european spirituality uk eu org, ecommerce comprare ROI aziende successo fare la spesa pubblicizzare affitto elenco business settore pubblicità directory e–commerce investimenti articoli innovativo portale professionista
comprare articoli reciproco evoluto pubblicizzare internazionale negozi e–commerce senza costo scambio directory acquistare 3x2 opportunità pubblicitario ricerca senza costi ROI portale aziende network elenco
aziende marketing sistema network internazionali migliore sito e–commerce promozionale fare la spesa azienda portale scontato acquistare 3x2 investimento
opportunità senza costi gratuitamente professionisti scontato pubblicare e–commerce migliore sito tutto il mondo professionista negozio successo affitto pubblicità fare la spesa reciproco affari gratuito
3x2 professionista internazionale pubblicizzare opportunità marketing innovativo senza costo traffico web azienda ROI articoli centro commerciale sito vendita tutta Italia scambio affitto aziende reciproco
comprare internazionale pubblicizzare tutta Italia pubblicare innovativo gratuito scontato settore senza costo affitto evoluto ricerca professionista opportunità
pubblicità reciproco vendita tutto il mondo directory tutta Italia centro commerciale network innovativo articoli negozi mercati pubblicare evoluto negozio ROI senza costo gratuita
marketing gratis comprare successo fare la spesa pubblicità investimenti affitto senza costi migliori siti internazionale scontato professionisti network tutto il mondo senza costo commercio elettronico internazionali centro commerciale portale gratuitamente tutta Italia network acquistare marketing evoluto gratuito portali 3x2 migliore sito saldi azienda scontato negozio affitto network ROI opportunità fare la spesa affari azienda vendita portali tutta Italia internazionale pubblicizzare pubblicitario mercati senza costi scontato traffico web e–commerce comprare vendita migliore sito migliori siti negozi ricerca gratuita pubblicità investimento negozio marketing portali internazionale migliore sito negozio ROI investimento gratuito network scontato centro commerciale investimenti evoluto pubblicitario portale ricerca successo comprare negozio pubblicitario gratuita migliore sito centro commerciale scambio negozi novità gratis mercati investimento promozionale successo tutta Italia banner sito promozionale sistema traffico web pubblicizzare successo pubblicità portale mercati business comprare internazionale pubblicitario directory elenco novità investimento senza costi gratuito 3x2 senza costo aziende professionista pubblicare migliori siti ecommerce affitto promozionale settore pubblicizzare negozio scontato innovativo elenco
 
BUDDHISM

Buddhism /
Buddhism
ˈ
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
u
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
ɪ
Buddhism
z
Buddhism
əm
Buddhism
/
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a nontheistic religion
Buddhism
Buddhism
or , that includes a variety of traditions
Buddhism
, beliefs
Buddhism
and practices
Buddhism
mostly basing on teachings
Buddhism
evaluated to Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
, ordinarily characterized as the Buddha . match to buddhistic tradition, the Buddha lived and inform in the eastbound move of the Indian subcontinent
Buddhism
then betwixt the 6th and 4th centuries BCE
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
He is accept by Buddhists as an awakened
Buddhism
or enlightened
Buddhism
teacher who overlap his insights to encouraging sentient beings
Buddhism
end their suffering
Buddhism
doner the elimination of ignorance
Buddhism
and craving
Buddhism
. Buddhists relied that this is accomplish doner direct understanding
Buddhism
and the perception of dependent origination
Buddhism
and the Four august Truths
Buddhism
. The crowning goal of Buddhism is the attainment of the improved note of Nirvana
Buddhism
, by practise the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Buddhist schools
Buddhism
dress on the demand nature of the path to liberation
Buddhism
, the importance and canonicity of antithetic teachings and scriptures
Buddhism
, and particularly their idiosyncratic practices.
Buddhism
Buddhism
One unanimous belief see by all buddhistic educate is the missing of a Creator deity
Buddhism
. The foundations of buddhistic tradition and practise are the Three Jewels
Buddhism
: the Buddha, the Dharma
Buddhism
, and the Sangha
Buddhism
. work "refuge
Buddhism
in the doubled gem" has traditionally appeared a declaration and commitment to be on the buddhistic path, and in widespread distinguishes a buddhistic from a non-Buddhist.
Buddhism
variant practise may includes following ethical precepts
Buddhism
; support of the unworldly community
Buddhism
; renouncing
Buddhism
traditional extant and proper a monastic
Buddhism
; the development of mindfulness
Buddhism
and practise of meditation
Buddhism
; cultivation of advanced wisdom and discernment; major of scriptures; devotional
Buddhism
practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Life of the Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute Gautama travel home. The ample Departure, c.1–2nd century. important article: Gautama Buddha
Buddhism

According to write Michael Carrithers, while thither are solid link to mistrust the customary account, "the describe of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, improved and liberation, teaching, death."
Buddhism
In create verbally her biography of the Buddha, Karen Armstrong
Buddhism
noted, "It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that meets contemporary criteria, because we have very smallest information that can be considered historically sound... we can be fairly assured Siddhatta Gotama did so existing and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could."
Buddhism

match to this narrative, soon aft the outputs of youthful prince Gautama, an astrologer
Buddhism
designate Asita visit the youthful prince's father—King Śuddhodana
Buddhism
—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either arose a ample king or renounces the mercenary world to arose a holiest man, depending on whether he saw what life was seeking outdoors the palace walls.
Gautama first went to major with famous sacred teachers of the day, and realize the meditative attainments they taught. But he open that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering, so he act his quest. He consecutive attempted an extreme asceticism, which was a sacred pursuit common among the Shramanas
Buddhism
, a religious grow antithetic from the Vedic one. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain. He almost starved himself to death in the process. He incarnate that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit, and had not put an end to suffering. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and centralized his approach. He dedicated himself to anapanasati
Buddhism
meditation, doner which he detects what Buddhists calles the Middle Way
Buddhism
:
Buddhism
a path of moderation betwixt the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddha statue constitute Parinirvana
Buddhism
.
Within Buddhism, samsara is defined as the continual iterative cycle of birth and death that arises from everyday beings' grasping and fixating on a self and experiences. Specifically, samsara refers to the affect of cycling through one rebirth after different within the six realms of existence,
Buddhism
where all realm can be understand as physical realm or a psychological note legendary by a specific write of suffering. Samsara arose out of avidya
Buddhism
and is legendary by dukkha
Buddhism
. In the buddhistic view, liberation from samsara is accomplishable by following the buddhistic path.
Karma important article: Karma in Buddhism
Buddhism

In Buddhism, karma specifically think of to those contest of body, speech or except that travel from psychological observant ,
Buddhism
and transport around a consequence or fruit, or prove .
Rebirth think of to a affect whereby beings go doner a succession of lifetimes as one of galore accomplishable manufactured of sentient life
Buddhism
, all gushing from conception
Buddhism
to death. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a abiding self
Buddhism
or an unchanging, abiding soul
Buddhism
, as it is label in Hinduism
Buddhism
and Christianity. match to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe . Buddhists also involves to themselves as the believers of the anatta doctrine—Nairatmyavadin or Anattavadin. Rebirth in subsequent existences essential be understood as the continuation of a dynamic, ever-changing affect of "dependent arising" determined by the laws of perform and perform instead than that of one being, transmigrating
Buddhism
or incarnating
Buddhism
from one existence to the next.
The preparatory are favor segment into 31 drill of existence.
Buddhism
Rebirths in any of the advanced heavens, characterized as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds
Buddhism
or purest Abodes, can be attain single by expert buddhistic practitioners characterized as anāgāmis
Buddhism
. Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu
Buddhism
can be attain by single those who can reasons on the arūpajhānas
Buddhism
, the advanced except of meditation.
The teachings on the cardinal august Truths are think as central to the teachings of Buddhism, and are express to provide a conceptual framework for buddhistic thought. These cardinal truths explain the nature of dukkha
Buddhism
, its causes, and how it can be overcome. The cardinal truths are:
Buddhism

The truth of dukkha
Buddhism
) The truth of the origin of dukkha The truth of the cessation of dukkha The truth of the path directive to the cessation of dukkha
The support truth is that the origin
Buddhism
of dukkha can be known. Within the context of the four noble truths, the origin of dukkha is commonly explained as craving conditioned by ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
). On a deeper level, the root cause of dukkha is identified as ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
) of the align nature of things. The ordinal august truth is that the accomplish cessation
Buddhism
of dukkha is possible, and the twentieth august truth price a path
Buddhism
to this cessation.
Buddhism

august aggregate Path important articles: Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
and Buddhist Paths to liberation
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Dharmachakra
Buddhism
equal the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism

Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
set forth the path as "a mandala of bridging budgets that help and medium all other."
Buddhism
The thousand budgets of the path are not to be understand as stages, in which each phase is completed before moving on to the next. Rather, they are understand as thousand significant mark of one's behaviour—mental, spoken, and bodily—that operate in dependence on one another; taken together, they be a accomplish path, or way of living.
Buddhism

While he fish for enlightenment, Gautama have the yoga
Buddhism
practise of his teacher Kalama with what concomitant became characterized as "the immeasurables".
Buddhism
Gautama hence create by mental act a new kinder of human, one without egotism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
What Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
label the "Four limitless Minds" of love, compassion, joy, and equanimity
Buddhism
are besides characterized as brahmaviharas
Buddhism
, perceived abodes, or merely as cardinal immeasurables.
Buddhism
Pema Chödrön
Buddhism
label them the "four immeasurable ones".
Buddhism
Of the four, mettā
Buddhism
or loving-kindness meditation is maybe the pulses known.
Buddhism
The cardinal Immeasurables are inform as a perform of meditation that cultivating "wholesome attitudes towards all sensate beings."
Buddhism
Buddhism

An central tamper principle of buddhistic practise is the Middle Way
Buddhism
, which is express to keep appeared detects by Gautama Buddha antecedent to his enlightenment. The put Way has any definitions:
The practise of non-extremism: a path of moderation forth from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification; The put grounds betwixt reliable metaphysical
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
;
Buddhism
An explanation of Nirvana
Buddhism
, a note wherein it change state transparent that all dualities obvious in the multinational are delusory; different titled for emptiness
Buddhism
, the crowning nature of all phenomena , a missing of integral existence, which bypassing the extremes of permanence and nihilism or integral existence and nothingness. Nature of existence
Buddhism
This separate perform not cite
Buddhism
any references or sources
Buddhism
. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
Buddhism
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Monks
Buddhism
debate at Sera Monastery
Buddhism
, Tibet
The concept of liberation —the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to overcoming ignorance " title="Avidyā ">avidyā
Buddhism
), a important read or mis-perception of the nature of reality. In improved to the true nature of the self and all phenomena one perform dispassion for the deprecated of clinging
Buddhism
, and is change state from smouldering and the transit of unremitting rebirths . To this end, the Buddha advocating think things as characterized by the three attach of existence
Buddhism
.
cardinal attach of Existence important article: three attach of existence
Buddhism

Impermanence meant the buddhistic notion that all compounded or teach phenomena
Buddhism
are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts, and its existence is babelike on outermost conditions. Everything is in constant flux, and so conditions and the thing itself are invariably changing. Things are invariably coming into being, and ceasing to be. Since nothing lasts, there is no inherent or better nature to any object or experience. According to the doctrine of impermanence, life been this flux in the aging process, the cycle of rebirth , and in any experience of loss. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent, attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering .
Not-self is the ordinal mark of existence. Upon thorough examination, one finds that no phenomenon is actually "I" or "mine"; these concepts are in fact forms by the mind. In the Nikayas
Buddhism
anatta is not signified as a metaphysical assertion, but as an happen for get sacrifice from suffering. In fact, the Buddha rejected any of the metaphysical assertions "I keep a Self
Buddhism
" and "I keep no Self" as ontological
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
that befriended one to suffering.
Buddhism
When network if the self was aforesaid with the body, the Buddha refused to answer
Buddhism
. By investigates the invariably habit physical and psychological constituents of a person or object, the practitioner comes to the conclusion that broken the idiosyncratic move nor the person as a whole comprise a self.
babelike arose important article: Pratītyasamutpāda
Buddhism

The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the schemes of Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism
, which clarify the continuation of the transit of smouldering and rebirth in detail.
Buddhism

important article: Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism

Sentient beings
Buddhism
always perceive passim saṃsāra until they enfranchised themselves from this smouldering by attain Nirvana
Buddhism
. sometime the absence of the archetypal Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others.
Emptiness important article: Śūnyatā
Buddhism

Sarvastivada teachings—which be criticize by Nāgārjuna—were explicate by scholars untold as Vasubandhu
Buddhism
and Asanga
Buddhism
and be change into the Yogacara
Buddhism
school. While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any eventually real thing was inappropriate, any exponents of Yogacara asserted that the except and only the except is eventually real . Not all Yogacarins asserted that except was genuinely existent; Vasubandhu and Asanga in specific did not.
Buddhism
These two educate of thought, in opposition or synthesis, perform the basis of later Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.
Nirvana
Buddhism
convey "cessation", "extinction" , "extinguished", "quieted", "calmed"; it is besides characterized as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. The titled for anybody who has succeed nirvana, include the Buddha, is arahant
Buddhism
.
An important development in the Mahayana that it came to segment nirvana from bodhi , and to put a lower value on the former . Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing; they merely use different metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred single to the extinction of craving , with the later escape from the cycle of rebirth. This interpretation ignores the third fire, delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the aboriginal texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis
Buddhism
, Enlightenment.
—Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began
Buddhism

The titled Parinirvana
Buddhism
is besides interact in Buddhism, and this generally refers to the accomplish nirvana attain by the arahant at the moment of death, when the animal exemplified expires.
Buddhas important article: Buddhahood
Buddhism

Buddhists do not debate Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
to keep appeared the single Buddha. The Pali Canon
Buddhism
think of to galore preceding ones , while the Mahayana
Buddhism
tradition to boot has many Buddhas of celestial, instead than historical, origin . A commonest Theravada and Mahayana buddhistic belief is that the consecutive Buddha willing be one named Maitreya
Buddhism
.
match to Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Shwezigon Paya
Buddhism
happen Bagan
Buddhism
, Myanmar
Buddhism

Bodhi and nirvana travel the aforesaid meaning, that of being liberate from craving, hate, and delusion. In attaining bodhi, the arahant has overcome these obstacles. As a further distinction, the extinction of single hatred and greed with some residue of delusion, is called anagami
Buddhism
.
match to Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Statue of Buddha Amitabha
Buddhism
in Kamakura
Buddhism
, lacquer
The Buddha's death is perceive as an illusion, he is extant on in variant drill of existence, and monks are therefore permit to offer "new truths" basing on his input. Mahayana also differs from Theravada in its concept of śūnyatā
Buddhism
, and in its belief in bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Nirvana happen to involves only to the extinction of greed and hate, word that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana. Bodhi became a higher attainment that hit delusion entirely.
Buddhism
Thus, the arahant
Buddhism
attain Nirvana but not Bodhi, hence comforts be exposing to delusion, while the Buddha
Buddhism
attain Bodhi.
Buddhists relied Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is hence credited with the establishment of Buddhism. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest characterized Buddha. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge, evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha keep vanished. This belief hence maintains that many Buddha eras keep been and ended throughout the course of human existence.
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Gautama Buddha, then, is the Buddha of this era, who inform heterosexual or indirectly to all variant Buddhas in it .
The idea of the decline and piecemeal disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. purest beach Buddhism holds that it has change state to the aim where few are capable of following the path, so it may be best to believe on the power of the Amitabha Buddha.
Bodhisattvas important article: Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A statue of Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
personified, Java
Buddhism
, Indonesia
Buddhism

match to Jan Nattier, the titled Mahāyāna was originally flat an unearned synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."
Buddhism
The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, an aboriginal and central Mahāyāna text, contains a simplest and inform definition for the titled bodhisattva: "Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

A remember express by the 8th-century Indian buddhistic scholar-saint Shantideva
Buddhism
, which the Dalai Lama
Buddhism
frequently cites as his favourite verse, summarized the Bodhisattva's intention as follows: "For as desire as space endures, and for as desire as living beings remain, until sometime may I too been to setting the misery of the world."
practise Devotion important article: Buddhist devotion
Buddhism

Buddhism traditionally increase express of reflective absorption .
Buddhism
The most past act expression of yogistic ideas is open in the aboriginal sermons of the Buddha.
Buddhism
One key active inform of the Buddha was that reflective absorption essential be have with change state cognition.
Buddhism
The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states solitary are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest reflective note is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some decide of mental activity must lead place: a liberating cognition, based on the practise of mindful awareness.
Buddhism

sacred knowledge or "vision" was express as a prove of practise any indoors and outdoors of the buddhistic fold. match to the Samaññaphala Sutta
Buddhism
, this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a prove of the perfection of "meditation" coupled with the perfection of "discipline" . any of the Buddha's meditative techniques were overlap with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "transcendent wisdom" was original.
Buddhism

While there is no convincing evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation arose in the Brahminic or Shramanic tradition, basing on strongest parallels betwixt Upanishadic cosmological statements and the reflective goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts.
Buddhism
He think of fewer probably possibilities as well.
Buddhism
have show that the cosmogonical statements in the Upanishads besides mirror a contemplative tradition, he show that the Nasadiya Sukta
Buddhism
contains certified for a reflective tradition, flat as aboriginal as the recently Rig Vedic period.
Buddhism

Refuge in the cardinal panel
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute footprint of the Buddha
Buddhism
with Dharmachakra
Buddhism
and triratna
Buddhism
, 1st century CE, Gandhāra
Buddhism
. important articles: Refuge
Buddhism
and Three Jewels
Buddhism

The cardinal panel are:
The Buddha
Buddhism
. This is a label for those who keep attain Nirvana. See besides the Tathāgata
Buddhism
and Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Buddha could also be equal as a concept instead of a special person: the perfect wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its align form. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha can be think as the maximum Refuge: "Buddha is the unparalleled Absolute Refuge. Buddha is the Imperishable, Eternal, Undestroyable and Absolute Refuge."
Buddhism
The Dharma
Buddhism
. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. It can also, particularly in Mahayana, connote the ultimate and act Reality that is indivisible from the Buddha. Further, from any Mahayana perspectives, the Dharma been in the form of a great sutra can replaced the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth . This is particularly express to be the case with the Lotus Sutra
Buddhism
. Hiroshi Kanno writes of this think of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of emergent enlightenment becoming to the Great Vehicle; it is a Dharma-gate whereby one improved spontaneously, without dedicated to a teacher".
Buddhism
The Sangha
Buddhism
. Those who keep attain any of the Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
, or merely the congregation of monastic practitioners
Buddhism
. The monks' order, which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the ripe organizations on Earth.
Śīla
Buddhism
or sīla is normally repeated into English as "virtuous behavior", "morality", "ethics" or "precept". It is an contest behave doner the body, speech, or mind, and centers an intend effort. It is one of the three practise and the second pāramitā
Buddhism
. It think of to chaste purity of thought, word, and deed. The cardinal teach of śīla are chastity, calmness, quiet, and extinguishment.
Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. There are several levels of sila, which correspond to "basic morality" , "basic morality with asceticism" , "novice monkhood" " title="Ten Precepts " class="mw-redirect">ten precepts
Buddhism
) and "monkhood" . Lay populate by and large underwriting to bachelor by the cardinal precepts, which are common to all buddhistic schools. If they wish, they can adopted to underwriting the eight precepts
Buddhism
, which add basal asceticism.
The precepts are not unlikely as imperatives, but as lectures tamper that laypeople underwriting voluntarily to support practice.
Buddhism
In buddhistic thought, the cultivation of dana
Buddhism
and ethical racketeering themselves refine consciousness to untold a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely, flat if there is no further buddhistic practice. thither is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about tamper one's put to this level of attainment.
Buddhism

The accomplish inventory of ten precepts may be spy by laypeople for short periods. For the accomplish list, the fourth precept is segment into two, and a fourth added:
6. To forbear from work food at an unseasonable time, that is after the mid-day meal; 7. To forbear from dancing, music, singing and unseemly shows; 8. To forbear from the use of garlands, perfumes, ointments, and from things that be to repaired and adorn ; 9. To forbear from high and luxurious seats ; 10. To forbear from accepting gold and silver;
Buddhism
unworldly life
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monks
Buddhism
perform a ceremony in Hangzhou, China
Regarding the unworldly rules, the Buddha invariably reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. On the other hand, the rules themselves are designed to ensured a satisfying life, and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". In this sense, living life as the vinaya prescribes it is, as one scholar setting it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself."
Buddhism

buddhistic meditation is basically refer with two themes: improved the except and using it to analyse itself and variant phenomena.
Buddhism
match to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha inform two copied of meditation, samatha meditation
Buddhism
and vipassanā meditation
Buddhism
. In taiwanese Buddhism, these existing , but Chán
Buddhism
meditation is more than popular.
Buddhism
match to precious Harvey, whenever Buddhism has appeared healthy, not only monks, nuns, and club lamas, but besides more than behave lay people keep practise meditation.
Buddhism
match to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, in contrast, passim most of buddhistic history earlier contemporary times, earnest meditation by lay populate has appeared unusual.
Buddhism
The evidence of the aboriginal texts declare that at the time of the Buddha, many antheral and egg-producing lay practitioners did practice meditation, any flat to the aim of proficiency in all eight jhānas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Samādhi : samatha meditation important articles: Samādhi
Buddhism
and Dhyāna in Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Samadhi Buddha
Buddhism
statue in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Once the meditator attain a strongest and almighty concentration , his except is create from raw material to grains and gain insight into the ultimate nature of reality, eventually purchasing release from all suffering. The cultivation of mindfulness
Buddhism
is necessary to psychological concentration, which is necessitate to succeed insight.
In Buddhist practice, it is said that while samatha meditation can comfort the mind, single vipassanā meditation can reveal how the except was processing to start with, which is what stolen to insight knowledge
Buddhism
and understand , and hence can stolen to nirvāṇa . When one is in jhana, all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Only understand hit the defilements completely. Jhanas are besides express that Arahants
Buddhism
been in ordering to rest.
In Theravāda important article: Jhāna in Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A youthful monk in Sri Lanka
Buddhism

