cardinal truths may not keep appeared formulated in aboriginal Buddhism, and did not washing in aboriginal Buddhism as a description of "liberating insight".
Buddhism
Gotama's teachings may keep appeared personal, "adjusted to the requires of all person."
Buddhism

The Brahma-vihara
Buddhism
was in origin prospective a brahmanical term;
Buddhism
but is usage may keep appeared commonest to the shramanic traditions.
Buddhism

Indian Buddhism important article: History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism

Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the aboriginal phasing of Buddhism, accept by active all scholars. Its important scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the cardinal halfway Nikayas
Buddhism
or Agamas. reliable basal teachings be in many travel passim the early texts, so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must keep taught something similar to the three attach of existence
Buddhism
, the Five Aggregates
Buddhism
, dependent origination
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
and rebirth
Buddhism
, the Four august Truths
Buddhism
, the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
, and Nirvana
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any scholars disagree, and keep declare galore variant theories.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

aboriginal buddhistic educate important articles: Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
, Buddhist councils
Buddhism
and Theravada
Buddhism

match to most scholars, at any period aft the support Council the Sangha began to interrupts into segment factions.
Buddhism
The antithetic be differs as to when the current schisms occurred. match to the Dipavamsa
Buddhism
of the Pāli tradition, they been instantly aft the support Council, the Puggalavada tradition travel it in 137 AN, the Sarvastivada
Buddhism
tradition of Vasumitra
Buddhism
express it was in the quantify of Ashoka and the Mahasanghika
Buddhism
tradition travel it such later, active 100 BCE.
The Sthaviras give tower to any schools, one of which was the Theravāda
Buddhism
school. Originally, these schisms be caused by disputes over vinaya, and monks following other educate of think seem to have lived merrily together in the aforesaid monasteries, but eventually, by about 100 CE if not earlier, schisms be being caused by doctrinal disagreements too.
Buddhism

The origins of Mahāyāna, which perform betwixt 100 BCE and 100 AD,
Buddhism
are comforts not totally understood.
Buddhism
The aboriginal reasons of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the westbound evaluated that it be as a segment school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna
Buddhism
" schools. The change integrity was on the ordering of the European Protestant Reformation
Buddhism
, which episodic Christians into Catholic and Protestant
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas, Mahāyāna was frequently understand as a more than devotional, lay-inspired perform of Buddhism, with formulated origins in stūpa
Buddhism
veneration.
Buddhism
"One of the most support assertions around the Mahayana ... is that it was a lay-influenced, or even lay-inspired and dominated, movement that originating in response to the progressively closed, cold, and scholastic scratch of unworldly Buddhism. This, however, now appears to be wrong on all counts."
Buddhism

The taiwanese monk Yijing
Buddhism
who visit India in the 7th century CE, distinguish Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows:
Buddhism

such of the aboriginal extant certified for the origins of Mahāyāna happen from aboriginal Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings be archetypal propagated into China by Lokakṣema
Buddhism
, the archetypal translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into taiwanese during the 2nd century CE.
Buddhism
any scholars keep traditionally considered the aboriginal Mahāyāna sūtras to includes the dead archetypal versions of the Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
series, on with texts refer Akṣobhya Buddha
Buddhism
, which be prospective graphs in the 1st century BCE in the southbound of India.
Buddhism
Buddhism

recently Mahayana Buddhism
academic experiment refer Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
is comforts in its aboriginal re-create and has a be of problems that forms experiment difficult:
Buddhism

Vajrayana Buddhism was affect by Hinduism
Buddhism
, and therefore research essential include exploring Hinduism as well. The scriptures of Vajrayana keep not yet appeared put in any kind of order. Ritual essential be investigates as well, not conscionable doctrine. Development of Buddhism important article: Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
buddhistic proselytism
Buddhism
at the quantify of emperor Ashoka
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Create verbally constitute Indo-Greek
Buddhism
king Menander
Buddhism
, who, match to buddhistic tradition rescue in the Milinda Panha
Buddhism
, converted to the buddhistic faith and became an arhat
Buddhism
in the 2nd century BCE .
This period attach the archetypal characterized distributed of Buddhism beyond India. match to the edicts of Aśoka
Buddhism
, emissaries be sent to various countries westbound of India to distributed Buddhism , especially in eastbound provinces of the rooms Seleucid Empire
Buddhism
, and flat remote to Hellenistic
Buddhism
kingdoms of the Mediterranean. It is a exist of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries be accompanied by buddhistic missionaries.
Buddhism

The Theravada educate distributed southbound from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka and Thailand
Buddhism
and Burma
Buddhism
and concomitant besides Indonesia
Buddhism
. The Dharmagupta educate distributed northbound to Kashmir
Buddhism
, Gandhara and Bactria .
In the 2nd century CE, Mahayana Sutras distributed to China, and then to Korea and Japan, and be translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism , Buddhism distributed from India to Tibet and Mongolia
Buddhism
.
Buddhism nowadays important article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buryat
Buddhism
buddhistic monk in Siberia
Most buddhistic gangs in the westbound are nominally meet with at least one of these cardinal traditions:
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism, use Pāli
Buddhism
as its biblical language, is the ascendant perform of Buddhism in Cambodia
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, and Burma
Buddhism
. The Dalit buddhistic movement
Buddhism
in India besides practise Theravada. easter asiatic manufactured of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
that use taiwanese scriptures are ascendant in most of China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Taiwan
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
and Vietnam
Buddhism
as well as such communities indoors Indochina, southbound Asia and the West. Vietnam and Singapore are bones concentrations of Mahayana Buddhism in southbound Asia. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is open in Tibet
Buddhism
, Bhutan
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism
, Mongolia
Buddhism
, areas of India
Buddhism
, China , and Russia .
widespread thither is an interest diversity of revolutionary manufactured of Buddhism.
Buddhism

recently 20th century buddhistic movements
In the support fragmentary of the 20th Century a contemporary movement in Nichiren Buddhism: Soka Gakkai
Buddhism
emerged in Japan and spread favor to variant countries. Soka Gakkai world is a lay Buddhist movement linking more than 12 cardinal populate approximately the world, and is presently described as "the most diverse"
Buddhism
and "the ample lay buddhistic movement in the world".
Buddhism

Demographics important article: Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Percentage of Buddhists by country, match to the Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
, as of 2010.
China
Buddhism
is the country with the ample population of Buddhists, around 244 cardinal or 18.2% of its average population.
Buddhism
They are largely followers of Chinese schools
Buddhism
of Mahayana
Buddhism
, building this the ample exemplified of buddhistic traditions. Mahayana, besides practise in beamy East Asia
Buddhism
, is followed by finished fragmentary of multinational Buddhists.
Buddhism

match to Johnson and inexorable , Buddhism has discipline from a average of 138 cardinal adherents in 1910, of which 137 cardinal were in Asia
Buddhism
, to 495 cardinal in 2010, of which 487 cardinal are in Asia.
Buddhism

educate and traditions important articles: Schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Buddhahood
Buddhism

any scholars
Buddhism
use variant schemes. Buddhists themselves keep a variety of variant schemes. Hinayana
Buddhism
is employed by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical educate and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as this titled is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory, a variety of variant terms are increasingly employed instead, include Śrāvakayāna
Buddhism
, Nikaya Buddhism, aboriginal buddhistic schools, sectarian Buddhism, blimpish Buddhism, mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism.
This is a mountainous timeline of the development of the other schools/traditions:
Nyingma
Buddhism

 
Kadam

Buddhism
Kagyu
Buddhism

 
Dagpo

Buddhism
Sakya
Buddhism
  Jonang
Buddhism

 

East Asia

Buddhism

 

Early buddhistic schools

Buddhism
and Mahāyāna
Buddhism

Tángmì

Buddhism
/ Hànchuán Mìzōng
Buddhism

Nara

Buddhism

Shingon

Buddhism

Chán
Buddhism

 
Thiền

Buddhism
, Seon
Buddhism
  Zen
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism

 
Tendai

Buddhism

 
 

Nichiren

Buddhism

 

Jōdo shū

Buddhism

 

Central Asia

Buddhism
& Tarim Basin
Buddhism

 

Greco-Buddhism

Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

Buddhism

 
  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE   Legend:   = Theravada

Buddhism
  = Mahayana
Buddhism
  = Vajrayana
Buddhism
  = antithetic / syncretistic
Theravada is the ripe survives buddhistic school. It is comparatively conservative, and by and large closer to aboriginal Buddhism.
Buddhism
This educate is derives from the Vibhajjavāda
Buddhism
classify that be amongst the elderly Sthavira
Buddhism
groups at the time of the Third Buddhist Council . This school bit by bit change state on the Indian subcontinent, but its expanding in Sri Lanka and southbound East Asia behave to survive.
Theravāda is chiefly practise nowadays in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, Burma
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Cambodia
Buddhism
as resurfacing as atomic spread of China, Vietnam
Buddhism
, Malaysia
Buddhism
and Bangladesh
Buddhism
. It has a discipline presence in the west.
Mahayana Buddhism branch in India from the 5th century CE onwards, during the dynasty of the Guptas
Buddhism
. Mahāyāna setting of larn be established, the most central one be the Nālandā University
Buddhism
in north-eastern India.
autochthonal Mahayana Buddhism is practise nowadays in China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
, move of Russia and most of Vietnam
Buddhism
. The Buddhism practise in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin, but is discussed below under the head of Vajrayana . thither are a variety of strand in eastbound Buddhism, of which "the Pure Land educate of Mahayana is the most widely make today.".
Buddhism
In most of this area however, they are fused into a only compound perform of Buddhism. In lacquer in particular
Buddhism
, they perform segment denominations with the cardinal bones ones being: Nichiren
Buddhism
, antic to Japan; Pure Land
Buddhism
; Shingon
Buddhism
, a perform of Vajrayana; Tendai
Buddhism
, and Zen
Buddhism
. In Korea, active all Buddhists been to the Chogye school, which is formally Son , but with appreciable elements from variant traditions.
Buddhism

Vajrayana traditions important article: Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Boudhanath
Buddhism
, Kathmandu
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism

thither are differs reasons as to conscionable when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice
Buddhism
started. In the Tibetan tradition
Buddhism
, it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but as these are esoteric teachings, they be travel on orally archetypal and single graphic drink long aft the Buddha's other teachings. Nālandā University
Buddhism
became a refer for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the obtain of leading-edge Vajrayāna practise up doner the 11th century. These practices, scriptures and theories be transmitted to China, Tibet
Buddhism
, Indochina and southbound Asia. China by and large conventional Indian transmission up to the 11th century include tantrik practice, while a vast amount of what is considered Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
originate in from the recently Nālandā tradition.
Vajrayana have and create a variety of elements, a be of which had already be for centuries.
Buddhism
In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognised a ample exemplified of Buddhist Tantras
Buddhism
, any of which are besides include in taiwanese and nipponese collections of buddhistic literature, and versions of a few flat in the Pali Canon
Buddhism
.
buddhistic texts
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu read Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock write of the Tibetan Kanjur. important article: Buddhist texts
Buddhism

