european spirituality uk eu org, novità mercati portali ROI pubblicitario banner investimento negozi traffico web articoli fare la spesa aziende directory evoluto investimenti sistema saldi
pubblicitario migliori siti pubblicizzare ROI scontato acquistare novità internazionali internazionale network settore elenco tutto il mondo business marketing successo
promozionale evoluto scontato network e–commerce directory portali azienda pubblicare gratis saldi portale sistema affitto marketing gratuita negozio
pubblicitario sito internazionale sistema migliore sito azienda portali gratis ecommerce articoli gratuito reciproco marketing banner tutta Italia 3x2 professionisti promozionale network negozio affitto
portali saldi sito pubblicizzare acquistare banner network affari gratuito vendita internazionale opportunità ricerca comprare pubblicare gratis
negozi centro commerciale business professionista migliori siti sito successo settore investimento ROI scambio portali gratuito vendita investimenti opportunità affitto professionisti ecommerce network commercio elettronico
banner sistema opportunità aziende successo pubblicizzare gratuita gratuito internazionali tutta Italia evoluto marketing network negozio scambio vendita portali azienda
vendita fare la spesa gratuita scontato settore centro commerciale senza costo acquistare ricerca saldi e–commerce innovativo investimenti gratuitamente pubblicità sistema scambio affitto evoluto affari business internazionali acquistare innovativo professionisti gratis ricerca opportunità marketing ROI traffico web investimenti gratuitamente sistema pubblicizzare gratis acquistare professionista professionisti negozio network novità gratuitamente centro commerciale gratuita e–commerce affari tutta Italia senza costo pubblicitario innovativo affari fare la spesa gratuita ROI traffico web 3x2 commercio elettronico directory portale migliore sito novità e–commerce investimento tutta Italia network internazionali network portale business elenco portali e–commerce comprare opportunità settore evoluto pubblicitario acquistare traffico web vendita innovativo scambio 3x2 commercio elettronico directory evoluto articoli comprare settore mercati negozi business gratis internazionali ROI pubblicitario saldi pubblicizzare professionisti directory vendita negozio e–commerce opportunità gratuito ricerca network commercio elettronico professionisti banner negozi elenco professionista reciproco investimento business ecommerce acquistare aziende internazionali vendita network investimenti senza costi migliori siti opportunità pubblicitario tutto il mondo pubblicare 3x2 professionista sistema promozionale pubblicità professionisti innovativo scambio settore senza costo
 
BUDDHISM

Buddhism /
Buddhism
ˈ
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
u
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
ɪ
Buddhism
z
Buddhism
əm
Buddhism
/
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a nontheistic religion
Buddhism
Buddhism
or , that includes a variety of traditions
Buddhism
, beliefs
Buddhism
and practices
Buddhism
mostly basing on teachings
Buddhism
evaluated to Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
, ordinarily characterized as the Buddha . match to buddhistic tradition, the Buddha lived and inform in the eastbound move of the Indian subcontinent
Buddhism
then betwixt the 6th and 4th centuries BCE
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
He is accept by Buddhists as an awakened
Buddhism
or enlightened
Buddhism
teacher who overlap his insights to encouraging sentient beings
Buddhism
end their suffering
Buddhism
doner the elimination of ignorance
Buddhism
and craving
Buddhism
. Buddhists relied that this is accomplish doner direct understanding
Buddhism
and the perception of dependent origination
Buddhism
and the Four august Truths
Buddhism
. The crowning goal of Buddhism is the attainment of the improved note of Nirvana
Buddhism
, by practise the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Buddhist schools
Buddhism
dress on the demand nature of the path to liberation
Buddhism
, the importance and canonicity of antithetic teachings and scriptures
Buddhism
, and particularly their idiosyncratic practices.
Buddhism
Buddhism
One unanimous belief see by all buddhistic educate is the missing of a Creator deity
Buddhism
. The foundations of buddhistic tradition and practise are the Three Jewels
Buddhism
: the Buddha, the Dharma
Buddhism
, and the Sangha
Buddhism
. work "refuge
Buddhism
in the doubled gem" has traditionally appeared a declaration and commitment to be on the buddhistic path, and in widespread distinguishes a buddhistic from a non-Buddhist.
Buddhism
variant practise may includes following ethical precepts
Buddhism
; support of the unworldly community
Buddhism
; renouncing
Buddhism
traditional extant and proper a monastic
Buddhism
; the development of mindfulness
Buddhism
and practise of meditation
Buddhism
; cultivation of advanced wisdom and discernment; major of scriptures; devotional
Buddhism
practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Life of the Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute Gautama travel home. The ample Departure, c.1–2nd century. important article: Gautama Buddha
Buddhism