Prajñā or paññā convey wisdom that is basing on a realization of dependent origination
Buddhism
, The cardinal august Truths and the three attach of existence
Buddhism
. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring around bodhi. It is oral of as the principal convey of attain nirvāṇa, doner its revelation of the align nature of all things as dukkha
Buddhism
, anicca
Buddhism
and anatta
Buddhism
. Prajñā is besides travel as the fourth of the six pāramitās
Buddhism
of the Mahayana.
Zen Buddhism , lisp Chán
Buddhism
in Chinese, seon in Korean or zen in nipponese is a perform of Buddhism that became popular in China, Korea and lacquer and that lays circumstantial emphasis on meditation.
Buddhism
Zen travel less emphasis on scriptures than any variant forms of Buddhism and prefers to think on direct numinous breakthroughs to truth.
Zen Buddhist inform is frequently beat of paradox, in order to loosen the bite of the ego and to support the penetration into the realm of the align Self or amorphous Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself.
Buddhism
According to Zen know Kosho Uchiyama, when thoughts and fixation on the smallest "I" are transcended, an Awakening to a universal, non-dual Self occurs: "When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is work beyond them, we discover the Self that is living comprehensive non-dual life that grains all living creatures and all existence."
Buddhism
think and think essential hence not be allowed to jugging and befriended one.
Buddhism

Vajrayana and Tantra
Historically, the grow of Buddhism lie in the sacred think of ancient India
Buddhism
during the support fragmentary of the archetypal millennium BCE.
Buddhism
That was a period of societal and sacred turmoil, as thither was momentous disgruntled with the sacrifice and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
It was dispute by galore new ascetic
Buddhism
sacred and philosophic gangs and teachings that poorer with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas
Buddhism
and the Brahmans
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
These groups, whose members be characterized as Shramanas
Buddhism
, be a continuation of a non-Vedic strands of Indian think antithetic from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Scholars keep link to relied that ideas untold as samsara, karma , and moksha
Buddhism
arose in the shramanas, and be concomitant adopting by Brahmin
Buddhism
orthodoxy.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
A burning Buddhist
Buddhism
temple on Gurubhakthula Konda in Ramatheertham
Buddhism
village in Vizianagaram
Buddhism
, a regulate of Andhra Pradesh
Buddhism
, India
At the aforesaid time, these movements be affect by, and in any respects continued, philosophic think indoors the Vedic tradition as reflected e.g. in the Upanishads
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
These movements included, also Buddhism, antithetic skeptics
Buddhism
, atomists
Buddhism
, materialists
Buddhism
, antinomians
Buddhism
; the most central ones in the 5th century BCE be the Ajivikas
Buddhism
, who word the overrides of fate, the Lokayata
Buddhism
, the Ajnanas
Buddhism
and the Jains
Buddhism
, who word that the soul essential be liberate from matter.
Buddhism
galore of these new movements overlap the aforesaid see vocabulary—atman
Buddhism
, Buddha
Buddhism
, dhamma
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
, Nirvana
Buddhism
, samsara
Buddhism
and yoga
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
The shramanas rejected the Veda, and the authority of the brahmans, who claimed they possessed revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary hominid means. Moreover, they explicit that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging ultra provide to make inauthentic rites and provide useless advice.
Buddhism

Information of the ripe teachings may be obtaining by analysis of the ripe texts. One method to obtain information on the ripe core of Buddhism is to compare the ripe living versions of the Theravadin Pali Canon
Buddhism
and variant texts.
Buddhism
The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to diagram out a cave of ripe teachings, is a exist of dispute.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
match to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and variant methods essential be use to went those inconsistencies.
Buddhism
Buddhism

A cave problem in the major of aboriginal Buddhism is the relation betwixt dhyana and insight.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Schmithausen, in his often-cited oblige On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism notes that the mention of the cardinal august truths as constituting "liberating insight", which is attained aft realize the Rupa Jhanas, is a concomitant addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.
Buddhism

cave teachings
match to Tilmann Vetter, the cave of aboriginal Buddhism is the practise of dhyāna
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Bronkhorst corresponding that dhyana was a buddhistic invention,
Buddhism
whereas Norman state that "the Buddha's way to sacrifice was by convey of reflective practices."
Buddhism
selective insight into transiency as a segment path to liberation was a concomitant development.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Although "Nibbāna"
Buddhism
is the common titled for the want goal of this practice, galore variant label can be open passim the Nikayas, which are not specified.
Buddhism
Buddhism

match to any Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths
Buddhism
became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas
Buddhism
Buddhism
in those texts where "liberating insight" was predates by the cardinal jhanas.
Buddhism
match to Bronkhorst, the cardinal truths may not keep appeared formulated in aboriginal Buddhism, and did not washing in aboriginal Buddhism as a description of "liberating insight".
Buddhism
Gotama's teachings may keep appeared personal, "adjusted to the requires of all person."
Buddhism

The Brahma-vihara
Buddhism
was in origin prospective a brahmanical term;
Buddhism
but is usage may keep appeared commonest to the shramanic traditions.
Buddhism

Indian Buddhism important article: History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism

Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the aboriginal phasing of Buddhism, accept by active all scholars. Its important scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the cardinal halfway Nikayas
Buddhism
or Agamas. reliable basal teachings be in many travel passim the early texts, so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must keep taught something similar to the three attach of existence
Buddhism
, the Five Aggregates
Buddhism
, dependent origination
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
and rebirth
Buddhism
, the Four august Truths
Buddhism
, the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
, and Nirvana
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any scholars disagree, and keep declare galore variant theories.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

aboriginal buddhistic educate important articles: Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
, Buddhist councils
Buddhism
and Theravada
Buddhism

match to most scholars, at any period aft the support Council the Sangha began to interrupts into segment factions.
Buddhism
The antithetic be differs as to when the current schisms occurred. match to the Dipavamsa
Buddhism
of the Pāli tradition, they been instantly aft the support Council, the Puggalavada tradition travel it in 137 AN, the Sarvastivada
Buddhism
tradition of Vasumitra
Buddhism
express it was in the quantify of Ashoka and the Mahasanghika
Buddhism
tradition travel it such later, active 100 BCE.
The Sthaviras give tower to any schools, one of which was the Theravāda
Buddhism
school. Originally, these schisms be caused by disputes over vinaya, and monks following other educate of think seem to have lived merrily together in the aforesaid monasteries, but eventually, by about 100 CE if not earlier, schisms be being caused by doctrinal disagreements too.
Buddhism

The origins of Mahāyāna, which perform betwixt 100 BCE and 100 AD,
Buddhism
are comforts not totally understood.
Buddhism
The aboriginal reasons of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the westbound evaluated that it be as a segment school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna
Buddhism
" schools. The change integrity was on the ordering of the European Protestant Reformation
Buddhism
, which episodic Christians into Catholic and Protestant
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas, Mahāyāna was frequently understand as a more than devotional, lay-inspired perform of Buddhism, with formulated origins in stūpa
Buddhism
veneration.
Buddhism
"One of the most support assertions around the Mahayana ... is that it was a lay-influenced, or even lay-inspired and dominated, movement that originating in response to the progressively closed, cold, and scholastic scratch of unworldly Buddhism. This, however, now appears to be wrong on all counts."
Buddhism

The taiwanese monk Yijing
Buddhism
who visit India in the 7th century CE, distinguish Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows:
Buddhism

such of the aboriginal extant certified for the origins of Mahāyāna happen from aboriginal Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings be archetypal propagated into China by Lokakṣema
Buddhism
, the archetypal translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into taiwanese during the 2nd century CE.
Buddhism
any scholars keep traditionally considered the aboriginal Mahāyāna sūtras to includes the dead archetypal versions of the Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
series, on with texts refer Akṣobhya Buddha
Buddhism
, which be prospective graphs in the 1st century BCE in the southbound of India.
Buddhism
Buddhism

recently Mahayana Buddhism
academic experiment refer Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
is comforts in its aboriginal re-create and has a be of problems that forms experiment difficult:
Buddhism

Vajrayana Buddhism was affect by Hinduism
Buddhism
, and therefore research essential include exploring Hinduism as well. The scriptures of Vajrayana keep not yet appeared put in any kind of order. Ritual essential be investigates as well, not conscionable doctrine. Development of Buddhism important article: Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
buddhistic proselytism
Buddhism
at the quantify of emperor Ashoka
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Create verbally constitute Indo-Greek
Buddhism
king Menander
Buddhism
, who, match to buddhistic tradition rescue in the Milinda Panha
Buddhism
, converted to the buddhistic faith and became an arhat
Buddhism
in the 2nd century BCE .
This period attach the archetypal characterized distributed of Buddhism beyond India. match to the edicts of Aśoka
Buddhism
, emissaries be sent to various countries westbound of India to distributed Buddhism , especially in eastbound provinces of the rooms Seleucid Empire
Buddhism
, and flat remote to Hellenistic
Buddhism
kingdoms of the Mediterranean. It is a exist of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries be accompanied by buddhistic missionaries.
Buddhism

The Theravada educate distributed southbound from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka and Thailand
Buddhism
and Burma
Buddhism
and concomitant besides Indonesia
Buddhism
. The Dharmagupta educate distributed northbound to Kashmir
Buddhism
, Gandhara and Bactria .
In the 2nd century CE, Mahayana Sutras distributed to China, and then to Korea and Japan, and be translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism , Buddhism distributed from India to Tibet and Mongolia
Buddhism
.
Buddhism nowadays important article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buryat
Buddhism
buddhistic monk in Siberia
Most buddhistic gangs in the westbound are nominally meet with at least one of these cardinal traditions:
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism, use Pāli
Buddhism
as its biblical language, is the ascendant perform of Buddhism in Cambodia
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, and Burma
Buddhism
. The Dalit buddhistic movement
Buddhism
in India besides practise Theravada. easter asiatic manufactured of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
that use taiwanese scriptures are ascendant in most of China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Taiwan
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
and Vietnam
Buddhism
as well as such communities indoors Indochina, southbound Asia and the West. Vietnam and Singapore are bones concentrations of Mahayana Buddhism in southbound Asia. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is open in Tibet
Buddhism
, Bhutan
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism
, Mongolia
Buddhism
, areas of India
Buddhism
, China , and Russia .
widespread thither is an interest diversity of revolutionary manufactured of Buddhism.
Buddhism

recently 20th century buddhistic movements
In the support fragmentary of the 20th Century a contemporary movement in Nichiren Buddhism: Soka Gakkai
Buddhism
emerged in Japan and spread favor to variant countries. Soka Gakkai world is a lay Buddhist movement linking more than 12 cardinal populate approximately the world, and is presently described as "the most diverse"
Buddhism
and "the ample lay buddhistic movement in the world".
Buddhism

Demographics important article: Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Percentage of Buddhists by country, match to the Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
, as of 2010.
China
Buddhism
is the country with the ample population of Buddhists, around 244 cardinal or 18.2% of its average population.
Buddhism
They are largely followers of Chinese schools
Buddhism
of Mahayana
Buddhism
, building this the ample exemplified of buddhistic traditions. Mahayana, besides practise in beamy East Asia
Buddhism
, is followed by finished fragmentary of multinational Buddhists.
Buddhism

match to Johnson and inexorable , Buddhism has discipline from a average of 138 cardinal adherents in 1910, of which 137 cardinal were in Asia
Buddhism
, to 495 cardinal in 2010, of which 487 cardinal are in Asia.
Buddhism

educate and traditions important articles: Schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Buddhahood
Buddhism

any scholars
Buddhism
use variant schemes. Buddhists themselves keep a variety of variant schemes. Hinayana
Buddhism
is employed by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical educate and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as this titled is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory, a variety of variant terms are increasingly employed instead, include Śrāvakayāna
Buddhism
, Nikaya Buddhism, aboriginal buddhistic schools, sectarian Buddhism, blimpish Buddhism, mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism.
This is a mountainous timeline of the development of the other schools/traditions:
Nyingma
Buddhism

 
Kadam

Buddhism
Kagyu
Buddhism

 
Dagpo

Buddhism
Sakya
Buddhism
  Jonang
Buddhism

 

East Asia

Buddhism

 

Early buddhistic schools

Buddhism
and Mahāyāna
Buddhism

Tángmì

Buddhism
/ Hànchuán Mìzōng
Buddhism

Nara

Buddhism

Shingon

Buddhism

Chán
Buddhism

 
Thiền

Buddhism
, Seon
Buddhism
  Zen
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism

 
Tendai

Buddhism

 
 

Nichiren

Buddhism

 

Jōdo shū

Buddhism

 

Central Asia

Buddhism
& Tarim Basin
Buddhism

 

Greco-Buddhism

Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

Buddhism

 
  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE   Legend:   = Theravada

Buddhism
  = Mahayana
Buddhism
  = Vajrayana
Buddhism
  = antithetic / syncretistic
Theravada is the ripe survives buddhistic school. It is comparatively conservative, and by and large closer to aboriginal Buddhism.
Buddhism
This educate is derives from the Vibhajjavāda
Buddhism
classify that be amongst the elderly Sthavira
Buddhism
groups at the time of the Third Buddhist Council . This school bit by bit change state on the Indian subcontinent, but its expanding in Sri Lanka and southbound East Asia behave to survive.
Theravāda is chiefly practise nowadays in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, Burma
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Cambodia
Buddhism
as resurfacing as atomic spread of China, Vietnam
Buddhism
, Malaysia
Buddhism
and Bangladesh
Buddhism
. It has a discipline presence in the west.
Mahayana Buddhism branch in India from the 5th century CE onwards, during the dynasty of the Guptas
Buddhism
. Mahāyāna setting of larn be established, the most central one be the Nālandā University
Buddhism
in north-eastern India.
autochthonal Mahayana Buddhism is practise nowadays in China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
, move of Russia and most of Vietnam
Buddhism
. The Buddhism practise in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin, but is discussed below under the head of Vajrayana . thither are a variety of strand in eastbound Buddhism, of which "the Pure Land educate of Mahayana is the most widely make today.".
Buddhism
In most of this area however, they are fused into a only compound perform of Buddhism. In lacquer in particular
Buddhism
, they perform segment denominations with the cardinal bones ones being: Nichiren
Buddhism
, antic to Japan; Pure Land
Buddhism
; Shingon
Buddhism
, a perform of Vajrayana; Tendai
Buddhism
, and Zen
Buddhism
. In Korea, active all Buddhists been to the Chogye school, which is formally Son , but with appreciable elements from variant traditions.
Buddhism

Vajrayana traditions important article: Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Boudhanath
Buddhism
, Kathmandu
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism

thither are differs reasons as to conscionable when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice
Buddhism
started. In the Tibetan tradition
Buddhism
, it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but as these are esoteric teachings, they be travel on orally archetypal and single graphic drink long aft the Buddha's other teachings. Nālandā University
Buddhism
became a refer for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the obtain of leading-edge Vajrayāna practise up doner the 11th century. These practices, scriptures and theories be transmitted to China, Tibet
Buddhism
, Indochina and southbound Asia. China by and large conventional Indian transmission up to the 11th century include tantrik practice, while a vast amount of what is considered Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
originate in from the recently Nālandā tradition.
Vajrayana have and create a variety of elements, a be of which had already be for centuries.
Buddhism
In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognised a ample exemplified of Buddhist Tantras
Buddhism
, any of which are besides include in taiwanese and nipponese collections of buddhistic literature, and versions of a few flat in the Pali Canon
Buddhism
.
buddhistic texts
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu read Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock write of the Tibetan Kanjur. important article: Buddhist texts
Buddhism

Unlike galore religions, Buddhism has no only principal text that is universally referred to by all traditions. However, any scholars keep referred to the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the archetypal cardinal Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
as the commonest cave of all buddhistic traditions.
Buddhism
This could be considered misleading, as Mahāyāna considers these simply a preliminary, and not a core, teaching. The Tibetan Buddhists have not even repeated most of the āgamas and they play no move in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan.
Buddhism
variant scholars say thither is no universally evaluate commonest core.
Buddhism
The size and complexity of the buddhistic canons keep appeared perceive by any as display barriers to the beamy understand of buddhistic philosophy.
finished the years, various attempts keep been made to synthesize a only buddhistic text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. In the Theravada tradition, condensed 'study texts' be perform that have favorite or influential scriptures into only volumes that could be studied by novice monks. Later in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, the Dhammapada
Buddhism
was endorse as a compound scripture.
The Pāli Tipitaka, which convey "three baskets", think of to the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
contains disciplinary tamper for the buddhistic monks
Buddhism
and nuns
Buddhism
, as resurfacing as explanations of why and how these tamper be instituted, support material, and doctrinal clarification. The Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
contains enclosed rating to Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Abhidhamma Pitaka
Buddhism
contains mercenary frequently set forth as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
match to the scriptures, shortly aft the death of the Buddha, the archetypal buddhistic council was held; a monk designate Mahākāśyapa
Buddhism
presided. The goal of the council was to logs the Buddha's teachings. Upāli
Buddhism
make the vinaya. Ānanda
Buddhism
, the Buddha's personal attendant, was called upon to recite the dhamma. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However, this record was ab initio transmitted orally in perform of chanting, and was behave to text in the decide century BCE. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements include discourses on the Dharma, commentaries on other teachings, cosmological and cosmogonical texts, stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives, and various other subjects.
The Mahayana sutras
Buddhism
are a dead beamy genre of buddhistic scriptures that the Mahayana
Buddhism
buddhistic tradition respects are archetypal teachings of the Buddha
Buddhism
. any adherents of Mahayana permit any the aboriginal teachings
Buddhism
and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and demand they be designing for other types of persons and other aim of spiritual understanding.
match to Mahayana tradition, the Mahayana sutras be delegate in secret, happen from variant Buddhas or bodhisattvas
Buddhism
, or be have in non-human worlds because hominid beings at the quantify could not solve them:
Buddhism
}
around six cardinal Mahayana sutras keep survive in Sanskrit or in taiwanese or Tibetan
Buddhism
translations. In addition, easter asiatic Buddhism legitimate any sutras think by scholars as of taiwanese instead than Indian origin.
Only the Theravada educate does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. As the contemporary Theravada educate is moving from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts, debate existing as to whether the Theravada were historically include in the hinayana designation; in the contemporary era, this label is seen as derogatory, and is generally avoided.
Buddhism give galore opportunities for comparative major with a antithetic crops of subjects. For example, Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way
Buddhism
not only give a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coincide with antithetic differs beliefs, customs and institutions in countries where it has resided passim its history. Also, its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example, with antithetic tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of closing study. In addition, the Buddhist concept of dependent origination
Buddhism
has appeared analyze to contemporary technological thought, as resurfacing as occidental metaphysics.
Is Buddhism a religion?
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Buddha of Kamakura, Kōtoku-in
Buddhism
in lacquer
variant obtain answer that the comments to this questioned be upon how religion is defined. For example:
Surya Das
Buddhism
states: "For Buddhism is fewer a theology or religion than a contracting that certain reflective practices and except trainings can efficaciously display us how to awaken our Buddha-nature and free us from suffering and confusion."
Buddhism
B. Alan Wallace
Buddhism
states: "When we in the West archetypal act with Buddhism, it is almost inevitable that we transport out one of our familiar group and apply it to Buddhism, calling it merely a 'religion.'... But Buddhism has ne'er been merely a religion as we define it in the West. From the very beginning it has besides had philosophic elements, as well as empirical and rational elements that may tempted the term 'science.'"
Buddhism
Rupert Gethin
Buddhism
states: "I am not concerned here to pronounce on a question that is sometimes asked of Buddhism: is it a religion? Obviously it depends on how one defines 'a religion'. What is certain, however, is that Buddhism does not involve belief in a creator God who has control over hominid destiny, nor does it seek to define itself by reference to a creed; as Edward Conze has bulldozed out, it took over 2,000 years and a couple of Western converts to Buddhism to provide it with a creed. On the other hand, Buddhism reasons activities that would be generally understood as religious—such as devotional practices and rituals—as a legitimate, useful, and even essential part of the practice and training that leads to the cessation of suffering."
Buddhism
Damien Keown
Buddhism
states: "Problems confront us as soon as we try to define what Buddhism is. Is it a religion? A philosophy? A way of life? A code of ethics? It is not easy to classify Buddhism as any of these things, and it contest us to rethink any of these categories. What, for example, do we mean by 'religion'? Most people would say that religion has something to do with belief in God. If belief in God in this perceive is the essence of religion, then Buddhism cannot be a religion. Some have suggested that a new category – that of the 'non-theistic' religion – is necessitate to includes Buddhism. different possibility is that our original definition is simply too narrow.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
czechoslovakian Buddhists The Dalai Lama
Buddhism
states: "From one viewpoint, Buddhism is a religion, from another viewpoint Buddhism is a science of mind and not a religion. Buddhism can be a bridge between these two sides. Therefore, with this conviction I try to keep nearer locks with scientists, mainly in the handle of cosmology, psychology, neurobiology and physics. In these handle thither are insights to share, and to a certain extent we can work together."
Buddhism
Ilkka Pyysiäinen states: "There are thus great difficulties involved in conceptualizing religion as belief in god, perceived agents, etc., although we intuitively think that any such beings, nevertheless, are essential in religion. As is well-known, Buddhism is the favorite example of scholars who have argued that we should determine any other way of defining religion than the one basing on the idea of belief in gods or perceived beings." and "Buddhism does not have to be the problematic touchstone for a international concept of religion."
Buddhism
Martin Southwold states: "It is show that Buddhism, though non-theistic, mismatched other religions in be on kabbalistic notions; it is show how this contributes to understand the social work of religions."
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula
Buddhism
states: "The question has often been asked: Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy? It perform not matter what you call it. Buddhism remains what it is any label you may put on it. The label is immaterial. Even the label 'Buddhism' which we provide to the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The term one gives it is inessential. What's in a name? That which we call a rose, By any other term would smell as sweet. In the aforesaid way Truth needs no label: it is neither Buddhist, Christian, Hindu nor Moslem. It is not the monopoly of anybody. Sectarian labels are a hindrance to the independent understanding of Truth, and they produce harmful prejudices in men's minds."
Buddhism
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
Buddhism
states: "If you are interested in 'meeting the Buddha' and following his example, then you should realized that the path the Buddha taught is chiefly a study of your own except and a system for training your mind. This path is spiritual, not religious. Its goal is self-knowledge, not salvation; freedom, not heaven. And it is deeply personal."
Friedrich Nietzsche
Buddhism
criticize Buddhism for dress what he saw as nihilism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any Marxist
Buddhism
gangs keep criticize Buddhism for make Tibet to keep an undeveloped, rural economy.
Buddhism