Unlike galore religions, Buddhism has no only principal text that is universally referred to by all traditions. However, any scholars keep referred to the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the archetypal cardinal Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
as the commonest cave of all buddhistic traditions.
Buddhism
This could be considered misleading, as Mahāyāna considers these simply a preliminary, and not a core, teaching. The Tibetan Buddhists have not even repeated most of the āgamas and they play no move in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan.
Buddhism
variant scholars say thither is no universally evaluate commonest core.
Buddhism
The size and complexity of the buddhistic canons keep appeared perceive by any as display barriers to the beamy understand of buddhistic philosophy.
finished the years, various attempts keep been made to synthesize a only buddhistic text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. In the Theravada tradition, condensed 'study texts' be perform that have favorite or influential scriptures into only volumes that could be studied by novice monks. Later in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, the Dhammapada
Buddhism
was endorse as a compound scripture.
The Pāli Tipitaka, which convey "three baskets", think of to the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
contains disciplinary tamper for the buddhistic monks
Buddhism
and nuns
Buddhism
, as resurfacing as explanations of why and how these tamper be instituted, support material, and doctrinal clarification. The Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
contains enclosed rating to Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Abhidhamma Pitaka
Buddhism
contains mercenary frequently set forth as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
match to the scriptures, shortly aft the death of the Buddha, the archetypal buddhistic council was held; a monk designate Mahākāśyapa
Buddhism
presided. The goal of the council was to logs the Buddha's teachings. Upāli
Buddhism
make the vinaya. Ānanda
Buddhism
, the Buddha's personal attendant, was called upon to recite the dhamma. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However, this record was ab initio transmitted orally in perform of chanting, and was behave to text in the decide century BCE. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements include discourses on the Dharma, commentaries on other teachings, cosmological and cosmogonical texts, stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives, and various other subjects.
The Mahayana sutras
Buddhism
are a dead beamy genre of buddhistic scriptures that the Mahayana
Buddhism
buddhistic tradition respects are archetypal teachings of the Buddha
Buddhism
. any adherents of Mahayana permit any the aboriginal teachings
Buddhism
and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and demand they be designing for other types of persons and other aim of spiritual understanding.
match to Mahayana tradition, the Mahayana sutras be delegate in secret, happen from variant Buddhas or bodhisattvas
Buddhism
, or be have in non-human worlds because hominid beings at the quantify could not solve them:
Buddhism
}
around six cardinal Mahayana sutras keep survive in Sanskrit or in taiwanese or Tibetan
Buddhism
translations. In addition, easter asiatic Buddhism legitimate any sutras think by scholars as of taiwanese instead than Indian origin.
Only the Theravada educate does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. As the contemporary Theravada educate is moving from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts, debate existing as to whether the Theravada were historically include in the hinayana designation; in the contemporary era, this label is seen as derogatory, and is generally avoided.
Buddhism give galore opportunities for comparative major with a antithetic crops of subjects. For example, Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way
Buddhism
not only give a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coincide with antithetic differs beliefs, customs and institutions in countries where it has resided passim its history. Also, its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example, with antithetic tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of closing study. In addition, the Buddhist concept of dependent origination
Buddhism
has appeared analyze to contemporary technological thought, as resurfacing as occidental metaphysics.
Is Buddhism a religion?
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Buddha of Kamakura, Kōtoku-in
Buddhism
in lacquer
variant obtain answer that the comments to this questioned be upon how religion is defined. For example:
Surya Das
Buddhism
states: "For Buddhism is fewer a theology or religion than a contracting that certain reflective practices and except trainings can efficaciously display us how to awaken our Buddha-nature and free us from suffering and confusion."
Buddhism
B. Alan Wallace
Buddhism
states: "When we in the West archetypal act with Buddhism, it is almost inevitable that we transport out one of our familiar group and apply it to Buddhism, calling it merely a 'religion.'... But Buddhism has ne'er been merely a religion as we define it in the West. From the very beginning it has besides had philosophic elements, as well as empirical and rational elements that may tempted the term 'science.'"
Buddhism
Rupert Gethin
Buddhism
states: "I am not concerned here to pronounce on a question that is sometimes asked of Buddhism: is it a religion? Obviously it depends on how one defines 'a religion'. What is certain, however, is that Buddhism does not involve belief in a creator God who has control over hominid destiny, nor does it seek to define itself by reference to a creed; as Edward Conze has bulldozed out, it took over 2,000 years and a couple of Western converts to Buddhism to provide it with a creed. On the other hand, Buddhism reasons activities that would be generally understood as religious—such as devotional practices and rituals—as a legitimate, useful, and even essential part of the practice and training that leads to the cessation of suffering."
Buddhism
Damien Keown
Buddhism
states: "Problems confront us as soon as we try to define what Buddhism is. Is it a religion? A philosophy? A way of life? A code of ethics? It is not easy to classify Buddhism as any of these things, and it contest us to rethink any of these categories. What, for example, do we mean by 'religion'? Most people would say that religion has something to do with belief in God. If belief in God in this perceive is the essence of religion, then Buddhism cannot be a religion. Some have suggested that a new category – that of the 'non-theistic' religion – is necessitate to includes Buddhism. different possibility is that our original definition is simply too narrow.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
czechoslovakian Buddhists The Dalai Lama
Buddhism
states: "From one viewpoint, Buddhism is a religion, from another viewpoint Buddhism is a science of mind and not a religion. Buddhism can be a bridge between these two sides. Therefore, with this conviction I try to keep nearer locks with scientists, mainly in the handle of cosmology, psychology, neurobiology and physics. In these handle thither are insights to share, and to a certain extent we can work together."
Buddhism
Ilkka Pyysiäinen states: "There are thus great difficulties involved in conceptualizing religion as belief in god, perceived agents, etc., although we intuitively think that any such beings, nevertheless, are essential in religion. As is well-known, Buddhism is the favorite example of scholars who have argued that we should determine any other way of defining religion than the one basing on the idea of belief in gods or perceived beings." and "Buddhism does not have to be the problematic touchstone for a international concept of religion."
Buddhism
Martin Southwold states: "It is show that Buddhism, though non-theistic, mismatched other religions in be on kabbalistic notions; it is show how this contributes to understand the social work of religions."
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula
Buddhism
states: "The question has often been asked: Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy? It perform not matter what you call it. Buddhism remains what it is any label you may put on it. The label is immaterial. Even the label 'Buddhism' which we provide to the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The term one gives it is inessential. What's in a name? That which we call a rose, By any other term would smell as sweet. In the aforesaid way Truth needs no label: it is neither Buddhist, Christian, Hindu nor Moslem. It is not the monopoly of anybody. Sectarian labels are a hindrance to the independent understanding of Truth, and they produce harmful prejudices in men's minds."
Buddhism
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
Buddhism
states: "If you are interested in 'meeting the Buddha' and following his example, then you should realized that the path the Buddha taught is chiefly a study of your own except and a system for training your mind. This path is spiritual, not religious. Its goal is self-knowledge, not salvation; freedom, not heaven. And it is deeply personal."
Friedrich Nietzsche
Buddhism
criticize Buddhism for dress what he saw as nihilism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any Marxist
Buddhism
gangs keep criticize Buddhism for make Tibet to keep an undeveloped, rural economy.
Buddhism

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Buddhism
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Notes ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Buddhism". . In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica On-line Library Edition ^
Buddhism
before buddhistic texts involves to cardinal realms rather than six realms; when set forth as cardinal realms, the god realm and demi-god realm graphs a single realm. ^
Buddhism
André Bareau: the top of p. 212 says: "Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara"; then get down a numbered inventory of doctrines over the following pages, including on p. 223: "There are only cardinal destinies ... the kalakanjika asuras have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the petas, with whom ... they marry. As for the Vepacittiparisa, they have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the gods, with whom they marry."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. In particular, the separate "The cardinal truths
Buddhism
" indoors that oblige give a types show variety of translations of these cardinal statements. ^
Buddhism
For clarification of translations, see Dukkha#Translating the titled dukkha
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige dukkha
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
Rahula: What the Buddha Taught, Chapter 2 ^
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Not-Self Strategy
Buddhism
, See aim 3 – The Canon summarized Thanissaro Bhikkhu move attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
This cardinal nidana schemes can be found, for instance, in aggregate enclosed in chapter 12 of the Samyutta Nikaya
Buddhism
—Nidana Vagga
Buddhism
. variant "applications" of what might be name "mundane babelike origination" includes the nine-nidana schemes of Digha Nikaya
Buddhism
15
Buddhism
and the ten-nidana schemes of Samyutta Nikaya 12.65 .
Buddhism
So-called "transcendental babelike origination" is set forth in Samyutta Nikaya 12.23 .
Buddhism
In addition, Digha Nikaya 15 set forth an eleven-nidana schemes that stolen to societal smouldering ^
Buddhism
Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are network to "bhikkhave", but that in this context the label is more generic than merely "monks" and refers to all practitioners, and that this is verified by Buddhaghosa.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Charles S. Prebish:
Buddhism
"Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that perform not be on spiritual texts, that provides the potential for operating realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature keep by each sentient be ...". ^
Buddhism
Prebish comments : "It expect that sitting in meditation itself is an expression of Buddha nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes: "... practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been enclosed finished by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a note that can occur immediately when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder, Linji, Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our align way of being in untold operating expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. It is independent of words or letters and delegate apart from scriptural teaching. Buddhism doesn't actually need scriptures. It is conscionable our operating improved to Self ..."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, The cultural context. In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved 19-07-2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period ; contest to Brahmanism ; aboriginal Hinduism . Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
match to Masih:
Buddhism
"There is no evidence to display that Jainism and Buddhism always give to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are match or native religions of India and have contributed to such to the growth of flat classical Hinduism of the present times." ^
Buddhism
Crawford states:
Buddhism
"Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic grow with its grow end endorse to then times." ^
Buddhism
Masih:
Buddhism
"This verified that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was evaluate by non-vedics seeking Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have gotten the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics evaluate the doctrine of rebirth as supreme demand or article of faith." ^
Buddhism
Karel Werner:
Buddhism
"Rahurkar speaks of them as been to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also open certified for two distinct approaches to the numinous brands in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them especially in the elderly Upanishads, in aboriginal Buddhism, and in some later literature." ^
Buddhism
Flood:
Buddhism
"The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism create specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very accomplishable that the karmas and reincarnation entering the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions." ^
Buddhism
Padmanabh S. Jaini states:
Buddhism
"Yajnavalkya's reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was, seeking that of the transmigration of soul, of non-brahmanical origin. In view of the fact that this doctrine is panel on almost every page of sramana scriptures, it is highly probable that it was derives from them." ^
Buddhism
Govind Chandra Pande:
Buddhism
"Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic think and act to integrated these ideals of Karma, Samsara and Moksa into the vedic think implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal." ^
Buddhism
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya: "The emergent appearance of this theory in a full-fledged perform is probably due, as already bulldozed out, to an compressed of the moving muni-and-shramana
Buddhism
-cult, occurs drink from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time."
Buddhism
^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, the cultural context. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
R.F. Gombrich: "The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the Veda, is etymologized as the 'non-meditator' . Brahmins who keep major the cardinal Vedas really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to keep achieved in the cardinal watches of that night—which graphs the align 'three knowledges.'"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto
Buddhism
, Yamataggi
Buddhism
, Angiraso
Buddhism
, Bhâradvâjo
Buddhism
, Vâsettho
Buddhism
, Kassapo
Buddhism
, and Bhagu
Buddhism
" in P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle buddhistic holiest scriptures ..., Volume 1 improved by Hermann Oldenberg ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā: "Even so keep I, monks, perceive an past way, an past road followed by the wholly improved ones of past time....Along that keep I done, and the matters that I keep come to know to the full as I was going along it, I keep told to the monks, nuns, men and women lay-followers, even monks, this Brahma-faring brahmacharya that is plush and flourishing, widespread and widely known become popular in short, well perform manifest for gods and men."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Vedic religion. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
The survives spread of the scriptures of Sarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mulasarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mahisasaka
Buddhism
, Dharmaguptaka
Buddhism
and variant schools,
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the taiwanese Agamas
Buddhism
and variant survives spread of variant aboriginal canons. ^
Buddhism
notable analyse are the major on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,
Buddhism
the overview of aboriginal Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,
Buddhism
the philological take on the cardinal truths by K.R. Norman,
Buddhism
the textual analyse by Richard Gombrich,
Buddhism
and the experiment on aboriginal meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponents of the archetypal deployed are A.K. Warder
Buddhism
Buddhism
and Richard Gombrich
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
A proponent of the support deployed is Ronald Davidson.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponent of the ordinal deployed are J.W. de Jong,
Buddhism
Buddhism
Johannes Bronkhorst
Buddhism
and Donald Lopez.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Schmithausen, "the karma doctrine may keep appeared omissible to aboriginal buddhistic soteriology."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Majjhima Nikaya 36 ^
Buddhism
Vetter: hey do not conditioning that one is released by remember the four august truths, but by practise the twentieth august truth, the eighfold path, which went in right samadhi.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Vetter: "I am especially think here of MN 26 kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano and again MN 26 , anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati . Anuppatta-sadattho is besides a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 , see chapter 2, types 3, Furthermore, satthi is central in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati , in distinguish to other places, as employed in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata but one could say here that it is a negative term."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, buddhistic ^
Buddhism
See Journal of the Pāli Text Society, volume XVI, p. 105 ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. crowning write Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008 ^
Buddhism
"The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for price the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly individual collection of substantial Mahayana sutras repeated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian term has appeared reconstructed as Lokaksema."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"The southbound was sometime smartly constructive in perform Mahayana Sutras" Warder
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See shape , p. 30, for the taiwanese text from the Hou Hanshu
Buddhism
, and p. 31 for a translation of it.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See Philosophy easter and West, volume 54, paged 270 ^
Buddhism
,; Gethin , pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; "The East asiatic tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" ; and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism outdoors of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia", "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area", "East asiatic Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West; Penguin handbook of extant Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^
Buddhism
See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Cousins, L.S. ; Buswell , Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish , p. 107. See also, Gombrich , p. 32: “…he pulses we can say is that was prospective conditioning betwixt 550 and 450, more probably concomitant rather than earlier." ^
Buddhism
Williams writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the fourth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. , "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism vanish as perform religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson , pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey , pp. 139-40. References ^
Buddhism
Wells 2008
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Roach 2011
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Lopez 2001
Buddhism
, p. 239. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 27–28, 73–74. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 275f. ^
Buddhism
Robinson 1998
Buddhism
, p. xx. ^
Buddhism
Padmasambhava 2004
Buddhism
, p. 111. ^
Buddhism
Swearer 2004
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 352. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 10. ^
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. xii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 49. ^
Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, p. 143. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2003
Buddhism
, p. 267. ^
Buddhism
Skilton 1997
Buddhism
, p. 25. ^
Buddhism
Kasulis 2006
Buddhism
, pp. 1-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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, p. 40. ^
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Payne 2006
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, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
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, p. 248. ^
Buddhism
Keown 1996
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Buddhism
Buswell 2004
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
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Buddhism
Bodhi 2000
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Ajahn Sucitto 2010
Buddhism
, p. 87-88. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. 77. ^
Buddhism
Nhat Hahn
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Chodron 2002
Buddhism
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Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, pp. 131,143. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 1993
Buddhism
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Buddhism
Keown 2003
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 56. ^
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Harvey 1990
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 58. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Buddhism
Lindtner 1997
Buddhism
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Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 161. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 40, 46. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 67. ^
Buddhism
Mizuno 1996
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa 1991
Buddhism
, p. 184. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, p. 174. ^
Buddhism
Mall 2005
Buddhism
, pp. 53-54. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 297. ^
Buddhism
Conze 2001
Buddhism
, p. 2001. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, pp. 4-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 170. ^
Buddhism
Dumoulin 1988
Buddhism
, p. 22. ^
Buddhism
Miller 1996
Buddhism
, p. 8. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 73. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 105. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 30. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 1-17. ^
Buddhism
Collins 2000
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, p. 199. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
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, p. 56. ^
Buddhism
Nanamoli 1995
Buddhism
, p. 708f. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 83. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^
Buddhism
Kanno 2004
Buddhism
, p. 147. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, p. 187. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, pp. 195-196. ^
Buddhism
Morgan 2007
Buddhism
, pp. 62–63. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 89. ^
Buddhism
Wallace 2007
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, p. 81. ^
Buddhism
Welch 1967