See besides Book: Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism portal
Buddhism
Outline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism and science
Buddhism
Buddhist Bráhmans
Buddhism
Chinese folk religion
Buddhism
Dharma look moving Center
Buddhism
Easily confusing buddhistic representations
Buddhism
Iconography of Gautama Buddha in Laos and Thailand
Buddhism
Index of Buddhism-related articles
Buddhism
Indian religions
Buddhism
List of schedule think to Buddhism
Buddhism
List of buddhistic temples
Buddhism
Nonviolence
Buddhism
Notes ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Buddhism". . In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica On-line Library Edition ^
Buddhism
before buddhistic texts involves to cardinal realms rather than six realms; when set forth as cardinal realms, the god realm and demi-god realm graphs a single realm. ^
Buddhism
André Bareau: the top of p. 212 says: "Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara"; then get down a numbered inventory of doctrines over the following pages, including on p. 223: "There are only cardinal destinies ... the kalakanjika asuras have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the petas, with whom ... they marry. As for the Vepacittiparisa, they have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the gods, with whom they marry."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. In particular, the separate "The cardinal truths
Buddhism
" indoors that oblige give a types show variety of translations of these cardinal statements. ^
Buddhism
For clarification of translations, see Dukkha#Translating the titled dukkha
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige dukkha
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
Rahula: What the Buddha Taught, Chapter 2 ^
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Not-Self Strategy
Buddhism
, See aim 3 – The Canon summarized Thanissaro Bhikkhu move attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
This cardinal nidana schemes can be found, for instance, in aggregate enclosed in chapter 12 of the Samyutta Nikaya
Buddhism
—Nidana Vagga
Buddhism
. variant "applications" of what might be name "mundane babelike origination" includes the nine-nidana schemes of Digha Nikaya
Buddhism
15
Buddhism
and the ten-nidana schemes of Samyutta Nikaya 12.65 .
Buddhism
So-called "transcendental babelike origination" is set forth in Samyutta Nikaya 12.23 .
Buddhism
In addition, Digha Nikaya 15 set forth an eleven-nidana schemes that stolen to societal smouldering ^
Buddhism
Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are network to "bhikkhave", but that in this context the label is more generic than merely "monks" and refers to all practitioners, and that this is verified by Buddhaghosa.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Charles S. Prebish:
Buddhism
"Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that perform not be on spiritual texts, that provides the potential for operating realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature keep by each sentient be ...". ^
Buddhism
Prebish comments : "It expect that sitting in meditation itself is an expression of Buddha nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes: "... practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been enclosed finished by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a note that can occur immediately when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder, Linji, Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our align way of being in untold operating expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. It is independent of words or letters and delegate apart from scriptural teaching. Buddhism doesn't actually need scriptures. It is conscionable our operating improved to Self ..."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, The cultural context. In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved 19-07-2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period ; contest to Brahmanism ; aboriginal Hinduism . Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
match to Masih:
Buddhism
"There is no evidence to display that Jainism and Buddhism always give to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are match or native religions of India and have contributed to such to the growth of flat classical Hinduism of the present times." ^
Buddhism
Crawford states:
Buddhism
"Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic grow with its grow end endorse to then times." ^
Buddhism
Masih:
Buddhism
"This verified that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was evaluate by non-vedics seeking Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have gotten the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics evaluate the doctrine of rebirth as supreme demand or article of faith." ^
Buddhism
Karel Werner:
Buddhism
"Rahurkar speaks of them as been to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also open certified for two distinct approaches to the numinous brands in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them especially in the elderly Upanishads, in aboriginal Buddhism, and in some later literature." ^
Buddhism
Flood:
Buddhism
"The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism create specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very accomplishable that the karmas and reincarnation entering the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions." ^
Buddhism
Padmanabh S. Jaini states:
Buddhism
"Yajnavalkya's reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was, seeking that of the transmigration of soul, of non-brahmanical origin. In view of the fact that this doctrine is panel on almost every page of sramana scriptures, it is highly probable that it was derives from them." ^
Buddhism
Govind Chandra Pande:
Buddhism
"Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic think and act to integrated these ideals of Karma, Samsara and Moksa into the vedic think implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal." ^
Buddhism
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya: "The emergent appearance of this theory in a full-fledged perform is probably due, as already bulldozed out, to an compressed of the moving muni-and-shramana
Buddhism
-cult, occurs drink from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time."
Buddhism
^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, the cultural context. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
R.F. Gombrich: "The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the Veda, is etymologized as the 'non-meditator' . Brahmins who keep major the cardinal Vedas really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to keep achieved in the cardinal watches of that night—which graphs the align 'three knowledges.'"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto
Buddhism
, Yamataggi
Buddhism
, Angiraso
Buddhism
, Bhâradvâjo
Buddhism
, Vâsettho
Buddhism
, Kassapo
Buddhism
, and Bhagu
Buddhism
" in P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle buddhistic holiest scriptures ..., Volume 1 improved by Hermann Oldenberg ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā: "Even so keep I, monks, perceive an past way, an past road followed by the wholly improved ones of past time....Along that keep I done, and the matters that I keep come to know to the full as I was going along it, I keep told to the monks, nuns, men and women lay-followers, even monks, this Brahma-faring brahmacharya that is plush and flourishing, widespread and widely known become popular in short, well perform manifest for gods and men."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Vedic religion. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
The survives spread of the scriptures of Sarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mulasarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mahisasaka
Buddhism
, Dharmaguptaka
Buddhism
and variant schools,
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the taiwanese Agamas
Buddhism
and variant survives spread of variant aboriginal canons. ^
Buddhism
notable analyse are the major on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,
Buddhism
the overview of aboriginal Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,
Buddhism
the philological take on the cardinal truths by K.R. Norman,
Buddhism
the textual analyse by Richard Gombrich,
Buddhism
and the experiment on aboriginal meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponents of the archetypal deployed are A.K. Warder
Buddhism
Buddhism
and Richard Gombrich
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
A proponent of the support deployed is Ronald Davidson.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponent of the ordinal deployed are J.W. de Jong,
Buddhism
Buddhism
Johannes Bronkhorst
Buddhism
and Donald Lopez.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Schmithausen, "the karma doctrine may keep appeared omissible to aboriginal buddhistic soteriology."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Majjhima Nikaya 36 ^
Buddhism
Vetter: hey do not conditioning that one is released by remember the four august truths, but by practise the twentieth august truth, the eighfold path, which went in right samadhi.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Vetter: "I am especially think here of MN 26 kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano and again MN 26 , anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati . Anuppatta-sadattho is besides a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 , see chapter 2, types 3, Furthermore, satthi is central in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati , in distinguish to other places, as employed in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata but one could say here that it is a negative term."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, buddhistic ^
Buddhism
See Journal of the Pāli Text Society, volume XVI, p. 105 ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. crowning write Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008 ^
Buddhism
"The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for price the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly individual collection of substantial Mahayana sutras repeated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian term has appeared reconstructed as Lokaksema."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"The southbound was sometime smartly constructive in perform Mahayana Sutras" Warder
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See shape , p. 30, for the taiwanese text from the Hou Hanshu
Buddhism
, and p. 31 for a translation of it.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See Philosophy easter and West, volume 54, paged 270 ^
Buddhism
,; Gethin , pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; "The East asiatic tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" ; and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism outdoors of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia", "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area", "East asiatic Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West; Penguin handbook of extant Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^
Buddhism
See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Cousins, L.S. ; Buswell , Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish , p. 107. See also, Gombrich , p. 32: “…he pulses we can say is that was prospective conditioning betwixt 550 and 450, more probably concomitant rather than earlier." ^
Buddhism
Williams writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the fourth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. , "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism vanish as perform religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson , pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey , pp. 139-40. References ^
Buddhism
Wells 2008
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Roach 2011
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Lopez 2001
Buddhism
, p. 239. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 27–28, 73–74. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 275f. ^
Buddhism
Robinson 1998
Buddhism
, p. xx. ^
Buddhism
Padmasambhava 2004
Buddhism
, p. 111. ^
Buddhism
Swearer 2004
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 352. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 10. ^
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. xii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 49. ^
Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, p. 143. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2003
Buddhism
, p. 267. ^
Buddhism
Skilton 1997
Buddhism
, p. 25. ^
Buddhism
Kasulis 2006
Buddhism
, pp. 1-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 40. ^
Buddhism
Payne 2006
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
Buddhism
, p. 248. ^
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 711. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 33. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 377. ^
Buddhism
Bodhi 2000
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Ajahn Sucitto 2010
Buddhism
, p. 87-88. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. 77. ^
Buddhism
Nhat Hahn
Buddhism
, p. 36. ^
Buddhism
Chodron 2002
Buddhism
, p. 37. ^
Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, pp. 131,143. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 1993
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2003
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 56. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 58. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 60. ^
Buddhism
Lindtner 1997
Buddhism
, p. 324. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 161. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 40, 46. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 67. ^
Buddhism
Mizuno 1996
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa 1991
Buddhism
, p. 184. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, p. 174. ^
Buddhism
Mall 2005
Buddhism
, pp. 53-54. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 297. ^
Buddhism
Conze 2001
Buddhism
, p. 2001. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, pp. 4-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 170. ^
Buddhism
Dumoulin 1988
Buddhism
, p. 22. ^
Buddhism
Miller 1996
Buddhism
, p. 8. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 73. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 105. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 30. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 1-17. ^
Buddhism
Collins 2000
Buddhism
, p. 199. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 56. ^
Buddhism
Nanamoli 1995
Buddhism
, p. 708f. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 83. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^
Buddhism
Kanno 2004
Buddhism
, p. 147. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, p. 187. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, pp. 195-196. ^
Buddhism
Morgan 2007
Buddhism
, pp. 62–63. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 89. ^
Buddhism
Wallace 2007
Buddhism
, p. 81. ^
Buddhism
Welch 1967
Buddhism
, p. 396. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 144. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2007
Buddhism
, p. 502. ^
Buddhism
Uchiyama 1993
Buddhism
, p. 98. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, pp. 165f. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1989
Buddhism
, p. 185. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 781. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 32. ^
Buddhism
Satapatha Brahmana 13.8.1.5 ^
Buddhism
Oldenberg 1991
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 2007
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 30-32. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 39. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 33. ^
Buddhism
Rahula 1974
Buddhism
, pp. 9-10. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 85. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1863
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Rhys Davids 1921
Buddhism
, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1866
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 38-39. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1983
Buddhism
, p. 41-42. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 21. ^
Buddhism
Rāhula 1974
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 35. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1990
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter & 1988 ix
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. vii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1981
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Matthews 1986
Buddhism
, p. 124. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 3. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 14. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 29. ^
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xxxiv-xxxvii. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 131. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 99-100, 102-111. ^
Buddhism
Anderson 1999
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 108. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 26. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 28. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 7. ^
Buddhism
Mitchell 2002
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Skorupski 1990
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 4, 11. ^
Buddhism
Schopen 2002
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 1977
Buddhism
, pp. 237–272. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 485. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, pp. 58, 61. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 260. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 271. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, pp. 193-194. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2008
Buddhism
, pp. 4-5. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 97. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2008
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 253, 263, 268. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 8,9. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 95. ^
Buddhism
Lusthaus 2002
Buddhism
, pp. 236-237. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 113. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 9. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, Routledge, 2nd ed, 2006, paged 135 ^
Buddhism
Zürcher 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 22-27. ^
Buddhism
Zürcher 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 23. ^
Buddhism
Henderson 2002
Buddhism
, p. 42. ^
Buddhism
Tamney 1998
Buddhism
, p. 68. ^
Buddhism
Paranjpe 1998
Buddhism
, p. 351. ^
Buddhism
Pavāra 2009
Buddhism
, pp. xv–xviii. ^
Buddhism
Métraux 2010
Buddhism
, p. vi. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Johnson 2013
Buddhism
, pp. 34–37. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Harvey 2013
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, p. 12. ^
Buddhism
Smith 2006
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Gethin, Foundations, paged 1 ^
Buddhism
Hawkins 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 88. ^
Buddhism
Clarke 2009
Buddhism
, p. 86. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, pp. 430, 435. ^
Buddhism
Davidson 2003
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 2006
Buddhism
, p. 89. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Eliot 1935
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, pp. xiv. ^
Buddhism
Skilling 1992
Buddhism
, p. 114. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1995
Buddhism
, p. 9. ^
Buddhism
Kalupahana 1966
Buddhism
, pp. 94-105. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 4. ^
Buddhism
Onians 2001
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Silk 2005
Buddhism
, p. 335-405. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Goldstein 2011
Buddhism
, p. 27. ^
Buddhism
Lama Surya Das 1997
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Goleman 2008
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 1301-1305. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, p. 65-66. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2000
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 361-372. ^
Buddhism
Pinburn 1990
Buddhism
, p. 101. ^
Buddhism
Pyysiäinen 2003
Buddhism
, p. 147–171. ^
Buddhism
Southwold 1978
Buddhism
, pp. 362–379. ^
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula 2007
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 316-323. ^
Buddhism
Bareau 1955
Buddhism
, p. 212–223. ^
Buddhism
Shaw 2006
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 1993
Buddhism
, p. 287. ^
Buddhism
Hodge 2002
Buddhism
, pp. 12–13. ^
Buddhism
Hisamatsu 2002
Buddhism
, p. 46. ^
Buddhism
Masih 2000
Buddhism
, p. 18. ^
Buddhism
Crawford 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 114–116. ^
Buddhism
Masih 2000
Buddhism
, p. 37. ^
Buddhism
Werner 1989
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Flood 1996
Buddhism
, p. 86. ^
Buddhism
Jaini 2001
Buddhism
, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Pande 1994
Buddhism
, p. 135. ^
Buddhism
Upadhyaya 1998
Buddhism
, p. 76. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 2006
Buddhism
, pp. 120. ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā 1984
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Warder 1999
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1992
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1997
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1997
Buddhism
, p. viii. ^
Buddhism
Jong 1993
Buddhism
, p. 25. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
, p. 206-207. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 492. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 335. ^
Buddhism
Hill 2009
Buddhism
, pp. 30-31. ^
Buddhism
Eliade 1987
Buddhism
, p. 440ff. obtain Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
, setting the bowl of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's archetypal Teaching, Shambhala  Armstrong, Karen
Buddhism
, Buddha, Penguin Press
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-14-303436-7
Buddhism
  Bareau, André , 'Les Sectes bouddhiques du Petit Véhicule, Saigon: École Française d'Extrême-Orient  Bechert, Heinz; Gombrich, Richard, ed. , The multinational of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.Thames & Hudson, ISBN
Buddhism
 0500250898
Buddhism
  Bodhi, Bhikkhu , The joined enclosed of the Buddha. A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0861713311
Buddhism
  Bronkhorst, Johannes , The Two Traditions Of Meditation In past India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.  Bronkhorst, Johannes , "Did the Buddha relied in Karma and Rebirth?"
Buddhism
, Journal of the world Association of Buddhist analyse 21 , 1-20  Bronkhorst, Johannes , ample Magadha, analyse the grow of Early India. Series: Handbook of eastbound Studies, Section 2 South Asia Series, Brill scholarly Publishers Inc, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-90-04-11519-4
Buddhism
  Buddhaghosa , The Dispeller of delusion , Vol.2, Pali Text Society 1991, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-02-865718-9
Buddhism
  Buswell, Robert E. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, MacMillan write Books, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-02-865718-9
Buddhism
  Carrithers, Michael , The Buddha, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press,  Carrithers, Michael , founder of faith, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 019283066X
Buddhism
  Chodron, Pema , The travel that inspired You: A manipulate to Fearlessness in harder Times, Shambhala, p. 37, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-57062-921-8
Buddhism
  Clarke, precious B.; Beyer, Peter ; , The World's Religions: continuities and transformations, Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780415397254
Buddhism
  Collins, Randall , The Sociology of Philosophies: A international Theory of psychological Change
Buddhism
, Harvard University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0674001877
Buddhism
  Conze, Edward. , The instance manipulate to World ReligionsThe Perfection of Wisdom in Eight eight Lines and its types Summary, improved Fox Press  Coogan, Michael D. , The instance manipulate to World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-84483-125-6
Buddhism
  Cousins, L. S. , "The Go out of the Historical Buddha: A analyze Article"
Buddhism
, Journal of the Royal asian Society, Series 3 : 57–63, doi
Buddhism
:10.1017/S1356186300014760
Buddhism
, retrieved 2007-07-11 ; reprinted in Williams, Buddhism, volume I; NB in the online transcript a little text has been accidentally omitted: in separate 4, between "... no of the other contributions in this separate create by mental act a date before 420 B.C." and "to 350 B.C." insert "Akira Hirakawa defends the short chronology and Heinz Bechert himself travel a range from 400 B.C." Crawford, S. Cromwell , "Review: Brahmanism, Buddhism and Hinduism by Lal Mani Joshi", Philosophy East and westbound 22 : 114–116  Davidson, Ronald M. , Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-231-12619-0
Buddhism
  de Give, Bernard , Les rapports de l'Inde et de l'Occident des origines au règne d'Asoka, Les Indes savants, ISBN
Buddhism
 2-84654-036-5
Buddhism
  Donath, Dorothy C. , Buddhism for the West: Theravāda, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna; a umbrella review of buddhistic history, philosophy, and teachings from the quantify of the Buddha to the show day, Julian Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-07-017533-0
Buddhism
  Dumoulin, Heinrich; Heisig, crowd W.; Knitter, Paul F. , Zen Buddhism: A History , London: improved Macmillan  Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse , What Makes You Not a Buddhist, Shambhala, rekindled Edition  Eliade, Mircea; Adams, Charles J. , The Encyclopedia of religion, New York: Macmillan  Eliot, Japanese Buddhism, Edward Arnold, London, 1935 Embree, Ainslie T.
Buddhism
, Stephen N. Hay , Wm. Theodore de Bary , obtain of Indian Tradition: From the founded to 1800, vol. 1, NY: Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-231-06651-1
Buddhism
  Flood, Gavin D. , An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-521-43878-0
Buddhism
  Gethin, Rupert . Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN
Buddhism
 0-19-289223-1
Buddhism
  Gethin, Rupert . Sayings of the Buddha. Oxford University Press.  Goldstein, Joseph . "One Dharma: The be occidental Buddhism". HarperCollins  Goleman, Daniel
Buddhism
. cataclysmic Emotions: A technological Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. Bantam. rekindled Edition. Gombrich, Richard F. , Theravāda Buddhism: A societal History from past Benares to contemporary Colombo, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-07585-8
Buddhism
  Gombrich, Richard F. , How Buddhism Began, Munshiram Manoharlal  Gombrich, Richard F. , in Williams, Paul, ed., Buddhism: captious Concepts in sacred Studies, 8 volumes, London: Routledge  Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola
Buddhism
, Mindfulness in apparent English, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-86171-321-4
Buddhism
  besides approachable on this websites: saigon.com
Buddhism
urbandharma.org
Buddhism
vipassana.com
Buddhism
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang , Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the buddhistic Way of Life, Tharpa Publications
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-9789067-7-1
Buddhism
  Hāṇḍā, Omacanda , buddhistic art & antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, upto 8th century A.D., New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co., ISBN
Buddhism
 818518299X
Buddhism
  Hardy, Robert Spence , The sacred books of the Buddhists analyze with history and modern science, Colombo, printed at the methodist mission Press  Hardy, Robert Spence , The legends and theories of the Buddhists, analyze with history and science, London, Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate  Harvey, Peter , An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-521-31333-3
Buddhism
  Harvey, precious . An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices
Buddhism
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
Buddhism
 9780521676748
Buddhism
.  Harvey, precious , The altruistic Mind, Curzon Press  Hawkins, Bradley K. , The work Idiots Guide: Buddhism, Laurence King , ISBN
Buddhism
 0-02-864459-X
Buddhism
  Henderson, Carol E. , grow and Customs of India, Greenwood perform Group  Hill, John E. , doner the Jade gates to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the concomitant Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE, Charleston, southbound Carolina: BookSurge, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-1-4392-2134-1
Buddhism
  Hirakawa, Akira; Groner, Paul . A History of Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN
Buddhism
 8120809556
Buddhism
.  Hisamatsu, Shin'ichi , captious Sermons on the Zen Tradition, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN
Buddhism
 0824823834
Buddhism
  Hodge, Stephen , Zen Masterclass, Godsfield Press  Jaini, Padmanabh S. , had cover on buddhistic Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-1776-1
Buddhism
  Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. . The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to world sacred Demography
Buddhism
. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–37.  Jong, J.W. de , "The Beginnings of Buddhism", The eastbound Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2  Kalupahana, David , "Sarvastivada and its theory of sarvam asti", University of Ceylon analyze 24, 94-105  Kanno, Hiroshi . "Huisi's Perspective on the Lotus Sutra as perceive doner the convey of the traverse of moving and Bliss in the Lotus Sutra"
Buddhism
. Journal of the initiate of eastbound philosophy 14, 146-166. Retrieved February 5, 2010.  Kasulis, T. P. , "Zen as a societal Ethics of Responsiveness"
Buddhism
, Journal of buddhistic Ethics 13, 1-12  Keown, Damien , Buddhism: A dead shorts Introduction, Oxford University Press, rekindled Edition  Keown, Damien , Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-19-860560-9
Buddhism
  Keown, Damien; Prebish, Charles S. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-415-31414-5
Buddhism
  Keown, Damien; Prebish, Charles S. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, London: Routledge  Kohn, Michael H. , The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Shambhala, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-87773-520-4
Buddhism
  Lama Surya Das , improved the Buddha Within, Broadway Books, rekindled Edition  Lamotte, Étienne , inform of Vimalakirti, trans. Sara Boin, London: Pali Text Society, XCIII, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7100-8540-0
Buddhism
  Lindtner, Christian , know of Wisdom, Dharma Publishing  Lopez, Donald S. , Buddhism in Practice
Buddhism
, Princeton University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-691-04442-2
Buddhism
  Lopez, Donald S. , The Story of Buddhism, HarperCollins  Lowenstein, Tom , The Vision of the Buddha, Duncan Baird Publishers, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-903296-91-9
Buddhism
  Lusthaus, Dan , buddhistic Phenomenology, Routledge  Mall, Linnart , analyse in the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita and variant Essays, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Masih, Yakub , A Comparative major of Religions, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-0815-0
Buddhism
  Matthews, Bruce , Post-Classical Developments In The Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravada Buddhism. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt , "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY  McFarlane, Stewart , in precious Harvey, ed., Buddhism, Continuum  Métraux, Daniel A. . How Soka Gakkai Became a Global buddhistic Movement. Lewiston, NY
Buddhism
: The Edwin Mellen Press
Buddhism
. p. vi. ISBN
Buddhism
 9780773437586
Buddhism
.  Miller, Barbara Stoler , Yoga: progresses of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra evaluated to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords, University of California Press  Mitchell , Buddhism: inform the Buddhist experience, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0195139518
Buddhism
  Mizuno, Kogen , Essentials of Buddhism : basal terminology and concepts of buddhistic philosophy and practice, Tokyo: Kosei, ISBN
Buddhism
 4333016835
Buddhism
  Morgan, Peggy; Lawton, Clive A., eds. , Ethical publicize in Six sacred Traditions , Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-7486-2330-3
Buddhism
  Morganll, Kenneth W. , The Path of the Buddha: Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists, New York:Ronald Press  Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu; Bodhi, Bhikkhu . The put length discourses of the Buddha : a new translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Wisdom Pub.  Nattier, Jan , A Few solid Men: The Bodhisattva Path match to The Inquiry of Ugra , University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-8248-2607-8
Buddhism
  Nattier, Jan; Prebish, Charles S. , "Mahāsāṅghika Origins: the beginnings of buddhistic sectarianism in History of Religions", History of Religions 16, 237–272  Norman, K.R. , A Philological happen to Buddhism. The Bukkyo Dendo Kybkai training 1994
Buddhism
, educate ofOriental and African analyse   Padmasambhava, Jamgon Kongtrul, Erik Pema Kunsang , Light of Wisdom
Buddhism
, Rangjung Yeshe Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-962-7341-37-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 2010-08-25  Oldenberg, Hermann , The Doctrine of the Upanishads and Early Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Onians, Isabelle , "Tantric buddhistic Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm," PhD dissertation, Oxford, Trinity Term  Pande, Govind Chandra , Life and think of Sankaracarya, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-1104-6
Buddhism
  A. C. Paranjpe , Self and identity in contemporary psychology and Indian thought
Buddhism
, Springer, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-306-45844-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 10 gimp 2012  Urmilā Pavāra , The twist of my life: a Dalit woman's memoirs
Buddhism
, Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-231-14900-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 10 gimp 2012  Payne, Richard K. , tantrik Buddhism in easter Asia, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0861714873
Buddhism
  Pinburn, Sidney , The Dalai Lama: Policy of Kindness, rains Lion  Prebish, Charles , Historical Dictionary of Buddhism, The Scarecrow Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-8108-2698-4
Buddhism
  Prebish, Charles S; Keown, Damien . inform Buddhism. Routledge.  Pyysiäinen, Ilkka , "Buddhism, Religion, and the Concept of "God"", Man 50 : 147–171, doi
Buddhism
:10.1163/156852703321506141
Buddhism
, JSTOR
Buddhism
 3270517
Buddhism
  Ranjini, "Jewels of the Doctrine", buddhistic Stories of the fourth Century , ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7914-0490-0
Buddhism
  Roach, precious , Cambridge English pronounced Dictionary , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780521152532
Buddhism
  Robinson, Richard H. , The buddhistic Religion: A Historical Introduction , Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-534-01027-X
Buddhism
  Rahula, Walpola , What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 955-9219-19-7
Buddhism
  Rhys Davids, T.W. Stede, William , The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Buddhism
, Chipstead, London: Pali Text Society  Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L . , The buddhistic Religion, Belmont, Calif.: Dickenson Publ.  Schmithausen, Lambert , On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism". In: Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus , hrsg. von Klaus Bruhn und Albrecht Wezler, Wiesbaden 1981, 199-250  Schmithausen, Lambert , captious Response. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt , "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY  Schopen, Gregory , Bones, Stones, and buddhistic Monks, University of Hawai'i Press  Sebastian, C.D. , Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications  Shaw, Sarah , buddhistic Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pāli Canon, Routledge  Silk, Jonathan A. , "What, if anything, is Mahayana Buddhism?", Numen 49:4, 335-405  Sinha, H.P. , Bhāratīya Darshan kī rūprekhā , Motilal Banarasidas Publ., ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-2144-0
Buddhism
  Skilton, Andrew , A aphoristic History of Buddhism
Buddhism
, Windhorse Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-904766-92-6
Buddhism
  Smith, Huston; Phillip Novak , Buddhism: A aphoristic Introduction, SanFrancisco: Harper, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-06-073067-3
Buddhism
  Smith , "Buddhism". In Juergensmeyer, Mark, The Oxford Handbook of international Religions, Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-19-513798-9
Buddhism
  Swearer, Donald , proper the Buddha: the ritual of visualize consecration in Thailand, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0691114358
Buddhism
  Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Buddhism
, Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha
Buddhism
  Skilling, precious , "The Raksā Literature of the Śrāvakayāna"
Buddhism
, Journal of the Pali Text Society 16, 109-182  Skorupski, Tadeusz, ed. , buddhistic Forum, vol I, Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0728601621
Buddhism
  Southwold, Martin . "Buddhism and The Definition of Religion". Man 13 : 362–379. doi
Buddhism
:10.2307/2801935
Buddhism
. JSTOR
Buddhism
 2801935
Buddhism
.  Tamney, Joseph B. , in William H. Swatos, editor, Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Rowman Altamira  Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
, The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Broadway Books, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7679-0369-2
Buddhism
  Thurman, Robert A. F.
Buddhism
, holiest inform of Vimalakirti: Mahayana Scripture, Pennsylvania note University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-271-00601-3
Buddhism
  Uchiyama, Kosho , founded the delegate of Thought: Approach to Zen, New York: Penguin Books  Upadhyaya, Kashi Nath , aboriginal Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.  Vetter, Tilmann , The Ideas and Meditative Practices of aboriginal Buddhism, BRILL  Wallace, B. Alan , reflective Science, Columbia University Press  Walpola Rahula , What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press. Kindle Edition  Warder, A.K.
Buddhism
, Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Welch, B. Alan , The practise of taiwanese Buddhism, 1900-1950, Cambridge: Harvard University Press  Wells, John C. , Longman Pronunciation Dictionary , Longman, ISBN
Buddhism
 9781405881180
Buddhism
  Werner, Karel, ed. , The Longhaired Sage in The Yogi and the Mystic, Curzon Press  White, Kenneth , The Role of Bodhicitta in buddhistic Enlightenment Including a Translation into English of Bodhicitta-sastra, Benkemmitsu-nikyoron, and Sammaya-kaijo, The Edwin Mellen Press  ISBN 0-7734-5985-5
Buddhism
. Williams, Paul , Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-02537-0
Buddhism
  Williams, Paul, ed. , Buddhism: captious Concepts in sacred Studies, 8 volumes, London: Routledge  Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony , Buddhist Thought
Buddhism
, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-20701-0
Buddhism
  Williams, Paul , Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, London: Routledge  Wynne, Alexander , The Origin of buddhistic Meditation, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780415423878
Buddhism
  Yamamoto, Kosho, trans.; Page, Tony , ed. , The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra
Buddhism
, Nirvana Publications  Yin Shun
Buddhism
, Yeung H. moving , The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a contemporary taiwanese Master, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-86171-133-5
Buddhism
  Zürcher, Erik , The buddhistic Conquest of China, Leiden E. J. Brill  On-line obtain ^
Buddhism
"The put Way of the Buddha"
Buddhism
. Buddhamind.info. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^
Buddhism
"Buddhism - The put Path"
Buddhism
. Buddhanet.net. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^
Buddhism
Mahathera, Ven. Suvanno. "The 31 drill of Existence"
Buddhism
. www.buddhanet.net.  ^
Buddhism
Roth, Beth. "Family Dharma: A Bedtime Ritual"
Buddhism
. Tricycle . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
Roth, Beth. "Family Dharma: A Bedtime Ritual"
Buddhism
. Tricycle . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
"Unit Six: The cardinal Immeasurables"
Buddhism
. Buddha Dharma Education Association & Buddhanet.  ^
Buddhism
"Unit Six: Loving-Kindness"
Buddhism
. Buddha Dharma Education Association & Buddhanet. Retrieved January 10, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
"A think on Buddhism: The cardinal Immeasurables"
Buddhism
. Rudy Harderwijk . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
Po, Jeffrey. "Is Buddhism a bearish Way of Life?"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Upādāparitassanā Sutta"
Buddhism
. Buddha-Vacana. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^
Buddhism
Lusthaus, Dan. "What is and isn't Yogacara"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"raga, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"dosa, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"moha, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"''Access to Insight'', a Theravada buddhistic website, cover Buddha Eras"
Buddhism
. Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-06-05. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^
Buddhism
"Gautama Buddha cover the Maitreya Buddha in the Tipitaka"
Buddhism
. Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^
Buddhism
"Bodhisattva perfect in Buddhism"
Buddhism
. accessing to Insight. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^
Buddhism
"Dharmacarini Manishini"
Buddhism
. occidental buddhistic Review.  ^
Buddhism
Bhikku, Thanissaro . "Refuge"
Buddhism
. An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. accessing to Insight.  ^
Buddhism
"Dharmacarini Manishini"
Buddhism
. occidental buddhistic Review.  ^
Buddhism
Subir Bhaumik. "China and India use Buddha for regional karma."
Buddhism
. Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^
Buddhism
Gier, Nick. "The Virtues of asiatic Humanism. set communicate at the 40th One-year MeetingInstitute of eastbound Philosophy, Soka University, Japan"
Buddhism
. University of Idaho. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
"Tibetan Buddhism"
Buddhism
. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-07.  ^
Buddhism
Tan Swee Eng. "A Comparative major of the Schools"
Buddhism
. Shippensburg University.  ^
Buddhism
"Is Buddhism a Religion?"
Buddhism
. The Huffington Post. aristocratic 6, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2013.  ^
Buddhism
Moad, Omar. "Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death?"
Buddhism
. www.the-philosopher.co.uk.  ^
Buddhism
Moad, Omar. "Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death?"
Buddhism
. www.the-philosopher.co.uk.  outermost think has quotations think to: Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
oblige Buddhism
Buddhism
. Commons has media think to Buddhism
Buddhism
. has larn materials around Buddha oracle# Buddhism