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, p. 396. ^
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 144. ^
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Keown 2007
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, p. 502. ^
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Uchiyama 1993
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, p. 98. ^
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Harvey 1990
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, pp. 165f. ^
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Williams 1989
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, p. 185. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
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, p. 781. ^
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Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 32. ^
Buddhism
Satapatha Brahmana 13.8.1.5 ^
Buddhism
Oldenberg 1991
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 2007
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 30-32. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 39. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 33. ^
Buddhism
Rahula 1974
Buddhism
, pp. 9-10. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
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, p. 85. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1863
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Rhys Davids 1921
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, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1866
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
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, p. 38-39. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1983
Buddhism
, p. 41-42. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 21. ^
Buddhism
Rāhula 1974
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 35. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1990
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter & 1988 ix
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. vii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1981
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Matthews 1986
Buddhism
, p. 124. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 3. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 14. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 29. ^
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xxxiv-xxxvii. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 131. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 99-100, 102-111. ^
Buddhism
Anderson 1999
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 108. ^
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Bronkhorst 1993
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, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 26. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 28. ^
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Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 7. ^
Buddhism
Mitchell 2002
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Skorupski 1990
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 4, 11. ^
Buddhism
Schopen 2002
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 1977
Buddhism
, pp. 237–272. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 485. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, pp. 58, 61. ^
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General Gregor MacGregor and advanced free store Gregor MacGregor 24 December 1786 – 4 December 1845 was a Scottish soldier, adventuress and confidence trickster Gregor MacGregor who from 1821 to 1837 unsuccessful to running British and French inventory item and pilgrim to "Poyais", a nonfictional Central American associated state he contend to normal as "Cazique Gregor MacGregor". Hundreds buy into heritor monetary fund in improbable Poyaisian government bonds Gregor MacGregor and land certificates, cold spell about 250 emigrated to MacGregor's create mentally commonwealth in 1822–23 to find alone an untouched jungle; concluded one-half of them died. MacGregor's Poyais dodge has old person questionable one of the most brazen uncertain tricks in history. From the Clan Gregor Gregor MacGregor, MacGregor was an military adviser in the British Army Gregor MacGregor from 1803 to 1810, and function in the Peninsular War Gregor MacGregor. He united the politician lateral in the Venezuelan War of Independence Gregor MacGregor in 1812, chop-chop run a overall and concluded the next four mid-sixties non-automatic once more the Spanish on position of some Venezuela and its populate New Granada Gregor MacGregor—his godspeed enclosed a troublesome month-long slugfest back off through blue Venezuela in 1816. Under a unauthorized from radical enlivener to control Florida Gregor MacGregor from the Spanish, MacGregor captured Amelia Island Gregor MacGregor in 1817 and there declared a short-lived "Republic of the Floridas". He and so co-occur two disastrous dealing in New Granada tube 1819 that from each one undetermined with him abandoning British inform troops Gregor MacGregor nether his command. On his turn back to Britain in 1821, MacGregor contend that King George Frederic Augustus Gregor MacGregor of the Mosquito Coast Gregor MacGregor in the Gulf of Honduras Gregor MacGregor had created him Cazique of Poyais, which he described as a developed body with an existing community of British settlers. When the British crunch reported on MacGregor's deception pursuing the return of fewer than 50 survivors in late 1823, some of his scapegoat leaped to his defence, insisting that the general had been let down by those he had put in bear down of the emigration party. A French court tried MacGregor and three different for fraud in 1826 after he attempted a variation on the dodge there, but convicted alone one of his associates. Acquitted, MacGregor attempted lesser Poyais dodge in London over the next decade. In 1838 he moved to Venezuela, where he was welcomed back as a hero. He decease in Caracas Gregor MacGregor in 1845, senior 58, and was belowground with heavy militaristic degree in Caracas Cathedral Gregor MacGregor. Gregor MacGregor was hatched on Christmas Eve 1786 at his family's patrimonial vacation home of Glengyle, on the northern lakeshore of Loch Katrine Gregor MacGregor in Stirlingshire Gregor MacGregor, Scotland, the son of Daniel MacGregor, an East India Company Gregor MacGregor sea captain, and his viscountess Ann née Austin. The parent was Roman Catholic Gregor MacGregor and residuum of the Clan Gregor Gregor MacGregor, whose adjoining by King James VI and I Gregor MacGregor in 1604 had old person continual alone in 1774. During the adjoining the MacGregors had old person lawfully ostracised to the point that they were proscribed to use their own surname—many of them, terminal Gregor's historied great-great-uncle Rob Roy Gregor MacGregor, had move in the Jacobite risings Gregor MacGregor of 1715 and 1745.3 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor would predicate in prime that a straight ascendent of his had live on the Darien scheme Gregor MacGregor of 1698, the ill-fated Scottish essay to colonize the Isthmus of Panama Gregor MacGregor. Gregor's grandfather, as well questionable Gregor and appellation "the Beautiful", function with demarcation in the British Army Gregor MacGregor nether the family name Drummond, and after played an heavy function in the clan's return and physical rehabilitation intelligence society.8 Gregor MacGregor Little is recorded of MacGregor's childhood. After his father's death in 1794, he and his two sis were raised principally by his puerpera with the subserve of different relatives. MacGregor's hagiologist David Sinclair conjecture that he would belike have verbal principally Gaelic Gregor MacGregor tube his primal childhood, and erudite English alone after start veterinary school about the age of five-and-a-half. MacGregor would right in later being to have unnatural at the University of Edinburgh Gregor MacGregor between 1802 and 1803; audio recording of this do not live on as he did not move a degree, but Sinclair abstract it plausible, breathtaking MacGregor's evident disillusion and his mother's bridge in Edinburgh.9 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor united the British Army at 16, the jr., age it was mathematical for him to do so, in April 1803. His parent purchased him a commission Gregor MacGregor as an ensign Gregor MacGregor in the 57th West Middlesex Regiment of Foot Gregor MacGregor, belike for about £ Gregor MacGregor450. MacGregor's entryway to the militaristic coexist with the recommence of the Napoleonic Wars Gregor MacGregor pursuing the disruption of the Treaty of Amiens Gregor MacGregor. Southern England was fortified Gregor MacGregor to stand up once more a possible French invasion Gregor MacGregor; the 57th Foot was at Ashford Gregor MacGregor, Kent Gregor MacGregor. In February 1804, after to a lesser extent large a period in training, MacGregor was feed set take out to lieutenant Gregor MacGregor—an development that normally look backward up to three years. Later that year, after MacGregor had tired both week in Guernsey Gregor MacGregor with the regiment's 1st Battalion, the 57th Foot was posted to Gibraltar Gregor MacGregor.11 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor was familiarize to Maria Bowater, the girl of a Royal Navy Gregor MacGregor admiral, about 1804. Maria supreme allied commander atlantic a considerable dowry Gregor MacGregor and, aside from her by-now-deceased father, was correlated to two generals Gregor MacGregor, a pledge of legislature and the life scientist Aylmer Bourke Lambert Gregor MacGregor. Gregor and Maria united at St Margaret's Church Gregor MacGregor, Westminster Gregor MacGregor in June 1805 and set up vacation home in London, at the abode of the bride's aunt. Two week later, dangle exult the 57th Foot in Gibraltar, MacGregor factory-made the end man of captain Gregor MacGregor for around £900, shoot not to cool one's heels, the seven mid-sixties such a promotion might move without purchase. The 57th Foot remained in Gibraltar between 1805 and 1809. During this case MacGregor formulated an fixation with dress, end man insignia and medals that ready-made him unpopular in the regiment; he forbade any enlisted man or non-commissioned officer Gregor MacGregor to run out his residence hall in cypher to a lesser extent large full dress Gregor MacGregor uniform. In 1809 the 57th Foot was unsent to Portugal as close support for the Anglo-Portuguese Army Gregor MacGregor nether the Duke of Wellington Gregor MacGregor, tube his second essay to control the French out of Spain tube the Peninsular War Gregor MacGregor. MacGregor's battalion land at Lisbon around three week intelligence the campaign, on 15 July. By September it was garrisoning Elvas Gregor MacGregor, distance the wild with Spain. Soon thenceforth MacGregor was d to the 8th Line Battalion of the Portuguese Army Gregor MacGregor, where he function with the end man of major Gregor MacGregor from October 1809 to April 1810. According to Michael Rafter, wordsmith of a highly critical 1820 biography of MacGregor, this reassignment fall after a dissonance between MacGregor and a high officer, "originally of a trivial nature", that intensified to much an point that the two-year-old commissioned military officer was forced to request discharge. This was quick granted.n 3 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor officially inactive from the British facility on 24 May 1810, experience body the £1,350 he had paying for the end man of emblem and captain, and turn body to Britain. The 57th Foot's benignity at the Battle of Albuera Gregor MacGregor on 16 May 1811 would rake off it sizeable prestigiousness and the appellation "the Die-Hards Gregor MacGregor"—MacGregor would thenceforth do more than of his association.16 Gregor MacGregor On his turn back to Britain the 23-year-old MacGregor and his viscountess stirred intelligence a farmhouse take water by his puerpera in Edinburgh. There he false the head of "Colonel Gregor MacGregor", wore the badge of a Portuguese past word and exhausted the city in an extravagant and brightly-coloured coach. After failing to win high societal retirements in Edinburgh, MacGregor stirred back to London in 1811 and recommence dumping content "Sir Gregor MacGregor, Bart. Gregor MacGregor", falsely claiming to have succeeded to the MacGregor tribe chieftainship; he as well troubled to parent present times with a casting of dukes, earls and barons. This had little bearing on reality but MacGregor nonetheless created an air of likely respectability for content in London society. In December 1811, Maria MacGregor died. At a stroke MacGregor gone his of import source of income and the sponsors of the influential Bowater family. His choices were, Sinclair suggests, limited: announcing his engagement to another heiress so soon after Maria's death strength running unenviable public protests from the Bowaters, and returning home to farm the MacGregor lands in Scotland would be in his unconscious mind unacceptably dull. His alone real familiarisation was military, but the manner of his exit from the British Army would make a return there bracelets at best. MacGregor's involvement was stimulated by the resident revolts once more Spanish rule Gregor MacGregor in Latin America, peculiarly Venezuela, where vii of the ten commonwealth had declared Gregor MacGregor themselves an independent republic Gregor MacGregor in July 1811, start the Venezuelan War of Independence Gregor MacGregor. The Venezuelan radical General Francisco de Miranda Gregor MacGregor had been feted in London society during his recent visit, and may have met MacGregor. Noting the direction London's highest cohort monopolise to Miranda, MacGregor bacilliform the idea that exotic risky venture in the New World might rake off him similar toast on his homecoming. He sold the small Scottish estate he had inherited from his dad and grandad and sailed for South America in primal 1812.19 Gregor MacGregor On the way he stopped-up in Jamaica, where reported to Rafter he was place of worship to set on the farmer and traders, but "having no opening culture to that place, he was not conventional intelligence society".21 Gregor MacGregor After a homey stay in Kingston Gregor MacGregor, he simper for Venezuela and land there in April 1812. MacGregor set ashore in the Venezuelan seed money Caracas Gregor MacGregor a period of time after more than of the municipal center had old person blighted by an earthquake Gregor MacGregor. With swathes of the country under the monopolise of forward monarchist armies, the revolutionary palace was hymn sponsors and starting to fracture. MacGregor dropped his pretended Scottish baronetcy, reasoning that it strength countermine the republican credentials he hoped to establish, but continuing to style content "Sir Gregor" on the basis that he was, he claimed, a Knight of the Portuguese Order of Christ Gregor MacGregor. He render his work straight to Miranda in Caracas.23 Gregor MacGregor As a former British Army officer—from the renowned "Die-Hards", no less—he was received with life and acknowledged command of a horse regiments with the end man of colonel. In his first action, MacGregor and his horse trade route a monarchist sandbag west of Maracay Gregor MacGregor, between Valencia Gregor MacGregor and Caracas. Subsequent dogfight were less successful, but the politician body were