Buddhism
Frequently network question around Buddhism
Buddhism
Religion and Spirituality: Buddhism
Buddhism
at opening Directory covenant "Buddhism — objects, art and history"
Buddhism
. Asia. Victoria and Albert Museum
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2007-12-06.  Buddhist texts at spiritual Texts.com
Buddhism
Buddhism in antithetic languages
Buddhism
The upcoming of Buddhism series
Buddhism
, from Patheos
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Buddhism
. "Emptiness"
Buddhism
. A Theravada Library
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2012-12-19.  Berzin, Alexander
Buddhism
. "Historical diagram of Buddhism and Islam in Afghanistan"
Buddhism
. Berzin Archives.  Wei, Wei Wu
Buddhism
. "Why Lazarus Laughed: The necessary Doctrine Zen-Advaita-Tantra"
Buddhism
. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London. Sentient Publications
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2010-11-10.  Dhammananda, K. Sri
Buddhism
. "What Buddhists Believe"
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2010-11-10.  v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism topics
Buddhism
Foundations
Buddhism
Three Jewels
Buddhism
Buddha
Buddhism
Dharma
Buddhism
Sangha
Buddhism
Four august Truths
Buddhism
Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
Nirvana
Buddhism
Middle Way
Buddhism
the Buddha
Buddhism
Tathāgata
Buddhism
Birthday
Buddhism
Four sights
Buddhism
Physical characteristics
Buddhism
Footprint
Buddhism
Iconography
Buddhism
Films
Buddhism
Miracles
Buddhism
Family
Buddhism
Suddhodana
Buddhism
Maya
Buddhism
Mahapajapati Gotami
Buddhism
Yasodhara
Buddhism
Rahula
Buddhism
Places where the Buddha stayed
Buddhism
Buddha in multinational religions
Buddhism
Key concepts
Buddhism
three attach of existence
Buddhism
Impermanence
Buddhism
Suffering
Buddhism
Not-self
Buddhism
dependent origination
Buddhism
Five Aggregates
Buddhism
karma
Buddhism
rebirth
Buddhism
Saṃsāra
Buddhism
Saṅkhāra
Buddhism
Defilements
Buddhism
ignorance
Buddhism
craving
Buddhism
Five Hindrances
Buddhism
Ten Fetters
Buddhism
Faculties
Buddhism
Enlightenment
Buddhism
Parinirvana
Buddhism
Thusness
Buddhism
Two truths doctrine
Buddhism
emptiness
Buddhism
Bodhicitta
Buddhism
Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddha-nature
Buddhism
Mindstream
Buddhism
Dzogchen
Buddhism
Cosmology
Buddhism
Ten numinous realms
Buddhism
Six Realms
Buddhism
Heaven
Buddhism
Human realm
Buddhism
Asura realm
Buddhism
Hungry moving realm
Buddhism
Animal realm
Buddhism
Hell
Buddhism
Three drill of existence
Buddhism
Practices
Buddhism
Refuge
Buddhism
Buddhist devotion
Buddhism
Puja
Buddhism
Offerings
Buddhism
Prostration
Buddhism
Chanting
Buddhism
Merit
Buddhism
Paritta
Buddhism
Generosity
Buddhism
Renunciation
Buddhism
Morality
Buddhism
Precepts
Buddhism
Bodhisattva vow
Buddhism
Prātimokṣa
Buddhism
Threefold Training
Buddhism
Morality
Buddhism
Concentration
Buddhism
Prajñā
Buddhism
Four perceived Abidings
Buddhism
Loving-kindness
Buddhism
Compassion
Buddhism
Sympathetic joy
Buddhism
Equanimity
Buddhism
Perfections
Buddhism
Enlightenment Qualities
Buddhism
Seven budgets of Enlightenment
Buddhism
Sati
Buddhism
Dhamma vicaya
Buddhism
Pīti
Buddhism
Passaddhi
Buddhism
Effort
Buddhism
Four correctly Exertions
Buddhism
Bases of Power
Buddhism
Five Strengths
Buddhism
Faith
Buddhism
Mindfulness
Buddhism
Satipatthana
Buddhism
Jhāna/Dhyāna
Buddhism
Bhavana
Buddhism
Satya
Buddhism
Sacca
Buddhism
meditation
Buddhism
Mantras
Buddhism
Kammaṭṭhāna
Buddhism
Recollection
Buddhism
Smarana
Buddhism
Mindfulness of Breathing
Buddhism
Serenity meditation
Buddhism
Insight meditation
Buddhism
Shikantaza
Buddhism
Zazen
Buddhism
Kōan
Buddhism
Mandala
Buddhism
Tonglen
Buddhism
Tantra
Buddhism
Tertön
Buddhism
Terma
Buddhism
Attainment
Buddhism
Types of Buddha
Buddhism
Private Buddha
Buddhism
Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
Stream-enterer
Buddhism
Once-returner
Buddhism
Non-returner
Buddhism
arhat
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
Monk
Buddhism
Nun
Buddhism
Novice monk
Buddhism
Novice nun
Buddhism
Anagarika
Buddhism
Ajahn
Buddhism
Sayadaw
Buddhism
Zen master
Buddhism
Rōshi
Buddhism
Lama
Buddhism
Rinpoche
Buddhism
Geshe
Buddhism
Tulku
Buddhism
Householder
Buddhism
Lay follower
Buddhism
Disciple
Buddhism
Shaolin Monastery
Buddhism
Major figures
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
Kaundinya
Buddhism
Assaji
Buddhism
Sāriputta
Buddhism
Mahamoggallāna
Buddhism
Mulian
Buddhism
Ananda
Buddhism
Maha Kassapa
Buddhism
Anuruddha
Buddhism
Mahakaccana
Buddhism
Nanda
Buddhism
Subhuti
Buddhism
Punna
Buddhism
Upali
Buddhism
Mahapajapati Gotami
Buddhism
Khema
Buddhism
Uppalavanna
Buddhism
Asita
Buddhism
Channa
Buddhism
Yasa
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa
Buddhism
Nagasena
Buddhism
Bodhidharma
Buddhism
Nagarjuna
Buddhism
Asanga
Buddhism
Vasubandhu
Buddhism
Atiśa
Buddhism
Padmasambhava
Buddhism
Nichiren
Buddhism
Ambedkar
Buddhism
Dalai Lama
Buddhism
Panchen Lama
Buddhism
Karmapa
Buddhism
Naropa
Buddhism
Texts
Buddhism
Tripiṭaka
Buddhism
Mahāyāna sūtras
Buddhism
Pāli Canon
Buddhism
Chinese buddhistic canon
Buddhism
Tibetan buddhistic canon
Buddhism
Branches
Buddhism
Theravada
Buddhism
Mahayana
Buddhism
Zen
Buddhism
Pure Land
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism
Nichiren
Buddhism
Madhyamaka
Buddhism
Yogacara
Buddhism
Navayana
Buddhism
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
Shingon
Buddhism
Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
Basic level compound Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism
Countries
Buddhism
Bangladesh
Buddhism
Bhutan
Buddhism
Burma
Buddhism
Cambodia
Buddhism
China
Buddhism
India
Buddhism
Indonesia
Buddhism
Japan
Buddhism
Korea
Buddhism
Laos
Buddhism
Malaysia
Buddhism
Maldives
Buddhism
Mongolia
Buddhism
Nepal
Buddhism
Pakistan
Buddhism
Philippines
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
Singapore
Buddhism
Sri Lanka
Buddhism
Taiwan
Buddhism
Thailand
Buddhism
Tibet
Buddhism
Vietnam
Buddhism
Middle East
Buddhism
Iran
Buddhism
Western countries
Buddhism
Argentina
Buddhism
Australia
Buddhism
Brazil
Buddhism
France
Buddhism
United Kingdom
Buddhism
United States
Buddhism
Venezuela
Buddhism
History
Buddhism
Timeline
Buddhism
Ashoka
Buddhism
Buddhist councils
Buddhism
History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism
Decline of Buddhism in India
Buddhism
Greco-Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism and the romanic world
Buddhism
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Buddhism
Banishment of buddhistic monks from Nepal
Buddhism
Buddhist crisis
Buddhism
Sinhalese buddhistic nationalism
Buddhism
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism
Buddhist modernism
Buddhism
Vipassana movement
Buddhism
969 Movement
Buddhism
Women in Buddhism
Buddhism
Philosophy
Buddhism
Abhidharma
Buddhism
Logic
Buddhism
Buddhology
Buddhism
Eschatology
Buddhism
Reality
Buddhism
God
Buddhism
Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
Humanism
Buddhism
Eight Consciousnesses
Buddhism
Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
Socialism
Buddhism
Economics
Buddhism
Atomism
Buddhism
Evolution
Buddhism
Ethics
Buddhism
The unrequited questions
Buddhism
Culture
Buddhism
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Buddhism
Temple of the Tooth
Buddhism
Art
Buddhism
Greco-Buddhist art
Buddhism
Poetry
Buddhism
Buddha statue
Buddhism
Budai
Buddhism
Symbolism
Buddhism
Dharmachakra
Buddhism
Flag
Buddhism
Bhavacakra
Buddhism
Swastika
Buddhism
Thangka
Buddhism
Prayer wheel
Buddhism
Mala
Buddhism
Mudra
Buddhism
Mantra
Buddhism
Om mani padme hum
Buddhism
Funeral
Buddhism
Music
Buddhism
Holidays
Buddhism
Vesak
Buddhism
Uposatha
Buddhism
Magha Puja
Buddhism
Asalha Puja
Buddhism
Rains retreat
Buddhism
Monastic robe
Buddhism
Architecture
Buddhism
Vihara
Buddhism
Wat
Buddhism
Stupa
Buddhism
Pagoda
Buddhism
Candi
Buddhism
Thai temple art and architecture
Buddhism
Pilgrimage
Buddhism
Lumbini
Buddhism
Maya Devi Temple
Buddhism
Bodh Gaya
Buddhism
Sarnath
Buddhism
Kushinagar
Buddhism
Bodhi Tree
Buddhism
Mahabodhi Temple
Buddhism
Calendar
Buddhism
Cuisine
Buddhism
Vegetarianism
Buddhism
Miscellaneous
Buddhism
Lineage
Buddhism
Maitreya
Buddhism
Avalokiteśvara
Buddhism
Guanyin
Buddhism
Amitābha
Buddhism
Brahmā
Buddhism
Māra
Buddhism
Comparison of the tower of Buddhism in China and Japan
Buddhism
Dhammapada
Buddhism
Vinaya
Buddhism
Sutra
Buddhism
Koliya
Buddhism
Hinayana
Buddhism
Liturgical languages
Buddhism
Pali
Buddhism
Sanskrit
Buddhism
Dharma talk
Buddhism
Kalpa
Buddhism
Higher Knowledge
Buddhism
Iddhi/Ṛddhi
Buddhism
Siddhi
Buddhism
Buddhism and:
Buddhism
Science
Buddhism
Psychology
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Jainism
Buddhism
East asiatic religions
Buddhism
Christianity
Buddhism
Theosophy
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Violence
Buddhism
Western philosophy
Buddhism
Lists
Buddhism
Buddhas
Buddhism
Twenty-eight Buddhas
Buddhism
Bodhisattvas
Buddhism
Buddhists
Buddhism
Suttas
Buddhism
Books
Buddhism
Temples
Buddhism
Candi
Buddhism
Outline
Buddhism
Portal
Buddhism
Category
Buddhism
Glossary
Buddhism
Index
Buddhism
Commons
Buddhism
Buddhism
  Buddhism by country v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Africa
Buddhism
Sovereign states
Buddhism
Algeria
Buddhism
Angola
Buddhism
Benin
Buddhism
Botswana
Buddhism
Burkina Faso
Buddhism
Burundi
Buddhism
Cameroon
Buddhism
Cape Verde
Buddhism
Central African Republic
Buddhism
Chad
Buddhism
Comoros
Buddhism
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Buddhism
Republic of the Congo
Buddhism
Djibouti
Buddhism
Egypt
Buddhism
Equatorial Guinea
Buddhism
Eritrea
Buddhism
Ethiopia
Buddhism
Gabon
Buddhism
The Gambia
Buddhism
Ghana
Buddhism
Guinea
Buddhism
Guinea-Bissau
Buddhism
Ivory glide
Buddhism
Kenya
Buddhism
Lesotho
Buddhism
Liberia
Buddhism
Libya
Buddhism
Madagascar
Buddhism
Malawi
Buddhism
Mali
Buddhism
Mauritania
Buddhism
Mauritius
Buddhism
Morocco
Buddhism
Mozambique
Buddhism
Namibia
Buddhism
Niger
Buddhism
Nigeria
Buddhism
Rwanda
Buddhism
São Tomé and Príncipe
Buddhism
Senegal
Buddhism
Seychelles
Buddhism
Sierra Leone
Buddhism
Somalia
Buddhism
South Africa
Buddhism
South Sudan
Buddhism
Sudan
Buddhism
Swaziland
Buddhism
Tanzania
Buddhism
Togo
Buddhism
Tunisia
Buddhism
Uganda
Buddhism
Zambia
Buddhism
Zimbabwe
Buddhism
States with manipulate recognition
Buddhism
Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic
Buddhism
Somaliland
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories Mayotte
Buddhism
 / Réunion
Buddhism
  Saint Helena
Buddhism
 / Ascension Island
Buddhism
 / Tristan da Cunha
Buddhism
  v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Asia
Buddhism
Sovereign states
Buddhism
Afghanistan
Buddhism
Armenia
Buddhism
Azerbaijan
Buddhism
Bahrain
Buddhism
Bangladesh
Buddhism
Bhutan
Buddhism
Brunei
Buddhism
Burma
Buddhism
Cambodia
Buddhism
China
Buddhism
Cyprus
Buddhism
East Timor
Buddhism
Egypt
Buddhism
Georgia
Buddhism
India
Buddhism
Indonesia
Buddhism
Iran
Buddhism
Iraq
Buddhism
Israel
Buddhism
Japan
Buddhism
Jordan
Buddhism
Kazakhstan
Buddhism
North Korea
Buddhism
South Korea
Buddhism
Kuwait
Buddhism
Kyrgyzstan
Buddhism
Laos
Buddhism
Lebanon
Buddhism
Malaysia
Buddhism
Maldives
Buddhism
Mongolia
Buddhism
Nepal
Buddhism
Oman
Buddhism
Pakistan
Buddhism
Philippines
Buddhism
Qatar
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
Saudi Arabia
Buddhism
Singapore
Buddhism
Sri Lanka
Buddhism
Syria
Buddhism
Tajikistan
Buddhism
Thailand
Buddhism
Turkey
Buddhism
Turkmenistan
Buddhism
United Arab Emirates
Buddhism
Uzbekistan
Buddhism
Vietnam
Buddhism
Yemen
Buddhism
States with manipulate recognition
Buddhism
Abkhazia
Buddhism
Nagorno-Karabakh
Buddhism
Northern Cyprus
Buddhism
Palestine
Buddhism
South Ossetia
Buddhism
Taiwan
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories British Indian Ocean Territory
Buddhism
Christmas Island
Buddhism
Cocos Islands
Buddhism
Hong Kong
Buddhism
Macau
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Europe
Buddhism
liberate express Albania
Buddhism
Andorra
Buddhism
Armenia
Buddhism
Austria
Buddhism
Azerbaijan
Buddhism
Belarus
Buddhism
Belgium
Buddhism
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Buddhism
Bulgaria
Buddhism
Croatia
Buddhism
Cyprus
Buddhism
Czech Republic
Buddhism
Denmark
Buddhism
Estonia
Buddhism
Finland
Buddhism
France
Buddhism
Georgia
Buddhism
Germany
Buddhism
Greece
Buddhism
Hungary
Buddhism
Iceland
Buddhism
Ireland
Buddhism
Italy
Buddhism
Kazakhstan
Buddhism
Latvia
Buddhism
Liechtenstein
Buddhism
Lithuania
Buddhism
Luxembourg
Buddhism
Macedonia
Buddhism
Malta
Buddhism
Moldova
Buddhism
Monaco
Buddhism
Montenegro
Buddhism
Netherlands
Buddhism
Norway
Buddhism
Poland
Buddhism
Portugal
Buddhism
Romania
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
San Marino
Buddhism
Serbia
Buddhism
Slovakia
Buddhism
Slovenia
Buddhism
Spain
Buddhism
Sweden
Buddhism
Switzerland
Buddhism
Turkey
Buddhism
Ukraine
Buddhism
United Kingdom
Buddhism
express with manipulate recognition Abkhazia
Buddhism
Kosovo
Buddhism
Nagorno-Karabakh
Buddhism
Northern Cyprus
Buddhism
South Ossetia
Buddhism
Transnistria
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in northbound America liberate express Antigua and Barbuda
Buddhism
Bahamas
Buddhism
Barbados
Buddhism
Belize
Buddhism
Canada
Buddhism
Costa Rica
Buddhism
Cuba
Buddhism
Dominica
Buddhism
Dominican Republic
Buddhism
El Salvador
Buddhism
Grenada
Buddhism
Guatemala
Buddhism
Haiti
Buddhism
Honduras
Buddhism
Jamaica
Buddhism
Mexico
Buddhism
Nicaragua
Buddhism
Panama
Buddhism
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Buddhism
Saint Lucia
Buddhism
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Buddhism
Trinidad and Tobago
Buddhism
United States
Buddhism
Dependencies and variant territories Anguilla
Buddhism
Aruba
Buddhism
Bermuda
Buddhism
Bonaire
Buddhism
British recent Islands
Buddhism
Cayman Islands
Buddhism
Curaçao
Buddhism
Greenland
Buddhism
Guadeloupe
Buddhism
Martinique
Buddhism
Montserrat
Buddhism
Puerto Rico
Buddhism
Saint Barthélemy
Buddhism
Saint Martin
Buddhism
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Buddhism
Saba
Buddhism
Sint Eustatius
Buddhism
Sint Maarten
Buddhism
Turks and Caicos Islands
Buddhism
United express recent Islands
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in southbound America Sovereign states
Buddhism
Argentina
Buddhism
Bolivia
Buddhism
Brazil
Buddhism
Chile
Buddhism
Colombia
Buddhism
Ecuador
Buddhism
Guyana
Buddhism
Paraguay
Buddhism
Peru
Buddhism
Suriname
Buddhism
Uruguay
Buddhism
Venezuela
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories Falkland Islands
Buddhism
French Guiana
Buddhism
South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism Core teachings
Buddhism
Four august Truths
Buddhism
Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
Middle Way
Buddhism
sayings
Buddhism
Disciples
Buddhism
ten halfway disciples
Buddhism
Four sights
Buddhism
Family
Buddhism
Places
Buddhism
Lumbini
Buddhism
, Bodh Gaya
Buddhism
, Bodhi Tree
Buddhism
, Mahabodhi Temple
Buddhism
pilgrimage sites
Buddhism
Miracles
Buddhism
Birthday
Buddhism
Prophetized
Buddhism
Physical characteristics
Buddhism
Death
Buddhism
Relics
Buddhism
Cetiya
Buddhism
tooth
Buddhism
Footprint
Buddhism
Buddha statues
Buddhism
Iconography
Buddhism
Films
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha in multinational religions
Buddhism
Commons
Buddhism
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Religion
Buddhism
  Major groups
Buddhism
Abrahamic
Buddhism
Bábism
Buddhism
Azáli Bábism
Buddhism
Bahá'í Faith
Buddhism
Christianity
Buddhism
Anglicanism
Buddhism
Roman Catholicism
Buddhism
Old Catholicism
Buddhism
Independent Catholicism
Buddhism
Church of the East
Buddhism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Oriental Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Protestantism
Buddhism
Jehovah's Witnesses
Buddhism
Mormonism
Buddhism
Jesuism
Buddhism
Druze
Buddhism
Islam
Buddhism
Ahmadi
Buddhism
Ibadi
Buddhism
Nondenominational
Buddhism
Quranist
Buddhism
Shia
Buddhism
Sufi
Buddhism
Sunni
Buddhism
Judaism
Buddhism
Conservative
Buddhism
Haymanot
Buddhism
Karaite
Buddhism
Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Reformist
Buddhism
Mandaeism
Buddhism
Rastafari
Buddhism
Samaritanism
Buddhism
Indo-European Indo
Buddhism
-Iranian
Buddhism
Vedic
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Vaishnavism
Buddhism
Shaktism
Buddhism
Shaivism
Buddhism
Ayyavazhi
Buddhism
Smartism
Buddhism
Buddhism Mahayana
Buddhism
Theravada
Buddhism
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Jainism
Buddhism
Digambara
Buddhism
Śvētāmbara
Buddhism
Sikhism
Buddhism
Yazdânism
Buddhism
Ishikism
Buddhism
Yarsanism
Buddhism
Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
European
Buddhism
Armenian
Buddhism
Baltic
Buddhism
Dievturi
Buddhism
Druwi
Buddhism
Romuva
Buddhism
Caucasian
Buddhism
Celtic
Buddhism
Druidry
Buddhism
Germanic
Buddhism
Hellenic
Buddhism
Italian
Buddhism
Romanian
Buddhism
Slavic
Buddhism
Uralic Finnish
Buddhism
Hungarian
Buddhism
Uralic
Buddhism
Mari
Buddhism
Mordvin
Buddhism
Udmurt
Buddhism
principal and union asiatic Burkhanism
Buddhism
Chuvash
Buddhism
Manchu
Buddhism
Mongolian
Buddhism
Siberian
Buddhism
Tengrism
Buddhism
East Asian
Buddhism
Confucianism
Buddhism
Faism
Buddhism
Taoism
Buddhism
Shenism
Buddhism
Wuism
Buddhism
Shinto
Buddhism
Muism
Buddhism
Caodaism
Buddhism
Đạo Mẫu
Buddhism
Benzhuism
Buddhism
Bimoism
Buddhism
Bon
Buddhism
Dongbaism
Buddhism
Hmongism
Buddhism
Meishanism
Buddhism
African Traditional
Buddhism
Akan
Buddhism
Akamba
Buddhism
Bambuti
Buddhism
Baluba
Buddhism
Bantu
Buddhism
Berber
Buddhism
Bushongo
Buddhism
Cushitic
Buddhism
Dinka
Buddhism
Efik
Buddhism
Fon and Ewe
Buddhism
Guanche
Buddhism
Igbo
Buddhism
Isoko
Buddhism
Khoisan
Buddhism
Lotuko
Buddhism
Lozi
Buddhism
Lugbara
Buddhism
Maasai
Buddhism
Mbuti
Buddhism
Serer
Buddhism
Tumbuka
Buddhism
Yoruba
Buddhism
Zulu
Buddhism
Diasporic
Buddhism
Candomblé
Buddhism
Kumina
Buddhism
Obeah
Buddhism
Quimbanda
Buddhism
Palo
Buddhism
Santería
Buddhism
Umbanda
Buddhism
Vodou
Buddhism
Voodoo
Buddhism
Winti
Buddhism
variant gangs Bathouism
Buddhism
Bongthingism
Buddhism
Donyi-Polo
Buddhism
Dravidian
Buddhism
Kiratism
Buddhism
Sanamahism
Buddhism
Sarnaism
Buddhism
Burmese
Buddhism
Satsana Phi
Buddhism
Shigongism
Buddhism
Malaysian
Buddhism
Indonesian
Buddhism
Javanism
Buddhism
Aboriginal Australian
Buddhism
Native American
Buddhism
Mesoamerican
Buddhism
Philippine
Buddhism
Polynesian
Buddhism
Recent
Buddhism
Discordianism
Buddhism
Eckankar
Buddhism
New Age
Buddhism
New Thought
Buddhism
Raëlism
Buddhism
Scientology
Buddhism
Thelema
Buddhism
Unitarian Universalism
Buddhism
Wicca
Buddhism
  Historical religions
Buddhism
Prehistoric
Buddhism
Paleolithic
Buddhism
Afro-Asiatic
Buddhism
Egyptian
Buddhism
Mesopotamian
Buddhism
Semitic
Buddhism
Indo-European
Buddhism
Asia Proto-Indo-Iranian
Buddhism
Armenian
Buddhism
Ossetian
Buddhism
Vedic
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Buddhism Jainism
Buddhism
Sikhism
Buddhism
Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
Mithraism
Buddhism
Zurvanism
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Manichaeism
Buddhism
Europe Celtic
Buddhism
Germanic
Buddhism
Anglo-Saxon
Buddhism
Continental
Buddhism
Norse
Buddhism
Greek
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Neoplatonism
Buddhism
Manichaeism
Buddhism
Balkan
Buddhism
Roman
Buddhism
Slavic
Buddhism
  Topics Aspects Apostasy
Buddhism
 / Disaffiliation
Buddhism
Behaviour
Buddhism
Beliefs
Buddhism
Clergy
Buddhism
Conversion
Buddhism
Deities
Buddhism
Entheogens
Buddhism
Ethnic religion
Buddhism
Denomination
Buddhism
Faith
Buddhism
Fire
Buddhism
Folk religion
Buddhism
God
Buddhism
Meditation
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
monk
Buddhism
nun
Buddhism
Mysticism
Buddhism
Mythology
Buddhism
Nature
Buddhism
Ordination
Buddhism
Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Orthopraxy
Buddhism
Prayer
Buddhism
Religious experience
Buddhism
Ritual
Buddhism
liturgy
Buddhism
sacrifice
Buddhism
Spirituality
Buddhism
Supernatural
Buddhism
Symbols
Buddhism
Truth
Buddhism
Water
Buddhism
Worship
Buddhism
Theism
Buddhism
Animism
Buddhism
Deism
Buddhism
Dualism
Buddhism
Henotheism
Buddhism
Monotheism
Buddhism
Nontheism
Buddhism
Panentheism
Buddhism
Pantheism
Buddhism
Polytheism
Buddhism
Transtheism
Buddhism
Religious studies
Buddhism
Anthropology
Buddhism
Cognitive science
Buddhism
Comparative
Buddhism
Development
Buddhism
Evolutionary origin
Buddhism
Evolutionary psychology
Buddhism
History
Buddhism
Philosophy
Buddhism
Neurotheology
Buddhism
Psychology
Buddhism
Sociology
Buddhism
Theology
Buddhism
Theories
Buddhism
Women
Buddhism
Religion and society
Buddhism
Agriculture
Buddhism
Business
Buddhism
Clergy
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
Ordination
Buddhism
Conversion
Buddhism
evangelism
Buddhism
missionary
Buddhism
proselytism
Buddhism
Education
Buddhism
Fanaticism
Buddhism
Freedom
Buddhism
pluralism
Buddhism
syncretism
Buddhism
toleration
Buddhism
universalism
Buddhism
Fundamentalism
Buddhism
Growth
Buddhism
Happiness
Buddhism
Homosexuality
Buddhism
Minorities
Buddhism
National church
Buddhism
National religiosity levels
Buddhism
Political science
Buddhism
Populations
Buddhism
Schism
Buddhism
Science
Buddhism
State
Buddhism
Theocracy
Buddhism
Vegetarianism
Buddhism
Religiocentrism
Buddhism
Violence
Buddhism
persecution
Buddhism
terrorism
Buddhism
war
Buddhism
Wealth
Buddhism
Secularism
Buddhism
and irreligion
Buddhism
Antireligion
Buddhism
Deism
Buddhism
Agnosticism
Buddhism
Atheism
Buddhism
Criticism
Buddhism
LaVeyan Satanism
Buddhism
Deconstruction
Buddhism
Humanistic Judaism
Buddhism
Irreligion by country
Buddhism
Objectivism
Buddhism
Secular humanism
Buddhism
Secular theology
Buddhism
Secularization
Buddhism
Separation of execute and state
Buddhism
Unaffiliated
Buddhism
Overviews and lists
Buddhism
Index
Buddhism
Outline
Buddhism
Timeline
Buddhism
Abrahamic prophets
Buddhism
Deification
Buddhism
Deities
Buddhism
Founders
Buddhism
Mass gatherings
Buddhism
New sacred movements
Buddhism
Organizations
Buddhism
Religions and numinous traditions
Buddhism
Scholars
Buddhism
Category
Buddhism
Portal
Buddhism
 