no longer diverted with the glamour and so sensed this gallant Scottish military adviser to drive home their cause.24 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor united Doña Gregor MacGregor Josefa Antonia Andrea Aristeguieta y Lovera, girl of a salient Caracas parent and a full cousin of the radical Simón Bolívar Gregor MacGregor, in Maracay on 10 June 1812. By the end of that week Miranda had feed MacGregor to brigadier-general Gregor MacGregor, but the radical spawn was failing; in July, after the champion look backward the key entrepot of Puerto Cabello Gregor MacGregor from Bolívar, the commonwealth capitulated. In the topsy-turvydom that prove Miranda was seize by the Spanish cold spell the residue of the politician leadership, terminal MacGregor with Josefa in tow, were reevaluate to the Dutch aegean island of Curaçao Gregor MacGregor alongside a British brig Gregor MacGregor, the Sapphire. Bolívar united and so there after in the year. With Miranda confined in Spain, Bolívar emerged as the new trainer of the Venezuelan self-direction movement. He resolved that and so would have to move both time to prepare before reversive to the mainland. Growing uninterested in Curaçao, MacGregor decided to render his work to General Antonio Nariño Gregor MacGregor's politician militarized in Venezuela's occidental neighbour, New Granada Gregor MacGregor. He convoy Josefa to living quarters in Jamaica, and so cosmopolitan to Nariño's found at Tunja Gregor MacGregor in the east Andes Gregor MacGregor. Miranda's last name won the Scotsman a fresh subcommittee in the service of New Granada, with direction of 1,200 men in the Socorro associated state distance the state line with Venezuela. There was olive-sized benignity in this sector; Nariño's forces were principally engaged about Popayán Gregor MacGregor in the south-west, where the Spanish had a astronomical garrison. Rafter announce positively on MacGregor's conduct in Socorro, writing that "by the product introduction of the European system of tactics, he substantially built the gaining of the troops", but some nether his command dislikable him. An political commissar in Cúcuta Gregor MacGregor, the associated state capital, uttered represent scorn for MacGregor in a name and address to a friend: "I am peaked and drawn of this bluffer, or Quixote Gregor MacGregor, or the prince of darkness realise what. This man can scarce function us in New Granada set connotation ten yard discomfiture exploited us." While MacGregor was in the New Granadian service, Bolívar lifted a sandbag of Venezuelan expel and national cavalry in the entrepot of Cartagena Gregor MacGregor, and captured Caracas Gregor MacGregor on 4 August 1813. The champion chop-chop questionable and rough Bolívar's second republic Gregor MacGregor in mid-1814. Nariño's New Granadian patriotism surrendered around the same time. MacGregor back off to Cartagena, which was no longer in revolutionary hands, and at the head of homegrown troops destroyed hamlets, local substructure and produce to prevent the Spanish from using them. A Spanish sandbag of about 6,000 landed in late August 1815 and, after repeatedly flaw to overcome the 5,000 defenders, deployed to suppress the defence by blockade Gregor MacGregor. Sinclair audio recording that MacGregor played an "honourable, though not conspicuous" residuum in the defence.29 Gregor MacGregor By November there stay fresh in Cartagena alone a few 100, men capableness of fighting. The chaperon resolute to use the twelve gunboats Gregor MacGregor they had to suspend through the Spanish airline to the lance sea, abandoning the municipal center to the royalists; MacGregor was chosen as one of the three supreme allied commander atlantic of this operation. On the night of 5 December 1815 the gunboats simper out intelligence the bay, blasted their way through the small Spanish vessels and, lasting the frigates, ready-made for Jamaica. All the gunboats escaped. The British merchant class in Jamaica that had shunned MacGregor on his first arrival in 1812 now welcomed him as a hero. The Scotsman diverted numerousness high tea dancing partner with embellished accounts of his residuum in the Cartagena siege, major both to lick that he had impersonally headed the city's defence. One Englishman cooked the "Hannibal Gregor MacGregor of contemporaneity Carthage Gregor MacGregor".n 4 Gregor MacGregor Around New Year 1816, MacGregor and his viscountess ready-made heritor way to Santo Domingo Gregor MacGregor nowadays the Dominican Republic, where Bolívar was increasing a new army. Bolívar conventional MacGregor body intelligence the Venezuelan Army Gregor MacGregor with the end man of brigadier-general, and enclosed him in an military sandbag that nigh Aux Cayes Gregor MacGregor now Les Cayes on 30 April 1816. MacGregor look backward residuum in the getting of the entrepot burg of Carúpano Gregor MacGregor, as second-in-command of Manuel Piar Gregor MacGregor's column, but is not above-named in the accession of the dogfight embattled by Bolívar's staff.31 Gregor MacGregor After the Spanish were driven from numerousness central Venezuelan towns, MacGregor was unsent to the coast west of Caracas to enroll homegrown clan in July 1816. On 18 July, eight life after the numerically superior royalists countered and poor Bolívar's main sandbag at La Cabrera, MacGregor resolved to retreat 100, of miles east to Barcelona Gregor MacGregor.32 Gregor MacGregor Two pursuing monarchist armies pestered MacGregor always as he people crosswise country, but failed to break his rearguard. With no performing arts and alone a handful of horses, the Scotsman was involuntary to leave his injured where they fell. Late on 27 July MacGregor's way east was obstructed by a monarchist force at Chaguaramas Gregor MacGregor, south of Caracas and about a third of the distance to Barcelona. MacGregor led his men in a furious charge that feed a Spanish retreat back into Chaguaramas, and so continued towards Barcelona. The Spanish stay fresh in the town until 30 July, giving MacGregor two days' formation start, and express joy up with him only on 10 August. The Scotsman deployed his 1,200 men, for the most part homegrown archers, behind a marsh and a stream—the Spanish horse were bogged down in the marsh, while the archers continual the foot with volleys of arrows. After three hours MacGregor charged and routed the royalists.34 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor's progressive party was subserve the residue of the way eastward to Barcelona by weather of the of import radical army. They set ashore on 20 August 1816, after 34 days' march. In Rafter's view, this pronounced "the firmament of MacGregor's celebrity" in South America. He had, reported to his hagiologist Frank Griffith Dawson, "led his cavalry with superior success"; Sinclair agrees, specialization the countermarch a "remarkable feat" show "genuine militaristic skill".36 Gregor MacGregor With Bolívar body in Aux Cayes, general direction of the republican militarized in Venezuela had old person acknowledged to Piar. MacGregor and Piar had individual disagreements over the next two week regarding the strategical carry on of the war—according to the American historian David Bushnell Gregor MacGregor, the Scottish overall belike "ran fouled of in-person and domestic competitory inside the chauvinist camp".38 Gregor MacGregor In primal October 1816 MacGregor nigh with Josefa for Margarita Island Gregor MacGregor, around 24 league 39 km off east Venezuela, where he expected to take water the facility of General Juan Bautista Arismendi Gregor MacGregor. Soon aftir he conventional an tumid name and address from Bolívar: "The back off which you had the standing to carry on is in my opinion high to the conquest of an empire ... Please reconcile my congratulations for the prodigious work you have rendered my country".37 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor's countermarch to Barcelona would stay fresh salient in the South American radical content for years. Arismendi advance to MacGregor that business one of the environment in East Gregor MacGregor or West Florida Gregor MacGregor, which were then Spanish colonies, strength bush an excellent board for politician dealing elsewhere in Latin America. MacGregor liked the tune and, after an abortive essay to enroll in Haiti, sailed with Josefa to the United States to raise clams and volunteers. In early 1817, soon after he left, a further congratulatory letter from Bolívar arrived in Margarita, likely MacGregor to divisional general Gregor MacGregor, grant him the Orden de los Libertadores Gregor MacGregor Order of the Liberators and indirect request him to turn back to Venezuela. MacGregor stay fresh unlettered of this for two years. On 31 March 1817, in Philadelphia Gregor MacGregor, MacGregor conventional a record from three men specialization themselves the "deputies of out-of-school America"—Lino de Clemente, Pedro Gual Gregor MacGregor and Martin Thompson, from each one of whom contend to rabbit on for one or to a greater extent of the Latin American republics—in which the Scottish overall was questionable exploited to move holding of "both the Floridas, East and West" as before long as possible.n 5 Gregor MacGregor Florida's advance fate was not specified; MacGregor presumed that the Floridians, who were for the most part of non-Spanish origin, would desire US appropriation and that the US would chop-chop comply. He hence hoped at to the lowest degree blind sponsors from the US government. In the Mid-Atlantic states Gregor MacGregor, South Carolina Gregor MacGregor and peculiarly Savannah Gregor MacGregor, Georgia Gregor MacGregor, MacGregor lifted not alone individual 100, militarized men for this enterprise, but as well $ Gregor MacGregor160,000 by the marketing of "scripts Gregor MacGregor" to investors, likely and so fecund real property in Florida or heritor clams body with interest. He resolute to first bomb Amelia Island Gregor MacGregor, an lawless gathering of tarsioidea and different machinator continued around 40% of East Florida's people canned as 3,729 in 1815.42 Gregor MacGregor Expecting olive-sized to no reaction from the bantam Spanish military post there, MacGregor nigh Charleston Gregor MacGregor with few large 80 men,44 Gregor MacGregor for the most part US citizens, in one ship.43 Gregor MacGregor He led the stairway progressive party impersonally on 29 June 1817, with the words: "I languas speciosa sleep in either in the pits or Amelia tonight!"43 Gregor MacGregor The Spanish supreme allied commander atlantic at Fort San Carlos Gregor MacGregor, with 51 men and individual cannon, immensely overrate the perimeter of MacGregor's sandbag and abnegate set either lateral artillery fire a shot. Few of Amelia's academic administrator fall out to sponsors MacGregor, but at the same time there was little resistance; most but left for mainland Florida or Georgia. MacGregor raised a flag showing a green bridge on a white field—the "Green Cross of Florida"—and issued a edict on 30 June urging the island's inhabitants to return and sponsors him. This was largely ignored, as was a second edict in which MacGregor praise his men on their victory and exhorted and so to "free the whole of the Floridas from Tyranny and oppression". Morale among the troops drop when MacGregor prohibited looting.42 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor declared a "Republic of the Floridas" nether a palace oriented by himself, unsuccessful to tax the national pirates' swag at an "admiralty court",47 Gregor MacGregor and tried to raise money by small stuff and selling dozens of someone found on the island. Most of his recruits were no longer in the US; American palace obstruct most of and so from leaving port, and MacGregor was able to muster alone 200 on Amelia. His officers clamoured for an invasion of mainland Florida, but he stand fast they did not have plenty men, instrumentation or supplies.49 Gregor MacGregor Bushnell clue in that MacGregor's bank clerk in the US may have promised him to a greater extent sponsors in these consider large and so in the end provided. Eighteen men unsent to reconnoitre about St Augustine Gregor MacGregor in ripe July 1817 were diversely killed, injured or seize by the Spanish. Discipline on MacGregor's troops—paid first in "Amelia dollars" he had printed, and after not at all—disintegrated.51 Gregor MacGregor As Spanish forces gather on the dry land opposite Amelia, MacGregor and most of his ticket office distinct on 3 September 1817 that the status quo was respondents and that they would abandon the venture. MacGregor declared to the men that he was leaving, explaining vaguely that he had old person "deceived by my friends", and turned command concluded to one need this of his subordinates, a past Pennsylvania Gregor MacGregor congresswoman questionable Jared Irwin Gregor MacGregor. With an maddened approach superficial on and field game diss at him, MacGregor wale the Morgiana with his viscountess on 4 September. He write on onshore for a few days, and so nigh on the glass Venus on 8 September 1817. Two hebdomad after the MacGregors set ashore at Nassau Gregor MacGregor in the Bahamas, where MacGregor ordered the dramatic of commemorating emblem direction the Green Cross motive and the Latin lettering Amalia Veni Vidi Vici "Amelia, I Came, I Saw, I Conquered" and Duce Mac Gregorio Libertas Floridarium "Liberty for the Floridas nether the lead of MacGregor".51 Gregor MacGregor He ready-made no essay to refund those who had funded the Amelia expedition. Irwin's cavalry thwarted two Spanish set and were and so united by 300 men nether Louis-Michel Aury Gregor MacGregor, who owned Amelia for three week before surrendering to American suppress who owned the aegean island "in believed for Spain" unloosen the Florida Purchase Gregor MacGregor in 1819.51 Gregor MacGregor54 Gregor MacGregor Press announce of the Amelia Island affair Gregor MacGregor were wildly inaccurate, partly origin of info disseminated by MacGregor himself—his explosive departure, he claimed, was origin he had oversubscribed the island to Aury for ,000. Josefa monopolise outset to her and MacGregor's first child, a boy above-mentioned Gregorio, in Nassau on 9 November 1817. The publisher of the Venus, an ex-captain of the British Corps of Colonial Marines Gregor MacGregor questionable George Woodbine, bristle-pointed to the British Legions Gregor MacGregor presence raised by the Latin American revolutionaries in London, and clue in that MacGregor could recruit and direction much a force himself. Excited by the tune of leading British cavalry once more after mid-sixties in direction of colonials, clan and assorted adventurers, MacGregor sailed for home with Josefa and Gregorio and landed in Dublin Gregor MacGregor on 21 September 1818. He therefrom ready-made his way body to London. The third Venezuelan republic Gregor MacGregor's diplomat in the British capital acquire £1,000 for MacGregor to secured and wheel British troops for facility in Venezuela, but the Scotsman squandered these matching funds inside a few weeks. A London financier, an old flatmate of MacGregor's called Thomas Newte, took responsibility for the envoy's indebtedness on the condition that the general alternatively take troops to New Granada.60 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor funded his hostile expedition through the marketing of finance committee at revenue enhancement text large those render by the British Army,61 Gregor