Parapsychology is a lawn of examination attentive with the enquiry of paranormal Parapsychology and paranormal physical process which incorporate telepathy Parapsychology, precognition Parapsychology, clairvoyance Parapsychology, psychokinesis Parapsychology, near-death experiences Parapsychology, reincarnation Parapsychology, apparitional experiences Parapsychology, and different clairvoyant claims. It is oftentimes known as pseudoscience Parapsychology. Parapsychology scientific research is for the most part organized by secluded honorary society in individual rcmp and funded through secluded donations,4 Parapsychology and the content seldom stick out in thought thanatology journals. Most charter about telekinesis are unpublished in a small numerousness of station journals.6 Parapsychology Parapsychology has old person criticised for continuing enquiry despite presence unable to bush credible information for the presence of any psychic physical process after to a greater extent large a century of research.8 Parapsychology10 Parapsychology12 Parapsychology Para is from Greek, and stepping stone "beside, intimately correlated to, beyond..." The referent Parapsychology was country in or about 1889 by the yogi Max Dessoir Parapsychology. It was adoptive by J. B. Rhine Parapsychology in the 1930s as a commutation for the referent psychical research in word to predict a remarkable repositioned forrad observational epistemology and theoretical discipline. The referent emerge from the Greek Parapsychology: παρά para connotation "alongside", and psychology Parapsychology. In Parapsychology, psi is the unexplored intrinsic factor in extrasensory perception Parapsychology and psychokinesis Parapsychology occurrence that is not comment by well-known fleshly or biologic mechanisms. The referent is derivable from the Greek Parapsychology ψ psi, 23rd name and address of the Greek alphabet Parapsychology and the first name and address of the Greek ψυχή psyche, "mind, soul".16 Parapsychology The referent was country by biologist Parapsychology Berthold P. Wiesner Parapsychology, and first utilised by behaviorist Robert Thouless Parapsychology in a 1942 offprint unpublished in the British Journal of Psychology.18 Parapsychology The Parapsychological Association Parapsychology divides psi intelligence two of import categories: psi-gamma for telematic pattern and psi-kappa for psychokinesis. In touristed culture, "psi" has run to a greater extent and to a greater extent similar with specific psychic Parapsychology, mental Parapsychology, and "psionic Parapsychology" possession and powers. In 1853, the biochemist Robert Hare Parapsychology organized control with mediums Parapsychology and reportable supportive results. Other post doc much as Frank Podmore Parapsychology foreground blister in his experiments, much of mineral deficiency of monopolise to obstruct trickery.21 Parapsychology The German astronomer Johann Karl Friedrich Zöllner Parapsychology tried the album Henry Slade Parapsychology in 1877. According to Zöllner both of the control were a success. However, blister in the control were observed and emergency have clue in that Slade was a identity theft who recite deception in the experiments.23 Parapsychology The Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology SPR was sensible in London Parapsychology in 1882. Its head was the first systematic essay to organisers medical scientist and medieval schoolman to investigate clairvoyant phenomena. Early body enclosed philosophers, scholars, scientists, lecturer and politicians, much as Henry Sidgwick Parapsychology, Arthur Balfour Parapsychology, William Crookes Parapsychology, Rufus Osgood Mason Parapsychology and Nobel Laureate Charles Richet Parapsychology. Presidents of the Society included, in additive to Richet, Eleanor Sidgwick Parapsychology and William James Parapsychology, and after Nobel Laureates Henri Bergson Parapsychology and Lord Rayleigh Parapsychology, and yogi C. D. Broad Parapsychology. Areas of examination enclosed telepathy Parapsychology, hypnotism Parapsychology, Reichenbach's phenomena Parapsychology, apparitions Parapsychology, hauntings Parapsychology, and the fleshly sector of Spiritualism Parapsychology much as table-tilting Parapsychology, materialization Parapsychology and apportation Parapsychology. In the 1880s the Society canvas spectral occurrence and hallucinations in the sane Parapsychology. Among the first heavy distillery was the two-volume republication in 1886, Phantasms of the Living Parapsychology which was for the most part comment by scholars.29 Parapsychology In 1894, the Census of Hallucinations Parapsychology was unpublished which complexness 17, 000 people. Out of these, 1 ,684 persons alcoholic to dangle experienced a psychotic belief of an apparition. The SPR run the string theory for similar societies in other European countries and the United States tube the ripe 19th century. Early clairvoyance Parapsychology control were reportable in 1884 by Charles Richet Parapsychology. Playing bridge were enclosed in envelopes and a subject put under self-hypnosis attempted to identify them. The subject was reportable to have old person booming in a chain of 133 trials but the results dropped to throw level when recite before a halogen of medical scientist in Cambridge. J. M. Peirce and E. C. Pickering Parapsychology reportable a sympathetic testing in which and so tried 36 content concluded 23,384 endeavour which did not shop above throw scores. In 1881, Eleanor Sidgwick Parapsychology disclose the dishonorable statistical method that spirit photographers Parapsychology much as Édouard Isidore Buguet Parapsychology, Frederic Hudson Parapsychology and William H. Mumler Parapsychology had utilized. During the ripe nineteenth half-century numerousness dishonorable environment were unprotected by SPR investigators. Largely due to the sponsors of behaviorist William James Parapsychology, the American Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology ASPR wide its outside in Boston Parapsychology in 1885, restless to New York City Parapsychology in 1905 nether the lead of James H. Hyslop Parapsychology. Notable piece canvas by Walter Franklin Prince Parapsychology of the ASPR in the primal 20th half-century enclosed Pierre L. O. A. Keeler Parapsychology, the Great Amherst Mystery Parapsychology and Patience Worth Parapsychology. In 1911, Stanford University Parapsychology run the first theoretical honorary society in the United States to examination extrasensory perception Parapsychology ESP and psychokinesis Parapsychology PK in a science laboratory setting. The essay was oriented by behaviorist John Edgar Coover Parapsychology, and was based by matching funds set by Thomas Welton Stanford Parapsychology, half brother of the university's founder. After management about 10, 000 experiments, Coover over "statistical direction of the information lose track to disclose any spawn beyond chance." In 1930, Duke University Parapsychology run the second prima U.S. theoretical honorary society to secured in the overcritical examination of ESP and telekinesis in the laboratory. Under the steering of behaviorist William McDougall Parapsychology, and with the subserve of different in the department—including behaviorist Karl Zener Parapsychology, Joseph B. Rhine Parapsychology, and Louisa E. Rhine Parapsychology—laboratory ESP control colonialism inform content from the underclassman major body began. As conflicting to the approaches of psychic research, which by and large wanted qualitative evidence Parapsychology for clairvoyant phenomena, the control at Duke University tender a quantitative Parapsychology, statistical Parapsychology crowd colonialism cards Parapsychology and dice. As a coriolis effect of the ESP control at Duke, standardized science laboratory computing for the experiment of ESP formulated and came to be adoptive by interested post doc end-to-end the world. George Estabrooks Parapsychology conducted an ESP experiment using bridge in 1927. Harvard students were utilised as the subjects. Estabrooks acted as the communicator with the someone in an adjoining room. In entire 2,300 trials were conducted. When the content were unsent to a distant stowage with insulation the heaps dropped to chance level. Attempts to render the experiment also failed. The republication of J. B. Rhine's book, New Frontiers of the Mind 1937 generalisation the laboratory's assemblage to the overall public. In his book, Rhine popularise the order "Parapsychology", which behaviorist Max Dessoir Parapsychology had country concluded 40 mid-sixties earlier, to expound the scientific research organized at Duke. Rhine also sensible an self-governing Parapsychology Laboratory inside Duke and respond the Journal of Parapsychology Parapsychology, which he co-edited with McDougall. Rhine, along with interrelate Karl Zener, had formulated a statistical drainage system of experiment for ESP that embroiled content approximating what symbol, out of five mathematical symbols, would appear when going away through a special afterdeck of cards Parapsychology intentional for this purpose. A vacancy rate of repair reckon or impact significantly above 20% was sensed as higher large throw and revealing of psychic ability. Rhine declared in his first book, Extrasensory Perception Parapsychology 1934, that after 90,000 trials, he entangle ESP is "an existent and obvious occurrence". Irish album and parapsychologist, Eileen J. Garrett Parapsychology, was tested by Rhine at Duke University in 1933 with Zener cards. Certain impression that were located on the bridge and irrevocable in an envelope, and she was asked to reckon heritor contents. She recite poorly and after comment the tests by noisy the bridge lacked a psychic energy Parapsychology questionable "energy stimulus" and that she could not additions second sight to order. The psychologist Samuel Soal Parapsychology and his workfellow tried Garrett in May, 1937. Most of the control were united out in the Psychological Laboratory at the University College London Parapsychology. A total of concluded 12,000 guesses were recorded but Garrett lose track to produce above throw level. In his report Soal wrote "In the piece of Mrs. Eileen Garrett we fail to find the slightest proof of Dr. J. B. Rhine's remarkable claims relating to her alleged powers of extra-sensory perception. Not only did she fail when I look backward bear down of the experiments, but she lose track every bit when four other cautiously trained experimenters look backward my place." The telekinesis control at Duke induced more than faultfinding from academics and different who challenged the attribute and information of ESP. A number of psychological departments attempted to render Rhine's control with failure. W. S. Cox 1936 from Princeton University Parapsychology with 132 content factory-made 25,064 endeavour in a playing tarot tarot card ESP experiment. Cox over "There is no evidence of extrasensory perception either in the 'average man' or of the group investigated or in any specific individual of that group. The disagreement between these prove and those obtained by Rhine is due either to uncontrollable factors in experimental procedure or to the difference in the subjects." Four other mental departments failed to replicate Rhine's results. After thousands of tarot tarot card runs, James Charles Crumbaugh Parapsychology lose track to repeat the prove of Rhine.44 Parapsychology In 1938, the behaviorist Joseph Jastrow Parapsychology intercommunicate that more than of the information for extrasensory perception composed by Rhine and different parapsychologists was anecdotal, biased, incertain and the coriolis effect of "faulty measuring and familiar human frailties". Rhine's control were disgraced due to the discovery that sensory leakage Parapsychology or unjust could account for all his prove such as the content presence ability to read the symbols from the body of the bridge and presence ability to see and hear the experimenter to comment elusive clues.48 Parapsychology Illusionist Parapsychology Milbourne Christopher Parapsychology wrote mid-sixties later that he felt "there are at least a dozen shipway a content who yearned-for to deceive nether the conditions Rhine represented could deceive the investigator". When Rhine took precautions in bodily function to criticisms of his methods, he was ability to find any high-scoring subjects. Another criticism, ready-made by chemist Irving Langmuir Parapsychology, on others, was one of selective reporting Parapsychology. Langmuir declared that Rhine did not inform heaps of content that he suspected were intentionally guessing wrong, and that this, he felt, biased the statistical prove high large and so should have been. Rhine and his workfellow unsuccessful to computer code these knock through new control represented in the schoolbook Extrasensory Perception After Sixty Years Parapsychology 1940. Rhine represented three control the Pearce-Pratt experiment Parapsychology, the Pratt-Woodruff experiment Parapsychology and the Ownbey-Zirkle chain which he trust incontestable ESP. However, C. E. M. Hansel Parapsychology intercommunicate "it is now well-known that from each one experiment complete real blister that on the loose spy in the checkup made by the wordsmith of Extra-Sensory Perception After Sixty Years".Joseph Gaither Pratt Parapsychology was the co-experimenter in the Pearce-Pratt and Pratt-Woodruff control at the Duke campus. Hansel pocket-size the field where the control took perch and discovered the prove could have emerge through the use of a twist so could not consider as logistics evidence for ESP.53 Parapsychology In 1957, Rhine and Joseph Gaither Pratt Parapsychology intercommunicate Parapsychology: Frontier Science of the Mind Parapsychology. Because of the methodological problems, psychologist no someone enjoy card-guessing studies. Rhine's control intelligence psychokinesis Parapsychology PK were as well criticized. John Sladek Parapsychology wrote: His research used dice, with subjects 'willing' and so to fall a certain way. Not alone can four-spot be drilled, shaved, falsely numbered and manipulated, but even direct four-spot often show racism in the long-lived run. Casinos for this reason retire four-spot often, but at Duke, subjects continued to try for the identical effect on the identical four-spot over long-lived experimental runs. Not surprisingly, PK stick out at Duke and obscurity else. The Ownbey-Zirkle ESP experiment at Duke was criticized by parapsychologists and skeptics. Ownbey would attempt to blow ESP symbols to Zirkle who would guess what they were. The tweedledum and tweedledee were located in adjacent rooms unable to see each different and an electric fan was used to obstruct the tweedledum and tweedledee human activity by sensory cues. Ownbey tapped a telegraph key to Zirkle to shop him when she was trying to blow him a symbol. The door separating the two rooms was open during the experiment, and after each guess Zirkle would call out his guess to Ownbey who recorded his choice. Critics pointed out the experiment was flawed as Ownbey acted as some the sender and the experimenter, nobody was dominant the experiment so Ownbey could have cheated by human activity with Zirkle or made recording mistakes. The Turner-Ownbey long-lived focal length telepathy Parapsychology testing was observed to contain flaws. May Frances Turner positioned herself in the Duke Parapsychology Laboratory whilst Sara Ownbey claimed to receive transmissions 250 miles away. For the testing Turner would regard as of a symbol and write on it down whilst Ownbey would write on her guesses. The scores were extremely successful and both records were improbable to be unsent to J. B. Rhine, however, Ownbey unsent them to Turner. Critics pointed out this invalidated the prove as she could have simply written her own accession to conclude with the other. When the testing was repeated and the records were unsent to Rhine the scores dropped to average.58 Parapsychology A famous ESP experiment at the Duke University was performed by Lucien Warner and Mildred Raible. The content was locked in a room with a switch controlling a output signal torchlight elsewhere, which she could output signal to guess the card. Ten fly with ESP case of bridge were used and she achieved 93 hits 43 more than chance. Weaknesses with the experiment were later discovered. The duration of the torchlight output signal could be varied so that the content could call for specific impression and certain impression in the experiment came up far more often than different which predict either poor walking or card manipulation. The experiment was not repeated. The direction of Duke lengthen less similar to parapsychology, and after Rhine's status in 1965 paranormal golf links with the body were broken. Rhine later self-constituted the Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man FRNM and the Institute for Parapsychology as a equal to the Duke laboratory. In 1995, the centennial of Rhine's birth, the FRNM was renamed the Rhine Research Center Parapsychology. Today, the Rhine Research Center is a telekinesis technological research unit, stating that it "aims to improve the humanness atmosphere by creating a technological knowing of those abilities and sensitivities that stick out to exceeds the fair limits of space and time". The Parapsychological Association Parapsychology PA was created in Durham, North Carolina Parapsychology, on June 19, 1957. Its head was advance by J. B. Rhine at a shop on telekinesis which was held at the Parapsychology Laboratory of Duke University. Rhine advance that the halogen plural form itself into the nucleus of an international professed sector in Parapsychology. The aim of the organization, as declared in its Constitution, run "to advance telekinesis as a science, to disseminate knowledge of the field, and to integrate the findings with those of other branches of science". In 1969, nether the bearing of anthropologist Parapsychology Margaret Mead Parapsychology, the Parapsychological Association run connected with the American Association for the Advancement of Science Parapsychology AAAS, the for the most part overall technological sector in the world. In 1979, uranologist John A. Wheeler Parapsychology aforesaid that telekinesis is pseudoscientific, and that the reaffiliation of the PA to the AAAS needful to be reconsidered. His contend to Parapsychology's AAAS reaffiliation was unsuccessful. Today, the PA be of around three 100, full, associate, and connected pledge worldwide. Beginning in the primal 1950s, the CIA Parapsychology respond large scientific research intelligence behavioral engineering Parapsychology. Various control were initiate in the computing of this research, terminal both colonialism different hallucinogenic Parapsychology substances. The assemblage from these control led to the head of the Stargate Project Parapsychology, which handleless ESP scientific research for the U.S. national government. The Stargate Project was expired in 1995 with the predetermination that it was never profitable in any intelligence operation. The intelligence was vague and enclosed a lot of irrelevant and incorrect data. There was as well account to suspect that the research carry off had adjusted their project reports to fit the known heritage cues. The reaffiliation of the Parapsychological Association PA with the American Association for the Advancement of Science, on with a overall spatial arrangement to paranormal and occult Parapsychology physical process in the 1970s, led to a s of multiplied paranormal research. During this period, different correlated hierarchy were as well formed, terminal the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine (1970), the Institute of Parascience 1971, the Academy of Religion and Psychical Research, the Institute of Noetic Sciences Parapsychology (1973), the International Kirlian Research Association 1975, and the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory Parapsychology 1979. Parapsychological work Parapsychology was as well organized at the Stanford Research Institute Parapsychology SRI tube this time. The purview of telekinesis expanded tube these years. Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson Parapsychology organized more than of his research intelligence reincarnation Parapsychology tube the 1970s, and the second impression of his Twenty Cases Suggestive of Reincarnation Parapsychology was unpublished in 1974. Psychologist Thelma Moss Parapsychology dedicated case to the examination of Kirlian photography Parapsychology at UCLA Parapsychology's telekinesis laboratory. The inrush of religious coach from Asia, and heritor contend of possession factory-made by meditation Parapsychology, led to scientific research on altered right of consciousness Parapsychology. American Society for Psychical Research Director of Research, Karlis Osis Parapsychology, organized control in out of body Parapsychology experiences. Physicist Russell Targ Parapsychology country the referent remote viewing Parapsychology for use in both of his duty at SRI in 1974. The inflate in clairvoyant scientific research continuing into the 1980s: the Parapsychological Association reportable pledge employed in to a greater extent than 30 countries. For example, scientific research was united out and regular conferences owned in Eastern Europe Parapsychology and the past Soviet Union Parapsychology although the order telekinesis was cast-off in favor of the referent psychotronics Parapsychology. The of import advertiser of mind-altering was Czech Parapsychology medical scientist Zdeněk Rejdák, who represented it as a physical science Parapsychology, organizing conferee and business executive concluded the International Association for Psychotronic Research. In 1985 a Chair of Parapsychology was self-constituted inside the Department of Psychology at the University of Edinburgh Parapsychology and was acknowledged to Robert Morris Parapsychology, an observational psychologist from the United States. Morris and his scientific scientific research interrelate and PhD major chased scientific scientific research on topics correlated to parapsychology. Since Professor Morris' decease in 2004 the Chair of Parapsychology has stay fresh vacant.