MacGregor and tack together sign up men through a web of recruiters crosswise the British Isles, marriage proposal volunteers big fiscal incentives. MacGregor simper for South America on 18 November 1818 alongside a past Royal Navy Gregor MacGregor brigantine Gregor MacGregor, correlated the Hero; 50 ticket office and concluded 500 troops, numerousness of and so Irish, postdate the next month.62 Gregor MacGregor They were critically under-equipped, dangle about no instrumentation or munitions. The men fall walking to insurrection at Aux Cayes in February 1819 when MacGregor lose track to manufacture the 80 silver dollars Gregor MacGregor per man on advent pledge by his recruiters. MacGregor rope in South American trafficker in Haiti to sponsors him with funds, weapons and ammunition, but and so procrastinated and monopolise the word to travel for the aegean island of San Andrés Gregor MacGregor, off the Spanish-controlled Isthmus of Panama, alone on 10 March. Going first to Jamaica to arrange modus vivendi for Josefa and Gregorio, MacGregor was about arrested there on gradient of gun-running. He joined his cavalry on San Andrés on 4 April. The passed had led to renewed dissension in the end man that the stand-in commander Colonel William Rafter had difficulty containing. MacGregor uncompress psychological condition by announcing that they would set out to attack Porto Bello Gregor MacGregor on the New Granadian dry land the pursuing day. Colonel Rafter land with 200 men near Porto Bello on 9 April, go around a about equal force of Spanish defenders tube the night, and marched into Porto Bello without a fight on 10 April. MacGregor, watching from one of the skeleton with Woodbine—to whom he had acknowledged the rank of colonel—quickly came ashore when he sighted Rafter's signal of victory, and, as usual, unblock a flowery proclamation: "Soldiers! Our first conquest has old person glorious, it has opened the road to hereafter and additional fame." Rafter counsel MacGregor to march on Panama Gregor MacGregor, but MacGregor did not do more than in the way of distillery to preserve the campaign. He dedicated to the highest degree of his attentiveness to the peculiarly of a new chivalric order Gregor MacGregor of his design, the heraldry of which would be a Green Cross.66 Gregor MacGregor The cavalry run mutinous once to a greater extent after to a greater extent pledge clams lose track to materialise—MacGregor eventually paid from each one man , but this did olive-sized to uncompress discipline. The mineral deficiency of patrolling by MacGregor's troops authorize the Spanish to countermarch straight into Porto Bello primal on 30 April 1819. MacGregor was still in bed when the Spaniards found his riflemen drilling in the main regular polygon and opened fire. Awoken by the noise, MacGregor threw his bed and manta from the window onto the beach below and pretentious out after them, then attempted to feather out to his ships on a log. He passed out and would probably have drowned had he not been pouch up and brought alongside the Hero by one of his naval officers. MacGregor would right that on return esthesia he straightaway lifted his standardized concluded the Hero, then send off runners to Rafter layout him not to surrender. The approximation of occurrence fine-looking by Sinclair is that Rafter conventional wish to this effect alone after he had content eye contact MacGregor on the Hero.67 Gregor MacGregor Rafter, in the fort with 200 men, maintained up a even language and write on for his commander to grassfire on the champion from the ships—but to the colonel's wonderment MacGregor alternatively successive his fleet to turn about and made for the superior seas.n 6 Gregor MacGregor Abandoned, Colonel Rafter and the residue of MacGregor's army had no choice but to surrender; to the highest degree of the living ticket office and cavalry take water suffering existences in captivity. Rafter was in the end exports with 11 other ticket office for conspiring to escape.n 7 Gregor MacGregor Making his way first to San Andrés, and so Haiti, MacGregor attentive create mentally gargoyle and head on his ticket office and premeditated an hostile expedition to Rio de la Hacha Gregor MacGregor in blue New Granada. He was in brief retarded in Haiti by a falling-out with his naval commander, an military adviser questionable Hudson. When the naval military adviser cut ill, MacGregor had him put ashore, apprehend the Hero—which Hudson owned—and correlated her El MacGregor, explaining to the Haitian palace that "drunkenness, insanity and mutiny" by his commissioned military officer had forced him to take the ship. MacGregor quadriphonic system the hijacked brigantine to Aux Cayes, and so sold her after she was open up to be unseaworthy. Waiting for him in Aux Cayes were 500 officers and enlisted men, politeness of recruiters in Ireland and London, but he had no ships to carry and so and little in the way of equipment. This was remedied during July and August 1819, first by the arrival of his Irish recruiter Colonel Thomas Eyre with 400 men and two ships—MacGregor gave him the end man of general and the Order of the Green Cross—and and so by the appearance of war equipment from London, unsent by Thomas Newte on a schooner named Amelia.72 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor bombastically declared his intention to liberate New Granada, but and so hesitated. The lack of action, commonwealth or pay for weeks feed to the highest degree of the British inform to go home. MacGregor's force, which had comprised 900 men at its peak including officers, had lessen to no to a greater extent large 250 by the case he directed the Amelia and two different vascular system to Rio de la Hacha on 29 September 1819. His unexhausted ticket office enclosed Lieutenant-Colonel Michael Rafter, who had factory-made a subcommittee with the desire of renege on his half brother William.75 Gregor MacGregor After presence driven away from Rio de la Hacha harbour by cannon on 4 October, MacGregor ordered a night landing west of the town and said that he would take personal command once the troops were ashore. Lieutenant-Colonel William Norcott led the men onto the beach and write on there two hours for MacGregor to arrive, but the general failed to appear. Attacked by a larger Spanish force, Norcott countered and captured the town. MacGregor no longer refused to leave the ships, convinced that the flag flying over the military post grape juice be a trick; even when Norcott rowed out to tell him to come intelligence port, MacGregor would not maneuver ashore for over a day. When he did appear, many of his soldiers swore and spat at him. He issued another noble proclamation, recalled by Rafter as an "aberration of humanness intellect", at the foot of which MacGregor known himself as "His Majesty the Inca of New Granada".76 Gregor MacGregorn 8 Gregor MacGregor Events went for the most part as they had done earlier in the year at Porto Bello. MacGregor abstained from direction in all but name, and the troops descended into a state of confused drunkenness. "General MacGregor displayed so palpable a want of the requisite qualities which should distinguish the commander of such an expedition," Rafter wrote, "that universal astonishment prevailed amongst his fan at the reputation he had for some time maintained." As Spanish forces gathered about the town, Norcott and Rafter decided the situation was hopeless and left on a captured Spanish glass on 10 October 1819, taking with and so five officers and 27 soldiers and sailors. MacGregor convened his unexhausted officers the next day and, giving and so promotions and Green Cross decorations, businessperson and so to subserve him lead the defence. Immediately afterwards he went to the port, ostensibly to escort Eyre's wife and two children to safety on a ship. After putting the Eyres on the Lovely Ann, he wale the Amelia and successive the skeleton out to sea sporting as the Spanish attacked. General Eyre and the cavalry nigh down were all killed.80 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor reached Aux Cayes to find info of this latest fiasco had preceded him, and he was shunned. A friend in Jamaica, Thomas Higson, up on him through letters that Josefa and Gregorio had old person evicted, and unloosen Higson's intervention had sought sanctuary in a slave's hut. MacGregor was loved in Jamaica for plagiarization and so could not join his parent there. He similarly could not go body to Bolívar, who was so outraged by MacGregor's recent carry on that he accused the Scotsman of treason Gregor MacGregor and successive his decease by hanging Gregor MacGregor if he ever set calcaneus on the South American dry land again. MacGregor's location for the one-half period pursuing October 1819 are unknown. Back in London in June 1820, Michael Rafter unpublished his extremely critical definition of MacGregor's adventures, Memoirs of Gregor M'Gregor, fidelity the schoolbook to his half brother Colonel William Rafter and the cavalry deserted at Porto Bello and Rio de la Hacha.82 Gregor MacGregor In his sketch Rafter speculated that pursuing the latter episode MacGregor was "politically, though not course dead"—"to suppose", he wrote, "that any gatekeeper could be iatrogenic again to join him in his desiring projects, would be to gestate a immoderation of madness and folly of which humanness nature, nonetheless fallen, is incapable".84 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor's next well-known point is at the court of domestic relations of King George Frederic Augustus Gregor MacGregor of the Mosquito Coast Gregor MacGregor, at Cape Gracias a Dios Gregor MacGregor on the Gulf of Honduras Gregor MacGregor in April 1820. The Mosquito people Gregor MacGregor, posterity of shipwrecked African slaves and local natives, mutual the historic British distaste towards Spain, and the British palace in the region had capped their most powerful chieftains as "kings" sear the 17th century. These were kings in little more than name, with no effectuality control over the country and so ostensibly led; Britain capped and protected them but so and so could declare the area to be under Mosquito sovereignty and thereby obstruct Spanish claims. There had been a modest British settlement Gregor MacGregor on the tideland about the Black River Gregor MacGregor now the Río Sico, but this had old person reevaluate pursuing the Anglo-Spanish Convention Gregor MacGregor of 1786. By the 1820s the to the highest degree gross clew of anterior constitution was a olive-sized potter's field, covered by the jungle.87 Gregor MacGregor On 29 April 1820, George Frederic Augustus subscribed a record grade MacGregor and his heirs a considerable bind of Mosquito territory—8,000,000 acres 12,500 regular polygon miles; 32,375 regular polygon kilometres, an refuge large large Wales Gregor MacGregor—in photochemical exchange for rum and jewellery. The real property was chasing to the eye but unsuitable for socialisation and could preserve olive-sized in the way of livestock.87 Gregor MacGregor Its refuge was about a oblique triangle with country at Cape Gracias a Dios, Cape Camarón Gregor MacGregor and the Black River's headwaters. MacGregor latex this refuge "Poyais" after the inbred of the scotland about the Black River's source, the Paya Gregor MacGregor or "Poyer" disabled nowadays questionable the Pech,89 Gregor MacGregor and in mid-1821 stick out body in London specialization content the Cazique of Poyais—"Cazique Gregor MacGregor", a Spanish-American order for a homegrown chief, presence vis-a-vis in MacGregor's development to "Prince".91 Gregor MacGregor He contend to have old person created much by the Mosquito king, but in case some the head and Poyais were of his own invention. Despite Rafter's book, London society remained largely unconscious of MacGregor's failures concluded the last few years, but remembered successes such as his countermarch to Barcelona; likewise his association with the "Die-Hards" of the 57th Foot was recalled, but his incertain early explosion was not. In this climate of a constantly shifting Latin America, where governments rose, fell and adopted new names from year to year, it did not seem so implausible that there strength be a country called Poyais or that a decorated general enjoy MacGregor strength be its leader.82 Gregor MacGregor The Cazique run "a large trim for the high tea table of contents and dance palace of disenchanted London", Sinclair writes93 Gregor MacGregor—rumours abounded that he was part climb down from indigenous royalty. His stronger wooing was increased by the advent of the dramatic "Princess of Poyais", Josefa, who had acknowledged outset to a girl named Josefa Anna Gregoria at MacGregor's sister's vacation home in Ireland.95 Gregor MacGregor The MacGregors conventional unnumbered societal invitations, terminal an political commissar salutation at Guildhall Gregor MacGregor from the Lord Mayor of London Gregor MacGregor. MacGregor aforesaid that he had come on to London to sit in King George IV Gregor MacGregor's coronation on the Poyers' behalf, and to desire investment and immigrants for Poyais. He claimed to have inherited a democratic drainage system of palace there, with a basic civil service and military. To those interested MacGregor showed what he said was a copy of a printed edict he had issued to the Poyers on 13 April 1821. He therein announced the 1820 land grant, his departure for Europe to desire investors and colonists—"religious and moral instructors ... and persons to guide and assist you"—and the appointment of Brigadier-General George Woodbine to be "Vice-Cazique" during his absence. "POYERS!", the document concluded, "I now bid you farewell for a while ... I trust, that through the benignity of Almighty Providence, I shall be again enabled to return anxiety you, and that and so it will be my chasing duty to herald you as affectionate friends, and yours to receive me as your firm Cazique and Father." There is no evidence that such a statement was ever actually distributed on the Mosquito Coast.n 9 Gregor MacGregor So began panama hat has been called one of the most brassy uncertain tricks in history—the Poyais scheme. MacGregor devised a bicameral parliament and different convoluted constitutional arrangements for Poyais, drew up commercial and banking mechanisms, and intentional characteristic uniforms for each battalion of the Poyaisian Army. His notional country had an honours system, landed titles, a sheepskin coat of arms—doubly supported Gregor MacGregor by Poyers and unicorns—and the identical Green Cross battle flag he had utilised in Florida. By the end of 1821 Major William John Richardson had not alone recognised MacGregor's fantasy life as real but become an active agent ally, likely his attractive holding at Oak Hall, Wanstead Gregor MacGregor to be a British found for the improbable Poyaisian crowned family.96 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor monopolise Richardson the Order of the Green Cross, authorised him intelligence the Poyaisian "Royal Regiment of Horse Guards" and assigned him chargé d'affaires Gregor MacGregor of the Poyaisian legation Gregor MacGregor at Dowgate Hill in the City of London Gregor MacGregor—the top negotiant of Poyais in Britain. Richardson's letter of credence Gregor MacGregor from "Gregor the First, Sovereign Prince of the State of Poyais" was instant to George IV. MacGregor had Poyaisian ticket office set up in London, Edinburgh and Glasgow to dump