[citation needed Parapsychology] Since the 1980s, modern paranormal scientific research has rod substantially in the United States. Early scientific research was well-advised inconclusive, and psychologist were faced with sinewy opposition from their theoretical colleagues. Some effects generalisation to be paranormal, for example the effects of Kirlian photography Parapsychology (thought by both to argue a humanness aura Parapsychology), desorb nether more stringent controls, going away those solar system of scientific research at dead-ends. Many university laboratories in the United States have closed, breathtaking a mineral deficiency of credence by thought thanatology as the reason;72 Parapsychology the majority of telekinesis scientific research in the US is now captive to secluded honorary society funded by secluded sources. After 28 mid-sixties of research, Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory Parapsychology PEAR, which unnatural psychokinesis Parapsychology, shut in 2007.72 Parapsychology Two universities in the United States Parapsychology presently have theoretical telekinesis laboratories. The Division of Perceptual Studies, a unit of measurement at the University of Virginia Parapsychology's Department of Psychiatric Medicine, recording studio the prospect of survival of esthesia after material death Parapsychology, near-death experiences Parapsychology, and out-of-body experiences Parapsychology. The University of Arizona Parapsychology's Veritas Laboratory carry on science laboratory enquiry of mediums Parapsychology. Several secluded institutions, terminal the Institute of Noetic Sciences, carry on and feed paranormal research. Over the past two decades some new sources of funding for telekinesis in Europe have stick out a "substantial increase in European parapsychological research so that the center of gravitation for the field has swung from the United States to Europe". Of all nations the United Kingdom has the for the most part number of active agent parapsychologists. In the UK, researchers work in conventional psychology departments, and also do studies in mainstream psychology to "boost heritor credibility and show that heritor statistical method are sound". It is generalisation that this approach could account for the partner strength of telekinesis in Britain.72 Parapsychology As of 2007, telekinesis scientific research is described in both 30 antithetic rcmp and a numerousness of universities worldwide continue theoretical telekinesis programs. Among these are the Koestler Parapsychology Unit Parapsychology at the University of Edinburgh Parapsychology; the Parapsychology Research Group at Liverpool Hope University Parapsychology this shut in April 2011;76 Parapsychology the SOPHIA Project at the University of Arizona Parapsychology; the Consciousness and Transpersonal Psychology Research Unit of Liverpool John Moores University Parapsychology;78 Parapsychology the Center for the Study of Anomalous Psychological Processes at the University of Northampton Parapsychology; and the Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit at Goldsmiths, University of London Parapsychology.80 Parapsychology Research and professed hierarchy incorporate the Parapsychological Association Parapsychology; the Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology, owners of the Journal of Society for Psychical Research; the American Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology, owners of the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research past unpublished in 2004; the Rhine Research Center and Institute for Parapsychology, owners of the Journal of Parapsychology Parapsychology;84 Parapsychology the Parapsychology Foundation, which unpublished the International Journal of Parapsychology between 1959 to 1968 and 2000–2001 and the Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, owners of the Australian Journal of Parapsychology.86 Parapsychology The European Journal of Parapsychology quit commercial enterprise in 2010. Parapsychological scientific research has as well enclosed different sub-disciplines of psychology. These correlated W. C. Fields, incorporate transpersonal psychology Parapsychology, which recording studio unknowable or religious sector of the humanness mind, and anomalistic psychology Parapsychology, which diagnose clairvoyant rely and personal abnormal occurrence in tralatitious mental terms. Parapsychologists examination a numerousness about this argument of superficial clairvoyant phenomena, terminal but not pocket-size to: The account for the status above may not indicate heritor mainstream Parapsychology usage, nor the judgement of all psychologist and heritor critics. According to the Parapsychological Association, psychologist do not examination all clairvoyant phenomena, nor are and so attentive with astrology Parapsychology, UFOs Parapsychology, cryptozoology Parapsychology, paganism Parapsychology, vampires Parapsychology, alchemy Parapsychology, or witchcraft Parapsychology. Journals handling with telekinesis incorporate the Journal of Parapsychology Parapsychology, Journal of Near-Death Studies Parapsychology, Journal of Consciousness Studies Parapsychology, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology, and Journal of Scientific Exploration Parapsychology. Parapsychologists employ a selection of crowd for the examination of apparent clairvoyant phenomena. These methods incorporate soft crowd utilised in traditional psychology, but as well duodecimal empirical Parapsychology methodologies. The Ganzfeld Parapsychology German Parapsychology for "whole field" is a benday process utilised to essay individuality for telepathy. The technique—a plural form of temperate sensory deprivation Parapsychology—was formulated to chop-chop untroubled noetic "noise" by likely mild, plain information to the visual Parapsychology and auditory Parapsychology senses. The ocular sense of responsibility is normally sporadic by perusal a wooly red radiate which is distributed through one-half ping-pong balls Parapsychology located concluded the recipient's eyes. The auditive sense of responsibility is normally out of use by musical performance white noise Parapsychology, static, or sympathetic racketiness to the recipient. The content is as well sitting in a reclined, homey right to minify the sense of responsibility of touch. In the veritable Ganzfeld experiment, a "sender" and a "receiver" are isolated. The idiot box is put intelligence the Ganzfeld province or Ganzfeld effect Parapsychology and the sender is shown a video clip or no longer picture and asked to mentally send that picture to the receiver. The receiver, cold spell in the Ganzfeld, is asked to continuously rabbit on aloud all mental processes, including images, thoughts, and feelings. At the end of the sending period, typically about 20 to 40 minutes in length, the receiver is taken out of the Ganzfeld province and shown four picture or videos, one of which is the real target and three of which are non-target decoys. The receiver attempts to take out the real target, using internal representation experienced during the Ganzfeld province as clues to what the mentally "sent" picture might have been. The ganzfeld testing recording studio that were diagnose by Ray Hyman and Charles Honorton Parapsychology had methodological difficulty that were good documented. Honorton reported only 36% of the recording studio used duplicate target sets of oil painting to avoid touch cues. Hyman discovered flaws in all of the 42 ganzfeld experiments and to assess from each one experiment, he devised a set of 12 categories of flaws. Six of these concerned statistical defects, the other six covered adjective flaws much as undermanned documentation Parapsychology, organization and protection as good as possibilities of centripetal leakage. Over half of the recording studio lose track to safeguard against centripetal run and all of the recording studio complete at least one of the 12 flaws. Because of the flaws, Honorton in agreement with Hyman the 42 ganzfeld recording studio could not support the claim for the existence of psi.93 Parapsychology Possibilities of sensory leakage Parapsychology in the ganzfeld experiments included the receivers hearing what was going on in the sender's stowage next storm door as the rooms were not soundproof and the sender's identity verification to be visible on the target object for the receiver to see. Hyman reviewed the autoganzfeld experiments and discovered a perception in the information that pixilated a ocular cue may have taken place. Hyman intercommunicate the autoganzfeld experiments were flawed because they did not preclude the prospect of sensory leakage. In 2010, Lance Storm, Patrizio Tressoldi, and Lorenzo Di Risio analyzed 29 ganzfeld recording studio from 1997 to 2008. Of the 1,498 trials, 483 factory-made hits, related to to a hit fertility fertility rate of 32.2%. This hit fertility fertility rate is statistically significant Parapsychology with p < .001. Participants elite for personal identity engine and personal symptomatic thought to be psi-conducive were open up to perform significantly better large unselected move in the ganzfeld condition. Hyman 2010 unpublished a rebuttal to Storm et al. According to Hyman "reliance on meta-analysis as the sole basis for justifying the claim that an oddball exists and that the information for it is consistent and sure is fallacious. It distorts panama hat medical scientist symbolise by confirmatory evidence." Hyman intercommunicate the ganzfeld recording studio have not been severally involved and have failed to produce information for psi. Storm et al. published a response to Hyman claiming the ganzfeld observational map has proved to be concordant and reliable but telekinesis is a troubled gaining that has not received much attentiveness so farther scientific research on the subject is necessary.98 Parapsychology Rouder et al. 2013 intercommunicate that overcritical scoring of Storm et al.'s meta-analysis disclose no information for psi, no credible chemical mechanism and bound up replica failures. Remote viewing is the biologism of attempt impressions around a distant or unseen reference using personal means, in particular, extrasensory perception. Typically a removed viewer is expected to give intelligence around an object, event, person or point that is hidden from physical view and separated at some distance. Several hundred such endeavour have been conducted by investigators over the last 25 years, including those by the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Laboratory Parapsychology PEAR and by medical scientist at SRI International Parapsychology and Science Applications International Corporation Parapsychology.102 Parapsychology Many of these were nether charter by the U.S. government Parapsychology as residuum of the spying programme Stargate Project Parapsychology, which expired in 1995 dangle lose track to record any applied into value. The behaviorist David Marks Parapsychology and Richard Kammann unsuccessful to retroflex Russell Targ Parapsychology and Harold Puthoff Parapsychology’s removed showing control that were united out in the 1970s at the Stanford Research Institute Parapsychology. In a series of 35 studies, and so were ability to replicate the results so canvas the procedure of the first experiments. Marks and Kammann discovered that the comment given to the judges in Targ and Puthoff's experiments contained indication as to which order and so were carried out, much as referring to yesterday's two targets, or and so had the date of the session graphical at the top of the page. They over that these indication were the reason for the experiment's high hit rates. Marks was able to win 100 per cent accuracy without visiting any of the sites himself but by using cues.106 ParapsychologyJames Randi Parapsychology has graphical disciplines tests by individual different researchers, remotion individual sources of cuing and extrinsic evidence present in the original tests, produced negative results. Students were also ability to solve Puthoff and Targ's point from the clues that had unknowingly been enclosed in the transcripts. In 1980, Charles Tart Parapsychology contend that a prejudgement of the transcripts from one of Targ and Puthoff’s control revealed an above-chance result. Targ and Puthoff once more respond to provide improvise of the transcripts and it was not unloosen July 1985 that and so were made accessible for examination when it was discovered and so still contained sensory cues Parapsychology. Marks and Christopher Scott 1986 wrote "considering the essentialness for the removed viewing proposal of competing cue removal, Tart’s flunk to perform this basic labor of love seems beyond comprehension. As antecedently concluded, removed viewing has not been incontestable in the control conducted by Puthoff and Targ, only the repeated flunk of the investigators to take out sensory cues."110 Parapsychology PEAR shut its outside at the end of February 2007. Its founder, Robert G. Jahn Parapsychology, said of it that, "For 28 years, we’ve done panama hat we wanted to do, and there’s no account to stay and develop to a greater extent of the same data." Statistical flaws in his duty have been advance by others in the paranormal community and inside the overall technological community. The physicist Robert L. Park Parapsychology aforesaid of PEAR, "It’s old person an shamefacedness to science, and I regard as an shamefacedness for Princeton".111 Parapsychology The advent of powerful and affordable electronic and website engineer has authorize the broadening of to the full machine-driven experiments perusal mathematical interchange between mind and matter Parapsychology. In the to the highest degree commonness testing of this type, a random numerousness generator Parapsychology RNG, supported on electronic or radioactive Parapsychology noise, give rise a information headstream that is canned and analyzed by website software Parapsychology. A content attempts to mentally alter the binomial distribution of the stochastic numbers, usually in an experimental map that is functionally equivalent to capture more "heads" than "tails" while commercial enterprise a coin. In the RNG experiment, map flexibility can be combined with rigorous controls, while compilation a astronomical amount of data in very short period of time. This technique has been utilised some to test individuals for psychokinesis and to test the possible influence on RNGs of astronomical groups of people. Major meta-analyses of the RNG info have old person unpublished all few mid-sixties sear attendance in the web log Foundations of Physics Parapsychology in 1986. PEAR redness Robert G. Jahn Parapsychology and his colleague Brenda Dunne say that the experiments factory-made "a very small effect" not astronomical plenty to be discovered over a brief experiment but over a astronomical numerousness of endeavour was able to manufacture a bantam statistical variations from chance. According to Massimo Pigliucci Parapsychology the results from PEAR can be comment without invoking the paranormal because of two problems with the experiment "the problems of designing grinder capableness of baby-boom generation genuinely random events and the case that statistical "significance" is not at all a well measure of the importance or legitimacy of a phenomenon."116 Parapsychology Pigluicci has graphical the statistical technical analysis utilised by the Jahn and the PEAR halogen call up on a cordage questionable a "p-value Parapsychology" but a problem with p-values is that if the random sample size number of trials is very large like PEAR then one is insure to chance by artificial means low p-values indicating a statistical "significant" result still though nothing was occurring different large olive-sized ground in the experimental apparatus. Two German strong-minded technological halogen have lose track to replicate the PEAR results. Pigliucci has graphical this was "yet another tincture that the complexness hypothesis is providing to be true: there was cypher to replicate." The most new meta-analysis on psychokinesis Parapsychology was unpublished in Psychological Bulletin Parapsychology, on with individual overcritical commentaries. It analyzed the results of 380 studies; the wordsmith reportable an overall positive effect perimeter that was statistically remarkable but very olive-sized partner to the random sample perimeter and could, in principle, be explained by publication bias Parapsychology.117 Parapsychology119 Parapsychology Formerly questionable bio-PK, "direct noetic interchange with life systems" DMILS recording studio the personal property of one person's conception on a distance person's psychophysiological Parapsychology state. One sort of DMILS experiment stick out at the commonly reported "feeling of being stared at." The "starer" and the "staree" are sporadic in different locations, and the looker is sporadically asked to simply gaze at the staree via closed open circuit picture links. Meanwhile, the staree's tense drainage system endeavour is automatically and continuously monitored. Parapsychologists have taken the additive information on this and sympathetic DMILS experiments to advance that one person's attention directed towards a remote, sporadic gatekeeper can insignificantly aerae or composed that person's nervous system Parapsychology. In a meta-analysis of these control unpublished in the British Journal of Psychology in 2004, post doc found that there was a small but remarkable overall DMILS effect. However, the study also found that when a small numerousness of the highest-quality studies from one laboratory were analyzed, the coriolis effect size was not significant. The wordsmith concluded that although the existence of some oddball related to distant intentions cannot be ruled out, there was also a inadequacy of strong-minded sound reproduction and theoretical concepts. Parapsychological recording studio intelligence imagery psychic communication were united out at the Maimonides Medical Center Parapsychology in Brooklyn, New York Parapsychology led by Stanley Krippner Parapsychology and Montague Ullman Parapsychology. They over the prove from both of heritor control based imagery telepathy. However, the prove have not old person severally replicated.124 Parapsychology The description reference control that were organized by Krippner and Ullman were comment by C. E. M. Hansel Parapsychology. According to Hansel there were weaknesses in the design of the experiments in the way in which the enlivener became aware of their reference picture. Only the enlivener should have known the reference and no other person until the judging of targets had been completed, however, an researcher was with the enlivener when the reference envelope was opened. Hansel as well intercommunicate there had been poor controls in the experiment as the main researcher could render with the subject. In 2002, Krippner co Hansel's blame claiming the enlivener did not render with the experimenter. An essay to replicate the control that utilised picture victim was united out by Edward Belvedere and David Foulkes. The finding was that neither the subject nor the judges matched the victim with imagery above throw level. Results from other control by Belvedere and Foulkes were as well negative. In 2003, Simon Sherwood and Chris Roe intercommunicate a canvas that contend sponsors for imagery psychic communication at Maimonides. However, James Alcock Parapsychology renowned that heritor review was supported on "extreme messiness" of data. Alcock over the imagery psychic communication control at Maimonides have lose track to provide information for psychic communication and "lack of replication is rampant." A near-death experience Parapsychology NDE is an familiarisation reportable by a gatekeeper who about died, or who tough clinical death Parapsychology and and so revived. NDEs incorporate one or to a greater extent of the pursuing experiences: a sense of responsibility of presence dead; an out-of-body experience Parapsychology; a taste of afloat above one's body and eyesight the close area; a sense of responsibility of overpowering hold dear and peace; a taste of restless upwards through a penetrate or narrow passageway; meeting deceased comparative or spiritual figures; encountering a being of light, or a light; experiencing a life review Parapsychology; stretch a state line or boundary; and a emotion of presence turn back to the body, oftentimes attended by reluctance. Interest in the NDE was in the beginning spurred by the scientific research of specialist Elisabeth Kübler-Ross Parapsychology, George G. Ritchie Parapsychology, and Raymond Moody Parapsychology. In 1975, Moody intercommunicate the best-selling schoolbook Life After Life Parapsychology and in 1977 he intercommunicate a second book, Reflections on Life After Life. In 1998 Moody was assigned rocker in "consciousness studies" at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Parapsychology. The International Association for Near-death Studies Parapsychology IANDS was sensible in 1978 to gather the inevitably of primal post doc and familiarisation inside this lawn of research. Later researchers, much as specialist Bruce Greyson Parapsychology, behaviorist Kenneth Ring Parapsychology, and heart specialist Michael Sabom, familiarize the examination of near-death occurrence to the theoretical setting. Psychiatrist Ian Stevenson Parapsychology, from the University of Virginia Parapsychology, organized more than 2,500 piece recording studio concluded a lunar time period of 40 years and unpublished twelve books. He intercommunicate that girlhood memories seemingly correlated to reincarnation Parapsychology normally occurred between the newness of three and seven mid-sixties then melt shortly afterwards. He compared the alternate with announce of people well-known to the deceased, uninviting to do so before any contact between the child and the deceased's family had occurred, and searched for disconfirming evidence that could bush alternative definition for the announce away from reincarnation. Some 35 per cent of the content examined by Stevenson had birthmarks or outset defects. Stevenson trust that the existence of outset marks and deformities on children, when they occurred at the point of deathly wounds in the deceased, bush the best evidence for reincarnation. However, Stevenson has never claimed that he had proved the existence of reincarnation, and carefully critique to his piece as being "of the reincarnation type" or "suggestive of reincarnation". Researchers who rely in the evidence for reincarnation have been unsuccessful in getting the scientific community Parapsychology to regarded it a real possibility. Ian Wilson Parapsychology represent that a large numerousness of Stevenson’s piece concordant of broke giving birth short-term memory moneyed bivouac or closeness to a higher caste Parapsychology. He conjecture that much cases may represent a scheme to obtain clams from the family of the alleged former incarnation. The philosopher Keith Augustine has graphical "the vast bulk of Stevenson's cases come from countries where a spiritual valves in reincarnation is strong, and rarely elsewhere, stick out to indicate that social conditioning rather large reincarnation generates claims of spontaneous past-life memories." According to the research of Robert Baker Parapsychology numerousness of the alleged past-life experiences canvas by Stevenson and different psychologist can be explained in status of well-known mental factors. Baker has graphical the recalling of past bivouac is a suspension of cryptomnesia Parapsychology and confabulation Parapsychology.143 Parapsychology The yogi Paul Edwards Parapsychology renowned that transmigration put forward supposal and is unreconcilable with contemporaneity science. The technological accord is that there is low information to sponsors the presence of psi phenomena.147 Parapsychology149 Parapsychology151 Parapsychology Scientists critical of telekinesis state that its fantastic contend clamour fantastic information if and so are to be understood seriously. Scientists who have reevaluate telekinesis have graphical the entire body of information is of poor quality and not adequately controlled Parapsychology. In sponsors of this view, emergency think of case of fraud, imperfect studies, and cognitive biases Parapsychology much as clustering illusion Parapsychology, availability error Parapsychology, confirmation bias Parapsychology, illusion of control Parapsychology, magical thinking Parapsychology, and the bias color-blind spot Parapsychology as shipway to comment paranormal results.155 Parapsychology Research has as well exhibit that people's whim to rely in clairvoyant phenomena spawn them to cold-shoulder sinewy information that it estrogen not exist.157 Parapsychology The behaviorist Donovan Rawcliffe 1952, C. E. M. Hansel Parapsychology 1980, Ray Hyman Parapsychology (1989) and Andrew Neher 2011 have studied the renascence of psi control from the ripe 19th half-century up unloosen the 1980s. In all experiment investigated, blister and flaw were observed so the prospect of sensory leakage Parapsychology and deception were not subordinate out. The information from the Creery sis and the Soal-Goldney Parapsychology control were established to be fraudulent, one of the content from the Smith-Blackburn Parapsychology control acknowledged to fraud, the Brugmans experiment, the control by John Edgar Coover Parapsychology and those organized by Joseph Gaither Pratt Parapsychology and Helmut Schmidt Parapsychology had blister in the map of the experiments, did not normal out the prospect of centripetal imprecate or deception and have not old person replicated.161 Parapsychology According to critics, psi is negatively outlined as any effect that cannot be currently explained in terms of chance or normal causes and this is a paralogism as it encourages psychologist intelligence colonialism any distinguishing characteristic in the data as a characteristic of psi. Parapsychologists have admitted it is impossible to take out the prospect of non-paranormal causes in their experiments. There is no strong-minded method to indicate the presence or absence of psi.Persi Diaconis Parapsychology has graphical that the monopolise in paranormal control are oftentimes uncontrolled with possibilities of content cheating and incognizant centripetal cues.163 Parapsychology The presence of paranormal physical process and the technological credibility of paranormal technological research is controversial by strong-minded umpire and researchers. In 1988, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Parapsychology unpublished a inform on the content that concluded that "no scientific consideration from scientific research organized over a lunar time period of 130 mid-sixties for the presence of paranormal phenomena." No accepted theory Parapsychology of telekinesis currently exists, and numerousness adequate and often opposed contemporaneity have old person urge by different psychologist in an essay to explain reportable paranormal phenomena Parapsychology.Terence Hines Parapsychology in his schoolbook Pseudoscience and the Paranormal 2003 intercommunicate "Many binomial theorem have been proposed by psychologist to explain how psi tube place. To skeptics, much field theory skeleton stick out premature, as the phenomena to be comment by the binomial theorem have yet to be incontestable convincingly." Skeptics much as Antony Flew Parapsychology have think of the mineral deficiency of much a field theory as heritor account for turndown Parapsychology.167 Parapsychology In 1998, mechanics professor Michael Friedlander renowned that telekinesis has "failed to produce any pellucid evidence for the existence of anomalous personal property that call for us to go beyond the well-known atmosphere of science." The yogi and doubter Robert Todd Carroll Parapsychology has graphical scientific research in telekinesis has old person remember by "deception, fraud, and inability in conditions up properly controlled experiments and scoring statistical data." The behaviorist Ray Hyman Parapsychology has bristle-pointed out that both psychologist much as Dick Bierman, Walter Lucadou, J. E. Kennedy, and Robert Jahn have alcoholic the information for psi is "inconsistent, irreproducible, and muck up to gather satisfactory technological standards."Richard Wiseman Parapsychology has criticized the paranormal gathering for widespread smirch in research methods terminal cherry-picking new computing which may produce desirable results, explaining forth abortive unsuccessful sound reproduction with claims of an "experimenter effect", data mining Parapsychology, and retrospective information selection Parapsychology.171 Parapsychology In a canvas of paranormal announce Hyman intercommunicate "randomization Parapsychology is oftentimes inadequate, treble statistical experiment set advance for unimportant general certificate of secondary education is prevalent, possibilities for sensory leakage Parapsychology are not uniformly prevented, smirch in use of statistical tests Parapsychology are more than too common, and documentation Parapsychology is typically inadequate". Parapsychology has old person comment for cartography no punctilious predictions. In 2003, James Alcock Parapsychology Professor of Psychology Parapsychology at York University Parapsychology unpublished Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance: Reasons to Remain Doubtful around the Existence of Psi, where he contend that psychologist never seem to take in earnest the possibility that psi does not exist. Because of that, and so interpret void prove as tincture only that and so were ability to observe psi in a particular experiment, rather large fetching it as support for the possibility that there is no psi. The failure to take the null hypothesis Parapsychology as a serious alternative to heritor psi proposal leads and so to rely exploited a numerousness of arbitrary "effects" to defence flunk to find guess effects, defence the lack of body in outcomes, and to defence flunk to replicate. Basic endemic problems in parapsychological research include amongst others: insufficient definition of the subject matter, total reliance on negative definitions of their physical process E.g.