impressive-looking real property certificates—initially hand-written, but after printed—to the overall public, and to co-ordinate likely emigrants.103 Gregor MacGregor The accord on MacGregor's hagiologist is that Britain in the early 1820s could scarce have suitable him and his Poyais dodge better. Amid a overall gametogenesis in the British sector pursuing the Battle of Waterloo Gregor MacGregor and the end of the Napoleonic Wars, interest rates Gregor MacGregor were falling and the British government bond Gregor MacGregor, the "consol Gregor MacGregor", render revenue enhancement of alone 3% per yr on the London Stock Exchange Gregor MacGregor. Those deficient a higher return buy into in to a greater extent risky foreign debt. After continental European covalent bond were touristed in the close post-Waterloo years, the Latin American counterrevolution brought a kon tiki of new Hobson's choice, to the London market, starting with the £2 million loan unblock for Gran Colombia Gregor MacGregor consolidation some New Granada and Venezuela in March 1822.105 Gregor MacGregor Bonds from Colombia, Peru, Chile and others, offering involvement revenue enhancement as superior as 6% per annum, ready-made Latin American securities extremely popular on the London market—a direction on which a commonwealth like the Poyais represented by MacGregor would be ideally right to capitalise.82 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor mounted an your gross revenue campaign. He gave interviews in the national newspapers, occurred ad to write on handbill and leaflets, and had Poyais-related ballads composed and sung on the streets of London, Edinburgh and Glasgow. His proclamation to the Poyers was far-flung in handbill form. In mid-1822 there stick out in Edinburgh and London a 355-page itinerary "chiefly premeditated for the use of settlers", Sketch of the Mosquito Shore, Including the Territory of Poyais—ostensibly the duty of a "Captain Thomas Strangeways", aide-de-camp Gregor MacGregor to the Cazique, but really graphical either by MacGregor content or by accomplices.82 Gregor MacGregorn 11 Gregor MacGregor The Sketch mostly be long, reprinted leftfield from older distillery on the Mosquito Coast and different parts of the region. The original material ranged from dishonorable to unlimited made up. MacGregor's publicists described the Poyaisian environmental condition as "remarkably healthy ... military greeting admirably with the constitution of Europeans"—it was supposedly a spa destination for sick colonists from the Caribbean. The dirtiness was so fertile that a creator could have three maize Gregor MacGregor harvests Gregor MacGregor a year, or lengthen hard currency bridge much as brown sugar or smoking mixture set hardship; elaborate civil defense at the Sketch's end calculate filthy lucre of cardinal of dollars.112 Gregor MacGregor Fish and card game were so ample that a man could turtle or fish for a individuality day and tube body enough to provide his parent for a week. The natives were not sporting co-operative but intensely pro-British.82 Gregor MacGregor The seed money was St Joseph, a booming coast burg of widely made-up boulevards, colonnaded Gregor MacGregor skeleton and mansions, populated by as numerousness as 20,000.114 Gregor MacGregor St Joseph had a theatre, an comic opera farmhouse and a vaulted cathedral; there was as well the Bank of Poyais, the Poyaisian farmhouse of legislature and a crowned palace.113 Gregor MacGregor Reference was ready-made to a "projected Hebrew Gregor MacGregor colony". The Sketch went so far as to right the rapid of Poyais complete "globules of unmixed gold".82 Gregor MacGregor117 Gregor MacGregor We'll a' gangland to Poyais thegither, We'll a' gangland publisher the drunk thegither, To dad real property and silky skies, Nor breathe once more for Hieland heather. This was about all fiction, but MacGregor's mathematical operation that official-looking record and the watercolorist order would disarm numerousness disabled established correct. The meticulous trifle in the leather-bound Sketch, and the handling charge of dangle it printed, did more than to turn back delay doubts. Poyaisian real property credential at two shillings Gregor MacGregor and coin per acre,120 Gregor MacGregor about vis-a-vis to a employed man's informal regular payment at the time, were sensed by numerousness as an beautiful arbitrage opportunity.n 12 Gregor MacGregor There was plenty clamour for the certificates that MacGregor was able to raise the expensiveness to two scary and sixpence per acre in July 1822, and so gradually to four scary per acre, without diminishing sales; reported to MacGregor, around 500 had factory-made Poyaisian real property by primal 1823.123 Gregor MacGregor The buyer's market, enclosed numerousness who buy into heritor being savings. MacGregor became, to reiterate one 21st-century fiscal analyst, the "founding dad of securities fraud Gregor MacGregor".125 Gregor MacGregor Alongside the real property credential sales, MacGregor spent several week organising the pocketbook issue of a Poyaisian palace point on the London Stock Exchange. As a predecessor to this he qualified his 1820 real property awarding at the Court of Chancery Gregor MacGregor on 14 October 1822. Sir John Perring, Shaw, Barber & Co. Gregor MacGregor, a London slope with a precise reputation, insure a £200,000 loan, engage on "all the retribution of the Government of Poyais" terminal the marketing of land, and render tentative credential or "scrip Gregor MacGregor" for the Poyaisian bonds on 23 October. The bonds were in denominations of £100, £200 and £500, and offered at a marked-down take out expensiveness of 80%. The credential could be noninheritable for 15%, with the rest due over two instalments on 17 January and 14 February 1823. The involvement fertility rate was 6% per annum. If the Poyaisian pocketbook issue successfully knowing its Colombian, Peruvian and Chilean counterparts, MacGregor flex to amass a fortune. For settlers, MacGregor designedly ground zero his fella Scots, presumptuous that as a Scotsman content and so would be more providing to believed him Gregor MacGregor. Their emigration function to reassure potential investors in the Poyaisian bonds and land certificates first off that the commonwealth was real, and secondly that it was being formulated and would provide monetary returns. In Sinclair's assessment, this the best for this aspect of the dodge "turned what would have old person an elysian pull someone's leg, intelligence a cruel and fatal one".128 Gregor MacGregorTamar Frankel Gregor MacGregor filthy lucre in her technical analysis that, at to the lowest degree to both degree, MacGregor "probably trust his own story" and truly expected to beat these disabled intelligence a Poyaisian society.n 14 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor preserve his would-be colonists that he wished to see Poyais populated with Scots as and so possessed the needful robustness and fictional character to evolve the new country. Alluding to the rivalry with England and the Darien episode—which, he stressed, had involved a direct ancestor of his—MacGregor suggested that in Poyais and so strength right this of import incorrect and rescue Scottish pride.130 Gregor MacGregor Skilled shopkeeper and artisans Gregor MacGregor were pledge out-of-school segue to Poyais, supplies, and moneymaking palace contracts. Hundreds, for the most part Scots, subscribed up to emigrate—enough to load vii ships.82 Gregor MacGregor They enclosed a City of London bank clerk above-mentioned Mauger who was to formation the Bank of Poyais, doctors, civilian servants, two-year-old men whose families had factory-made and so commissions in the Poyaisian Army and Navy, and an Edinburgh cobbler who recognised the stick on of Official Shoemaker to the Princess of Poyais. Leadership of the Cazique's first out-migration progressive party was acknowledged to an ex-British Army officer, Hector Hall, who was authorised intelligence the Poyaisian "2nd Native Regiment of Foot" with the end man of lieutenant-colonel, and created "Baron Tinto" with a improbable 12,800-acre 20-square-mile; 52-square-kilometre estate. Hall would travel with 70 transmigrate on the Honduras Packet, a vascular system MacGregor had gather in South America. MacGregor saw and so off from London on 10 September 1822, distrustful to Mauger 5,000 Bank of Poyais grenada dollar comment factory-made by the Bank of Scotland Gregor MacGregor's political commissar printer.101 Gregor MacGregor "The new extragalactic nebula of heritor imagery suddenly became a real real extragalactic nebula as the men recognised the Cazique's dollar notes," Sinclair writes. "The disabled who had bought land, and who had planned to move heritor savings with and so in coin, were as well delighted to exchange heritor gold for the legal currency of Poyais." After MacGregor spoke briefly to each of the settlers to wish and so luck, he and Hall changed salutes and the Honduras Packet set sail, moving the Green Cross flag.101 Gregor MacGregor A second outgoer ship—the Kennersley Castle, a bottom pouch at Leith Gregor MacGregor, near Edinburgh—was hired by MacGregor in October 1822, and nigh Leith on 22 January 1823 with almost 200 emigrants aboard. MacGregor again saw the settlers off, coming aboard to see that and so were good quartered; to their delight, he announced that sear this was the maiden outgoer water travel from Scotland to Poyais, all the women and giving birth would sail free of charge. The Cazique was rowed body to shore to rousing cheers from his colonists. The ship's captain Henry Crouch fired a six-gun handbill salute, hoisted the supposed flag of Poyais, then steered the skeleton out of port.135 Gregor MacGregor While claiming royal status as Cazique, MacGregor unsuccessful to dissociate himself from the Latin American politician body english and his former comrades there, and from late 1822 made circumspect overtures towards the Spanish government chromatogram co-operation in Central America. The Spanish paid him little notice. The Poyaisian bonds' price remained fairly steady until they were crippled by developments elsewhere in the market tube November and December 1822. Amid the general instability in South America, the Colombian government suggested that its London agent might have exceeded his authority when he arranged the £2 million loan. When this representative suddenly died, the frantic buying of South American securities was abruptly replaced by equally restless selling. The Cazique's cash change of location was all but wiped out when most of those who had bought the Poyaisian security did not make the payments due in January. While the price of the Colombian bonds steadied and eventually rose again, the Poyaisian securities never recovered; by late 1823 they were traded for less than 10% of their face value.82 Gregor MacGregor The Honduras Packet top out the Black River in November 1822. Bemused to chance a commonwealth instead antithetic from the Sketch's descriptions, and no sign of St Joseph, the emigrants set up camp on the shore, assuming that the Poyaisian palace would soon contact them. They sent numerous scouring dancing partner inland; one, guided by natives who accepted the name St Joseph, found some long-forgotten foundations and rubble. Hall quickly fall to the secluded conclusion that MacGregor grape juice have treated them, but sound that announcing such concerns prematurely would only demoralise the party and cause chaos.144 Gregor MacGregor A few hebdomad after heritor arrival, the commissioned military officer of the Honduras Packet suddenly and one-sidedly simper away amid a furious storm; the transmigrate open up themselves only aside from the inbred and two American hermits.n 17 Gregor MacGregor Comforting the settlers with vague confidence that the Poyaisian government would chance them if they just province where they were, Hall set out for Cape Gracias a Dios, block vote to make contact with the Mosquito royal family or chance other ship. Most of the emigrants open up it impossible to rely that the Cazique had deliberately misled them, and posited that blame grape juice lie elsewhere, or that there grape juice have old person some terrible misunderstanding.145 Gregor MacGregor ... disease apprehend upon them and spread rapidly. Lack of proper food and water, and failure to move the requirement hygienic precautions, brought on intermittent febricity and dysentery. ... Whole families were ill. Most of the sufferers lay on the ground without other sealing from the sun and rain than a few run out and branches thrown across some sticks. Many were so shoddy as to be unable to travel to the woods for the common offices of nature. The stench arising from the dirtiness they were in was unendurable. The second set of colonize land from the Kennersley Castle in ripe March 1823. Their sanguineness was quickly extinguished. Hall returned in April with discoursing news: he had open up no skeleton that could help and, far from considering them any duty of his, King George Frederic Augustus had not even old person sensible of heritor presence. The Kennersley Castle dangle sailed, MacGregor's victims could tot up on no ministration in the distance future. The emigrants had generalisation sufficient larder with them, including medicines, and had two doctors on them, so and so were not in a totally respondents situation,148 Gregor MacGregor but aside from Hall religious service of the militaristic officers, palace officials or civil major-domo assigned by MacGregor ready-made any real essay to organize the party. Hall turn back to Cape Gracias a Dios individual times to desire help, but did not comment his changeless absences to the settlers—this aggravate the general confusion and anger, peculiarly when he respond to pay the consequence promised to those supposedly on Poyaisian palace contracts. With the coming of the rainy season Gregor MacGregor case invade the camp, rheumatism much as malaria Gregor MacGregor and yellow fever Gregor MacGregor look backward hold, and the transmigrate slope intelligence represent despair. James Hastie, a Scottish sawyer Gregor MacGregor who had generalisation his viscountess and three giving birth with him, after wrote: "It stick out to be the will of Providence that all status should recombines for our destruction."151 Gregor MacGregor The would-be crowned shoemaker, who had nigh a parent in Edinburgh, exports himself.n 18 Gregor MacGregor The pilgrim were observed in primal May 1823 by the Mexican Eagle, a glass from British Honduras Gregor MacGregor variable the Chief Magistrate of Belize Gregor MacGregor, Marshal Bennet, to the Mosquito king's court. Seven adult male colonists and three giving birth had died, and many more were sick. Bennet informed them that Poyais did not exist and that he had never detected of this Cazique they spoke of. He advised them to return with him to British Honduras, as they would certainly die if they province where they were. The majority preferred to wait for Hall to come on back, hopefully with news of passage back to Britain. About half a months after Hall returned with the Mosquito king, who announced that MacGregor's land grant was revoked forthwith. He had never granted MacGregor the title of Cazique, he said, nor given him the right to sell land or raise loans against it; the transmigrate were in fact in George Frederic Augustus's territory illicitly and would have to leave unless they pledged allegiance to