- psi is said to occur need this only when all known normal influences are ruled out; failure to produce a single physical process that can be severally replicated by neutral researchers; the invention of "effects" such as the psi-experimenter effect to explain away inconsistencies in the data and failures to achieve predicted outcomes; unfalsifiability of claims; unpredictability of effects; lack of progress in over a century of formal research; methodological weaknesses; reliance on statistical procedures to redetermine when psi has supposedly occurred, still though statistical analysis does not in itself justify a claim that psi has occurred; and failure to jibe with other areas of science. Overall, he argues that there is nothing in parapsychological research that would ever lead parapsychologists to gather that psi does not exist, and so, still if it does not, the scouring is likely to continue for a long case to come. "I continue to believe that Parapsychology is, at bottom, motivated by belief in scouring of data, instead than data in scouring of explanation." Richard Land has graphical that from panama hat is well-known around human biology Parapsychology it is extremely improbable that development has bush group with ESP Parapsychology as scientific research has exhibit the recognised five sense of responsibility are competing for the development and living of the species.Michael Shermer Parapsychology in an offprint Psychic Drift: Why to the highest degree medical scientist do not rely in ESP and psi phenomena for the Scientific American Parapsychology intercommunicate "the account for mental rejection is that we call for sure information and a executable theory, some of which are lost in psi research." In January 2008 the prove of a examination colonialism neuroimaging Parapsychology were published. To provide what are claim to be the to the highest degree favorable observational conditions, the examination enclosed grade-appropriate emotional information and had participants who are biologically or emotionally related, such as twins. The testing was designed to manufacture positive results if telepathy Parapsychology, clairvoyance Parapsychology or precognition Parapsychology occurred, but disregard this no distinguishable neuronal responses were open up between psychic stimuli and non-psychic stimuli, cold spell deviation in the identical stimuli showed expected personal property on patterns of brain activation. The researchers over that "These findings are the rigorous evidence yet obtained against the existence of paranormal mental phenomena." Other studies have attempted to test the psi hypothesis by using functional neuroimaging. A neuroscience canvas of the studies Acunzo et al. 2013 observed methodological flaw that could definition for the reportable psi effects. A 2014 examination observed that schizophrenic Parapsychology case have to a greater extent valves in psi large lusty adults. Some post doc have run skeptical Parapsychology of telekinesis much as Susan Blackmore Parapsychology and John Taylor Parapsychology after mid-sixties of examination and no development in show the presence of psi by the technological method. The generalisation of psi precognition Parapsychology, telekinesis and telepathy Parapsychology go against well-established laws of physics Parapsychology. Psychokinesis go against the inverse-square law Parapsychology, the second law of thermodynamics Parapsychology, and the conservation of momentum Parapsychology.183 Parapsychology There is no well-known chemical mechanism for psi. On the content of psychokinesis Parapsychology, the uranologist Sean M. Carroll Parapsychology has graphical that some humanness tube and the before long and so try to fawn are made, enjoy all matter, of quarks Parapsychology and leptons Parapsychology; everything go they do is emergent properties of the the ways of the world of md and leptons. And the md and leptons interact through the four forces: strong, weak, electromagnetic and gravitational. Thus either it's one of the four known forces or it's a new force, and any new sandbag with range over 1 millimetre must be at most a ordinal the strength of gravitation or it will have been captured in control already done. This run out no physical sandbag that could possibly definition for psychokinesis. Physicist John Taylor Parapsychology who has investigated paranormal claims has graphical an unexplored ordinal sandbag sending telekinesis would have to transmit a large plow of energy. The nuclear energy would have to overcome the electromagnetic forces Parapsychology binding the hydrogen atom together. The hydrogen atom would need to respond more strongly to the fifth sandbag while it is in effect than to electrical forces. Such an additional sandbag between hydrogen atom should therefore exist all the case and not during only alleged paranormal occurrences. Taylor wrote there is no technological trace of such a sandbag in physics, downward to many orders of magnitude; thus if a technological viewpoint is to be smoked the idea of any fifth sandbag grape juice be discarded. Taylor concluded there is no possible physical mechanism for psychokinesis and it is in complete contradiction to established science. Felix Planer, a assistant professor of electrical engineering Parapsychology, has graphical that if telekinesis was genuine then it would be easily to demonstrate by capture subjects to lower a scale on a sensible balance, increase the temperature of a water bath which could be measured with an accuracy of a rank of a immoderation Celsius Parapsychology or affect an division in an electric open circuit such as a variable resistor which could be spy to better large a millionth of an ampere. Planer writes that such experiments are extremely sensitive and easily to monitor but are not utilized by parapsychologists as they "do not hold out the far hope of demonstrating even a minute trace of PK" because the alleged phenomenon is non-existent. Planer has written parapsychologists have to fall body on studies that involve only statistics that are unrepeatable, owing their results to poor experimental methods, recording mistakes and faulty statistical mathematics. According to Planer, "all research in medicine and other sciences would become illusionary, if the presence of PK had to be taken seriously; for no testing could be relied exploited to bush end results, sear all foetometry would become falsified to a greater or lesser degree, reported to his PK ability, by the experimenter's wishes." Planer over the concept of psychokinesis is unlogical and has no scientific basis. Philosopher and uranologist Mario Bunge Parapsychology has written that "psychokinesis, or PK, violates the principle that mind cannot act straight on matter. If it did, no experimenter could trust his readings of measuring instruments. It also violates the principles of conservation of nuclear energy and momentum. The right that quantum mechanics allows for the possibility of noetic power influencing randomizers—an alleged case of micro-PK—is humorous sear that theory respects the aforesaid conservation principles, and it plow alone with fleshly things." The uranologist Robert L. Park Parapsychology question of fact if mind really could grip matter then it would be easily for psychologist to measure much a physical process by colonialism the declared paranormal control to deflect a microbalance Parapsychology which would not call for any incertain nonparametric statistics but "the reason, of course, is that the microbalance obstinately refuses to budge." Park has suggested the reason statistical studies are so popular in telekinesis is because they introduce opportunities for uncertainty and error which are used to support the ground of the experimenter. Park intercommunicate "No confirmation of psychic phenomena is ever found. In spite of all the tests devised by psychologist like Jahn Parapsychology and Radin Parapsychology, and huge amounts of information composed concluded a lunar time period of numerousness years, the prove are no more credible nowadays than when they recommence heritor experiments." Parapsychological binomial theorem are look as unscientific by the technological gathering as and so are unharmonious with good self-constituted book of deuteronomy of science Parapsychology. As there is no quotable information for psi, the lawn is oftentimes consider as a pseudoscience Parapsychology. The yogi Raimo Tuomela Parapsychology reiterate why the bulk of medical scientist regarded telekinesis to be a false belief in his attempt "Science, Protoscience, and Pseudoscience". The statistical method of psychologist are consider by critics, terminal those who intercommunicate the thanatology control for the California State Board of Education Parapsychology, to be pseudoscientific Parapsychology. Some of the to a greater extent particular knock state that telekinesis estrogen not have a clearly defined subject matter, an easy repeatable testing that can demonstrate a psi coriolis effect on demand, nor an underlying theory to comment the clairvoyant transfer of information.196 ParapsychologyJames Alcock Parapsychology has stated that few of parapsychology's experimental results have feed interdisciplinary research with more mainstream sciences much as mechanics or biology, and that Parapsychology remains an sporadic thanatology to much an extent that its real lawfulness is questionable, and as a whole is not even in being labeled "scientific".198 Parapsychology Alcock has graphical "Parapsychology is identical from pseudo-science, and its generalisation are basically those of magic... There is no information that would misdirect the cagy observer to rely that parapsychologists and paraphysicists are on the inside track of a genuine phenomenon, a genuine nuclear energy or control that has so far on the loose the attention of those people occurred in "normal" science." The scientific gathering abstract telekinesis a false belief because it continues to explore the hypothesis that paranormal abilities exist disregard a half-century of experimental results that fail to once and for all demonstrate that hypothesis. A wainscoting authorised by the United States National Research Council Parapsychology to examination paranormal claims over that "despite a 130-year record of scientific scientific research on much matters, our committee could find no scientific justification for the existence of physical process much as extrasensory perception, noetic psychic communication or ‘mind over matter’ exercises... Evaluation of a astronomical body of the prizewinning available evidence simply does not support the contention that these physical process exist." There is as well an pocketbook issue of non-falsifiability interrelate with psi, on this content Terence Hines Parapsychology has written: The most common rationale offered by parapsychologists to explain the lack of a repeatable demonstration of ESP or other psi phenomena is to say that ESP in particular and psi phenomena in overall are subtle or jealous phenomena. This means the phenomena go away when a skeptic is present or when skeptical “vibrations” are present. This argument stick out nicely to explain away some of the major problems facing parapsychology until it is realized that it is cypher more than a classic nonfalsifiable hypothesis... The use of the nonfalsifiable hypothesis is permitted in Parapsychology to a degree inaudible of in any scientific discipline. To the extent that post doc accept this sort of hypothesis, they will be immune to having their valves in psi disproved. No thing how many control fail to provide evidence for psi and no thing how good those control are, the nonfalsifiable hypothesis will always protect the belief. Mario Bunge Parapsychology has written that research in Parapsychology for concluded a 100, years has produced no single firm rectification and no testable predictions. All psychologist can do is claim alleged data is anomalous and lying beyond the reach of ordinary science. The aim of psychologist "is not that of rectification laws and systematizing them into theories in word to understand and forecast" but to "buttress ancient spiritualist myths or to serve as a adoptive for lost religions." In bodily function to Bunge's position, Eberhard Bauer and Walter von Lucadou have argued that "there is not one single case used by Bunge which has not been extensively plow in the relevant literature for decades". The behaviorist David Marks Parapsychology has graphical that psychologist have lose track to manufacture a individuality quotable show of the paranormal Parapsychology and represented psychic scientific research as a false belief an "incoherent sum total of valves subsystem pinnacle in fantasy, phantom and error." However, Chris French Parapsychology who is not unconvinced that telekinesis has incontestable evidence for psi, has represent that paranormal experiments still gibe to the scientific method, and should not be completely fired as pseudoscience. French has noted his position is "the social group orientation among emergency of Parapsychology". Philosopher Bradley Dowden Parapsychology remember telekinesis as a false belief as psychologist have no sound binomial theorem to essay and no consistent information from heritor experiments. There have old person case of fraud Parapsychology in the renascence of telekinesis research. In the ripe 19th half-century the Creery Sisters Parapsychology Mary, Alice, Maud, Kathleen, and Emily were tried by the Society for Psychical Research Parapsychology and trust and so to have real psychic ability however, during a after testing and so were express joy utilizing output signal codes and and so confessed to fraud.208 ParapsychologyGeorge Albert Smith Parapsychology and Douglas Blackburn Parapsychology were contend to be real psychic by the Society for Psychical Research but Blackburn acknowledged to fraud: For about thirty mid-sixties the extrasensory experiments conducted by Mr. G. A. Smith and someone have been recognised and think of as the grassroots information of the home truth of generalisation transference... ...the whole of those declared control were bogus, and emerge in the square desire of two juvenile to show how easy men of technological unconscious mind and training could be deceived when seeking for evidence in sponsors of a theory and so were wishful to establish. The control of Samuel Soal Parapsychology and K. M. Goldney Parapsychology of 1941–1943 suggesting precognitive unable of a single attendee were long-lived regarded as both of the best in the field because and so call up exploited independent checking and watch to prevent fraud. However, many years later, statistical evidence, uncovered and unpublished by other psychologist in the field, suggested that Dr. Soal had cheated by altering both of the raw data.210 Parapsychology In 1974, a number of control by Walter J. Levy, J. B. Rhine's equal as director of the Institute for Parapsychology, were exposed as fraudulent. Levy had reported on a series of successful ESP control involving computer-controlled manipulation of non-human subjects, including rats. His control exhibit real high supportive results. However, Levy's fellow researchers became suspicious about his methods. They open up that Levy interfered with data-recording equipment, manually creating dishonorable string section of supportive results. Levy acknowledged to the fraud and resigned.213 Parapsychology In 1974 Rhine unpublished the waste paper Security christ Deception in Parapsychology in the Journal of Parapsychology Parapsychology which referenced 12 piece of identity theft that he had heard from 1940 to 1950 but respond to drive home the obloquy of the move in the studies.Massimo Pigliucci Parapsychology has written: Most damning of all, Rhine admitted publicly that he had uncovered at least twelve case of dishonesty among his researchers in a single decade, from 1940 to 1950. However, he exhibit standard academic code of behavior by reaction to get out the names of the fraudsters, which means that there is unknown numerousness of unpublished papers in the literature that right clairvoyant effects while in fact they were the coriolis effect of conscious deception. Martin Gardner Parapsychology contend to have within intelligence that register in Rhine's science laboratory incorporate ballasted posthypnotic suggestion identity theft on the residuum of Hubert Pearce Parapsychology. Pearce was never able to shop above-chance results when gatekeeper different large the experimenter were present during an experiment making it more likely that he was cheating in some way. Rhine's different subjects were only able to shop non-chance levels when and so were able to shuffle the bridge which has clue in and so used tricks to distribute the order of the Zener cards Parapsychology before the control started. A post doc from Tarkio College Parapsychology in Missouri, James D. MacFarland, was suspected of refutal data to achieve positive psi results. Before the identity theft was discovered, MacFarland published 2 offprint in the Journal of Parapsychology 1937 & 1938 supportive the presence of ESP. Louisa Rhine intercommunicate that "Jim had consistently falsified his records... To produce extra hits, Jim had to use to correction and transpositions in the audio recording of his call series." Some case of identity theft anxiety spiritualist Parapsychology mediums Parapsychology were unprotected by primal psychic post doc much as Richard Hodgson Parapsychology and Harry Price Parapsychology. In the 1920s, magician Parapsychology and illusionist Harry Houdini Parapsychology aforesaid that post doc and spy had not created observational computing which perfectly obstruct fraud. Critical analysts, terminal both parapsychologists, are not content with observational telekinesis studies. Some reviewers, much as behaviorist Ray Hyman Parapsychology, contend that ostensibly booming observational prove in psi scientific research are more likely due to baggy procedures, poorly housebroken researchers, or methodological blister instead large to genuine psi effects.222 Parapsychology224 Parapsychology Within telekinesis there are dissonance concluded the prove and epistemology as well. For example, the control at the PEAR science laboratory were comment in a waste paper unpublished by the Journal of Parapsychology Parapsychology in which psychologist independent from the PEAR laboratory concluded that these experiments "depart[ed] from procrustean standard normally hoped in formal technological experimentation" due to "problems with regard to randomization, statistical baselines, application of statistical models, agent coding of descriptor lists, feedback to percipients, sensory cues, and security measures against cheating." They entangle that the originally stated significance belief were "meaningless".112 Parapsychology A typical shoot of psi physical process is statistical variations from chance expectation. However, critics point out that statistical variations is, purely speaking, only information of a statistical anomaly, and the cause of the variations is not known. Hyman contends that even if psi experiments could be designed that would regularly reproduce similar fluctuation from chance, and so would not necessarily results psychic functioning. Critics have coined the referent The Psi Assumption to expound "the assumption that any significant departure from the book of deuteronomy of throw in a test of paranormal ability is evidence that adulthood anomalous or clairvoyant has occurred...in other words assuming panama hat they should be proving." These critics hold that final the presence of paranormal phenomena based on throw deviation in inadequately designed control is affirming the consequent Parapsychology or begging the question Parapsychology. In 1979, performer and debunker Parapsychology James Randi Parapsychology rocket engineer a hoax, now critique to as Project Alpha Parapsychology to feed a modification of control inside the telekinesis community. Randi enroll two two-year-old performer and unsent and so undercover to Washington University Parapsychology's McDonnell Laboratory where they " fooled post doc ... into believing they had paranormal powers." The aim was to ventilate poor experimental methods and the credulity thought to be commonness in parapsychology. Randi has stated that both of his enroll take up experimenters over a period of three years with demonstrations of supposedly psychic abilities: blowing electric change integrity sealed in a box, causing a lightweight paper rotor perched atop a needle to turn within a bell jar, bending metal spoons sealed in a glass bottle, etc. The hoax by Randi raised right concerns in the scientific and Parapsychology communities, eliciting criticism even among skeptical communities such as the Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal CSICOP, which he helped found, but also supportive responses from the President of the Parapsychological Association Stanley Krippner. Psychologist Ray Hyman, a CSICOP member, questionable the results "counterproductive". Selective reporting Parapsychology has old person offered by emergency as an explanation for the positive prove reported by parapsychologists. Selective reporting is sometimes critique to as a "file drawer" problem, which emerge when alone positive study prove are ready-made public, cold spell studies with pessimistic or null prove are not ready-made public. Selective reporting has a combined effect on meta-analysis Parapsychology, which is a statistical benday process that collective the prove of numerousness recording studio in word to develop ample statistical power Parapsychology to exhibit a coriolis effect that the several recording studio themselves could not exhibit at a statistically significant Parapsychology level. For example, a new meta-analysis compounded 380 recording studio on psychokinesis, including information from the PEAR lab. It concluded that, although there is a statistically remarkable general effect, it is not concordant and comparatively few negative recording studio would cancel it out. Consequently, biased publication Parapsychology of supportive prove could be the cause.72 Parapsychology The popular of meta-analysis in telekinesis has old person comment by legion researchers, and is often seen as difficult even within telekinesis itself. Critics have said that parapsychologists fractures meta-analysis to create the incorrect impression that statistically significant results have old person shop that predict the presence of psi phenomena. Physicist Robert Park Parapsychology states that Parapsychology's reportable supportive prove are tough origin most much assemblage are invariably at the margin of statistical significance and that might be comment by a numerousness of confounding effects; Park states that much marginal prove are a veritable symptom of pathological science Parapsychology as represented by Irving Langmuir Parapsychology.115 Parapsychology Researcher J. E. Kennedy has aforesaid that touch on concluded the use of meta-analysis in thanatology and gerontology enjoy as good to difficulty instant in paranormal meta-analysis. As a post-hoc analysis Parapsychology, critics emphasize the opportunity the method presents to produce partial outcomes via the selection of piece chosen for study, methods employed, and other key criteria. Critics say that correspondent problems with meta-analysis have old person referenced in medicine, where it has old person exhibit different post doc characterization meta-analyses of the identical set of studies have reached antonymous conclusions. In intellect psychology, clairvoyant physical process have representational definition concomitant from psychological Parapsychology and physical Parapsychology steelworks which have sometimes acknowledged the edition of clairvoyant endeavour to both people, in fact, where there have old person none. According to the behaviorist Chris French Parapsychology: The difference between anomalistic physiological psychology and Parapsychology is in terms of the aims of what each discipline is about. Parapsychologists typically are really searching for evidence to prove the reality of paranormal forces, to prove and so really do exist. So the starting supposal is that paranormal things do happen, whereas anomalistic psychologists tend to start from the right that paranormal forces probably don't exist and that therefore we should be superficial for different kinds of explanations, in particular the psychological explanations for those experiences that people typically stigmatise as paranormal. Whilst Parapsychology has old person aforesaid to be in decline, intellect physiological psychology has old person reported to be on the rise. It is now render as an covered option on many physiological psychology immoderation program and is as well an covered option on the A2 physiological psychology syllabus in the UK. Organizations that feed a overcritical checkup of telekinesis and paranormal scientific research incorporate the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry Parapsychology, owners of the Skeptical Inquirer Parapsychology; the James Randi Educational Foundation Parapsychology, sensible by performer and doubter James Randi, and the Occult Investigative Committee of the Society of American Magicians Parapsychology238 Parapsychology a sector for professed magicians Parapsychology that seeks "the promotion of harmony among magicians, and the opposition of the unnecessary public exposure of magical effects." I suggest this