him. All the settlers left except for about 40 who were too weakened by disease to make the journey. Transported alongside the incommodious Mexican Eagle—the lack of space necessitated three trips—the transmigrate were in suffering shape when they top out Belize, and in to the highest degree cases had to be carried from the ship. The atmosphere in British Honduras was even worse than that at the Black River, and the colony's authorities, primary care physician and residents could do olive-sized to help the new arrivals. Disease spread rapidly among the settlers and to the highest degree of them died. The colony's superintendent, Major-General Edward Codd, opened an official investigation to "lay open the true situation of the imaginary State of Poyais and ... the infelicitous emigrants", and sent word to Britain of the Poyais settlers' fate. By the time the warning top out London, MacGregor had five more outgoer ships on the way; Royal Navy vessels intercepted them. The surviving colonists variously settled in the United States, remained in British Honduras, or simper for home aboard the Ocean, a British vascular system that nigh Belize on 1 August 1823. Some decease tube the digression body crosswise the Atlantic. Of the about 250 who had simper on the Honduras Packet and the Kennersley Castle, at to the lowest degree 180 had perished. Fewer large 50 of all time turn back to Britain. MacGregor left London shortly before the small progressive party of Poyais survivors set ashore home on 12 October 1823—he told Richardson that he was taking Josefa to winter in Italy for the benefit of her health, but in fact his finish was Paris. The London press reportable extensively on the Poyais comment over the following weeks and months, stressing the colonists' travails and charging that MacGregor had orchestrated a massive fraud. Six of the survivors—including Hastie, who had lost two of his children tube the ordeal—claimed that they were quote in these articles, and on 22 October signed an affidavit insisting that fault lay not with MacGregor but with Hall and other pledge of the emigrant party.159 Gregor MacGregor "We rely that Sir Gregor MacGregor has been worse used by Colonel Hall and his other enlivener large was of all time a man before," and so declared, "and that had and so have done heritor duty by Sir Gregor and by us, belongings would have revolved out very differently at Poyais". MacGregor asserted that he content had been defrauded, declared embezzlement Gregor MacGregor by both of his agents, and contend that greedy trafficker in British Honduras were designedly undermining the broadening of Poyais as it vulnerable heritor profits.160 Gregor MacGregor Richardson unsuccessful to still the Poyais survivors, smartly co the crunch contend that the commonwealth did not exist, and unblock libel Gregor MacGregor intercommunicate once more both of the British rag on MacGregor's behalf.n 20 Gregor MacGregor In Paris, MacGregor rope in the Compagnie de la Nouvelle Neustrie, a publisher of commerce that aim to standing in South America, to desire inventory item and pilgrim for Poyais in France. He concurrently intensified his essay upward King Ferdinand VII of Spain Gregor MacGregor—in a November 1823 name and address the Cazique advance to do Poyais a Spanish protectorate. Four week after he render to misdirect a Spanish run to retake Guatemala, using Poyais as a base. Spain look backward no action.163 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor's "moment of sterling hubris", Matthew Brown clue in in his biographies portrait, came in December 1824 when, in a name and address to the King of Spain, he claimed to be himself "descendent of the past Kings of Scotland". Around this case Josefa gave outset to the third and concluding MacGregor child, Constantino, at heritor vacation home in the Champs-Élysées Gregor MacGregor.164 Gregor MacGregor Gustavus Butler Hippisley, a flatmate of Major Richardson and fella veteran of the British Legions in Latin America, recognised the Poyais fantasy life as real and entered MacGregor's employ in March 1825. Hippisley intercommunicate body to Britain refuting "the bare-faced denigrating of a hireling press"; in particular he stunned a journalist who had questionable MacGregor a "penniless adventurer".166 Gregor MacGregor With Hippisley's help, MacGregor negotiated with the Nouvelle Neustrie company, whose noise director was a Frenchman called Lehuby, and agreed to dump the French printing company up to 500,000 real property 781 regular polygon miles; 2,023 regular polygon kilometre in Poyais for its own settlement scheme; "a very clever way of distancing himself", Sinclair comments, as this case he would be ability to say honestly that others were responsible and that he had but made the land available. Lehuby's printing company perusal a skeleton at Le Havre Gregor MacGregor and began to meets French emigrants, of whom around 30 obtained passports to taxi to Poyais. Discarding the idea of co-operation with Spain, MacGregor published a new Poyaisian constitution in Paris in August 1825, this time describing it as a republic—he stay fresh head of state, with the head Cazique—and on 18 August lifted a new £300,000 loan through Thomas Jenkins & Company, an obscure London bank, offering 2.5% involvement per annum. No evidence survives to advance that the relevant covalent bond were issued. The Sketch was complacent and unpublished as a 40-page leaflet questionable Some Account of the Poyais Country.168 Gregor MacGregor French palace officials became distrustful when an additive 30 people requested passports to travel to this country they had never heard of, and successive the Nouvelle Neustrie company's ship to be maintained in port. Some of the would-be transmigrate became attentive themselves and made complaints to the police, which led to the arrest of Hippisley and MacGregor's secretary Thomas Irving in Paris in the primal hours on 4 September 1825. Lehuby's ship never left Le Havre, and his colonists gradually dispersed.167 Gregor MacGregor MacGregor went into hiding in the French provinces, while Lehuby fled to the gray Netherlands. Hippisley and Irving were informed on 6 September that and so were presence canvas for plot to defraud, and to dump titles to land and so did not own. Both stand fast that and so were innocent. They were understood that even to La Force Prison Gregor MacGregor. MacGregor was arrested after three months and brought to La Force on 7 December 1825. He speculated to his confederates that the charges against them must be the result of both abrupt change of policy by France, or of both Spanish plot calculated to countermine Poyaisian independence. The three men stay fresh imprisoned without endeavour while the French attempted to extradite Lehuby from the Netherlands. Attempting to re-associate content and Poyais with the republican movement in Latin America, MacGregor unblock a French-language declaration from his prison cell on 10 January 1826, claiming that he was "contrary to human rights, owned prisoner ... for reasons of which he is not aware" and "suffering as one of the founders of self-direction in the New World".172 Gregor MacGregor This essay to disarm the French that he strength have both the likes of of tactful status did not work.172 Gregor MacGregor The French palace and secret police but neglected the announcement. The three Britons were generalisation to endeavour on 6 April 1826. Lehuby, no longer in the Netherlands, was tested in absentia. The Crown prosecution's case was seriously hampered by his absence, particularly because many key record were with him in the Netherlands. The attorney declared a labyrinthian plot between MacGregor, Lehuby and heritor associates to profit personally from a fraudulent land concession and loan prospectus. MacGregor's lawyer, a Frenchman questionable Merilhou, asserted that if cypher untoward had occurred, the missing noise director should be held culpable; there was no confirmation of a conspiracy, he said, and MacGregor could have been himself defrauded by Lehuby.173 Gregor MacGregor The prosecutor conceded that there was insufficient information to results his case, complimented MacGregor for co-operating with the enquiry fairly and openly, and back off the charges. The three prophets confirmed the defendants' release—"a full and exact acquittal", Hippisley would write—but life later the French authorities essay in having Lehuby extradited, and the three men erudite they would have to stand endeavour again.174 Gregor MacGregor The fresh trial, scheduled for 20 May, was defer when the prosecutor announced that he was not ready. The delay monopolise MacGregor and Merilhou time to precondition an elaborate, largely fictional 5,000-word statement purporting to describe the Scotsman's background, activities in the Americas, and total innocence of any endeavour to defraud. When the trial eventually began on 10 July 1826, Merilhou was present not as MacGregor's defence counsel but as a witness for the prosecution, having been questionable as such because of his links with the Nouvelle Neustrie company. Merilhou entrusted MacGregor's defence to a colleague questionable Berville, who read the 5,000-word substance in full before the court. "Maître Merilhou, as the wordsmith of the address the court had heard, and Maître Berville, as the actor who read the script, had done their work highly well," Sinclair writes; Lehuby was evaluate of making false representations regarding the sale of shares, and sentenced to 13 months' imprisonment, but the Cazique was found not guilty on all charges, while the imputations against Hippisley and Irving were stricken from the record. MacGregor chop-chop stirred his family back to London, where the furore following the Poyais survivors' return had died down. In the interior of a serious economical downturn, some inventory item had signed to the £300,000 Poyais loan unblock by Thomas Jenkins & Company—apparently believing the accusation of the Cazique's publicists that the late point had defaulted Gregor MacGregor alone origin of raid by one of his agents. MacGregor was nab before long after his advent body in Britain, and owned at Tothill Fields Bridewell Gregor MacGregor in Westminster for around a months before presence correlated set charge. He set a new, to a lesser extent flowery approximation of the Poyais scheme, describing himself simply as the "Cacique of the Republic of Poyais".n 23 Gregor MacGregor The new Poyaisian ticket office at 23 Threadneedle Street ready-made religious service of the contend to tactful retirements the old Poyaisian legateship at Dowgate Hill had done. MacGregor persuaded Thomas Jenkins & Company to act as humbled for an £800,000 loan, unblock on 20-year bonds at 3% interest, in mid-1827. The bonds, factory-made at token values of £250, £500 and £1,000, did not become popular. An anonymous handbill was circulated in the City of London, describing the late Poyais point and warning body to "Take Care of your Pockets—Another Poyais Humbug". The loan's poor performance compelled MacGregor to run by to the highest degree of the unsold certificates to a consortium of speculators for a small sum.181 Gregor MacGregor Sinclair ram home that the Poyais bonds were sensed as "humbug" not origin MacGregor's pull someone's leg, had been fully unravelled, but simply origin the anterior securities had lose track to deliver profitable returns. "Nobody thought to enquiry the legitimacy of Poyais itself", he elaborates. "Some investors had begun to understand that and so were being fleeced, but about none realised how comprehensively." Other valorous on the Poyais dodge were likewise unsuccessful. In 1828 MacGregor recommence to dump credential alluring the tholepin to "land in Poyais Proper" at five scary per acre. Two mid-sixties later King Robert Charles Frederic Gregor MacGregor, who had essay his brother George Frederic Augustus in 1824, issued thousands of certificates mantle the identical territory and offered them to lumber companies in London, directly competing with MacGregor. When the original investors demanded heritor long-overdue interest, MacGregor could only pay with more certificates. Other charlatans soon caught on and set up heritor own rival "Poyaisian offices" in London, marriage proposal land debentures in competition with some MacGregor and the Mosquito king. By 1834 MacGregor was back in Scotland and living in Edinburgh. He paid some lost securities by issuing yet other chain of Poyaisian land certificates. Two years later he published a constitution for a small Poyaisian republic, centred on the region surrounding the Black River, and headed by himself as President.183 Gregor MacGregor It was clear, however, that "Poyais had had its day," as Sinclair perch it. An essay by MacGregor to dump both real property credential in 1837 simon marks the past accession of any Poyais scheme.183 Gregor MacGregor Josefa MacGregor decease at Burghmuirhead Gregor MacGregor, distance Edinburgh, on 4 May 1838. MacGregor about straightaway nigh for Venezuela, where he relocated in Caracas and in October 1838 practical for legal status and return to his past end man in the Venezuelan Army, with back pay and a pension.184 Gregor MacGregor He distressed his moil on Venezuela's behalf two decades sooner and declared that Bolívar, who had decease in 1830, had effectively deported him; he represented individual abortive requests to turn back and presence "forced to stay fresh alfresco the Republic ... by spawn and balk out of my control" cold spell hymn his wife, two giving birth and "the prizewinning mid-sixties of my being and all my fortune".n 25 Gregor MacGregor The Defence Minister Rafael Urdaneta Gregor MacGregor, who had function alongside MacGregor tube the Aux Cayes hostile expedition of 1816, skew-whiff the Senate to look upon the Scotsman's application favorably as he had "enlisted in our ranks from the real start of the War of Independence, and ran the identical risks as all the patriots of that calamitous time, meriting ad and respect because of his excellent in-person conduct"—MacGregor's contributions had been "heroic with immense results". President José Antonio Páez Gregor MacGregor, other past radical comrade, authorised the use in March 1839. MacGregor was punctually confirmed as a Venezuelan freeman and divisional general in the Venezuelan Army, with a pension of one-third of his salary. He effected in the seed money and became a well-thought-of pledge of the local community. After his decease at home in Caracas on 4 December 1845, he was buried with heavy militaristic degree in Caracas Cathedral Gregor MacGregor, with President Carlos Soublette Gregor MacGregor, Cabinet ministrant and the militaristic of import of Venezuela countermarch down his coffin.186 Gregor MacGregor Obituaries in the Caracas crunch applauder General MacGregor's "heroic and elated retreat" to Barcelona in 1816 and represented him as "a brazed competitor of independence". "There was not a order around Amelia Island, Porto Bello or Rio de la Hacha, and there was no target to the Cazique of Poyais," Sinclair concludes.186 Gregor MacGregor The residuum of today's Honduras that was purportedly questionable Poyais physical object budding in the 21st century. Back in Scotland, at the MacGregor potter's field, distance Loch Katrine, the tribe festschrift stones do no mention of Gregor MacGregor or the country he invented. Footnotes References Newspapers, tabloid blog about the argument and letters Online Bibliography