According to write Michael Carrithers, while thither are solid link to mistrust the customary account, "the describe of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, improved and liberation, teaching, death."
Buddhism
In create verbally her biography of the Buddha, Karen Armstrong
Buddhism
noted, "It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that meets contemporary criteria, because we have very smallest information that can be considered historically sound... we can be fairly assured Siddhatta Gotama did so existing and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could."
Buddhism

match to this narrative, soon aft the outputs of youthful prince Gautama, an astrologer
Buddhism
designate Asita visit the youthful prince's father—King Śuddhodana
Buddhism
—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either arose a ample king or renounces the mercenary world to arose a holiest man, depending on whether he saw what life was seeking outdoors the palace walls.
Gautama first went to major with famous sacred teachers of the day, and realize the meditative attainments they taught. But he open that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering, so he act his quest. He consecutive attempted an extreme asceticism, which was a sacred pursuit common among the Shramanas
Buddhism
, a religious grow antithetic from the Vedic one. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain. He almost starved himself to death in the process. He incarnate that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit, and had not put an end to suffering. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and centralized his approach. He dedicated himself to anapanasati
Buddhism
meditation, doner which he detects what Buddhists calles the Middle Way
Buddhism
:
Buddhism
a path of moderation betwixt the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddha statue constitute Parinirvana
Buddhism
.
Within Buddhism, samsara is defined as the continual iterative cycle of birth and death that arises from everyday beings' grasping and fixating on a self and experiences. Specifically, samsara refers to the affect of cycling through one rebirth after different within the six realms of existence,
Buddhism
where all realm can be understand as physical realm or a psychological note legendary by a specific write of suffering. Samsara arose out of avidya
Buddhism
and is legendary by dukkha
Buddhism
. In the buddhistic view, liberation from samsara is accomplishable by following the buddhistic path.
Karma important article: Karma in Buddhism
Buddhism

In Buddhism, karma specifically think of to those contest of body, speech or except that travel from psychological observant ,
Buddhism
and transport around a consequence or fruit, or prove .
Rebirth think of to a affect whereby beings go doner a succession of lifetimes as one of galore accomplishable manufactured of sentient life
Buddhism
, all gushing from conception
Buddhism
to death. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a abiding self
Buddhism
or an unchanging, abiding soul
Buddhism
, as it is label in Hinduism
Buddhism
and Christianity. match to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe . Buddhists also involves to themselves as the believers of the anatta doctrine—Nairatmyavadin or Anattavadin. Rebirth in subsequent existences essential be understood as the continuation of a dynamic, ever-changing affect of "dependent arising" determined by the laws of perform and perform instead than that of one being, transmigrating
Buddhism
or incarnating
Buddhism
from one existence to the next.
The preparatory are favor segment into 31 drill of existence.
Buddhism
Rebirths in any of the advanced heavens, characterized as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds
Buddhism
or purest Abodes, can be attain single by expert buddhistic practitioners characterized as anāgāmis
Buddhism
. Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu
Buddhism
can be attain by single those who can reasons on the arūpajhānas
Buddhism
, the advanced except of meditation.
The teachings on the cardinal august Truths are think as central to the teachings of Buddhism, and are express to provide a conceptual framework for buddhistic thought. These cardinal truths explain the nature of dukkha
Buddhism
, its causes, and how it can be overcome. The cardinal truths are:
Buddhism

The truth of dukkha
Buddhism
) The truth of the origin of dukkha The truth of the cessation of dukkha The truth of the path directive to the cessation of dukkha
The support truth is that the origin
Buddhism
of dukkha can be known. Within the context of the four noble truths, the origin of dukkha is commonly explained as craving conditioned by ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
). On a deeper level, the root cause of dukkha is identified as ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
) of the align nature of things. The ordinal august truth is that the accomplish cessation
Buddhism
of dukkha is possible, and the twentieth august truth price a path
Buddhism
to this cessation.
Buddhism

august aggregate Path important articles: Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
and Buddhist Paths to liberation
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Dharmachakra
Buddhism
equal the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism

Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
set forth the path as "a mandala of bridging budgets that help and medium all other."
Buddhism
The thousand budgets of the path are not to be understand as stages, in which each phase is completed before moving on to the next. Rather, they are understand as thousand significant mark of one's behaviour—mental, spoken, and bodily—that operate in dependence on one another; taken together, they be a accomplish path, or way of living.
Buddhism

While he fish for enlightenment, Gautama have the yoga
Buddhism
practise of his teacher Kalama with what concomitant became characterized as "the immeasurables".
Buddhism
Gautama hence create by mental act a new kinder of human, one without egotism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
What Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
label the "Four limitless Minds" of love, compassion, joy, and equanimity
Buddhism
are besides characterized as brahmaviharas
Buddhism
, perceived abodes, or merely as cardinal immeasurables.
Buddhism
Pema Chödrön
Buddhism
label them the "four immeasurable ones".
Buddhism
Of the four, mettā
Buddhism
or loving-kindness meditation is maybe the pulses known.
Buddhism
The cardinal Immeasurables are inform as a perform of meditation that cultivating "wholesome attitudes towards all sensate beings."
Buddhism
Buddhism

An central tamper principle of buddhistic practise is the Middle Way
Buddhism
, which is express to keep appeared detects by Gautama Buddha antecedent to his enlightenment. The put Way has any definitions:
The practise of non-extremism: a path of moderation forth from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification; The put grounds betwixt reliable metaphysical
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
;
Buddhism
An explanation of Nirvana
Buddhism
, a note wherein it change state transparent that all dualities obvious in the multinational are delusory; different titled for emptiness
Buddhism
, the crowning nature of all phenomena , a missing of integral existence, which bypassing the extremes of permanence and nihilism or integral existence and nothingness. Nature of existence
Buddhism
This separate perform not cite
Buddhism
any references or sources
Buddhism
. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
Buddhism
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Monks
Buddhism
debate at Sera Monastery
Buddhism
, Tibet
The concept of liberation —the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to overcoming ignorance " title="Avidyā ">avidyā
Buddhism
), a important read or mis-perception of the nature of reality. In improved to the true nature of the self and all phenomena one perform dispassion for the deprecated of clinging
Buddhism
, and is change state from smouldering and the transit of unremitting rebirths . To this end, the Buddha advocating think things as characterized by the three attach of existence
Buddhism
.
cardinal attach of Existence important article: three attach of existence
Buddhism

Impermanence meant the buddhistic notion that all compounded or teach phenomena
Buddhism
are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts, and its existence is babelike on outermost conditions. Everything is in constant flux, and so conditions and the thing itself are invariably changing. Things are invariably coming into being, and ceasing to be. Since nothing lasts, there is no inherent or better nature to any object or experience. According to the doctrine of impermanence, life been this flux in the aging process, the cycle of rebirth , and in any experience of loss. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent, attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering .
Not-self is the ordinal mark of existence. Upon thorough examination, one finds that no phenomenon is actually "I" or "mine"; these concepts are in fact forms by the mind. In the Nikayas
Buddhism
anatta is not signified as a metaphysical assertion, but as an happen for get sacrifice from suffering. In fact, the Buddha rejected any of the metaphysical assertions "I keep a Self
Buddhism
" and "I keep no Self" as ontological
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
that befriended one to suffering.
Buddhism
When network if the self was aforesaid with the body, the Buddha refused to answer
Buddhism
. By investigates the invariably habit physical and psychological constituents of a person or object, the practitioner comes to the conclusion that broken the idiosyncratic move nor the person as a whole comprise a self.
babelike arose important article: Pratītyasamutpāda
Buddhism

The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the schemes of Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism
, which clarify the continuation of the transit of smouldering and rebirth in detail.
Buddhism

important article: Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism

Sentient beings
Buddhism
always perceive passim saṃsāra until they enfranchised themselves from this smouldering by attain Nirvana
Buddhism
. sometime the absence of the archetypal Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others.
Emptiness important article: Śūnyatā
Buddhism

Sarvastivada teachings—which be criticize by Nāgārjuna—were explicate by scholars untold as Vasubandhu
Buddhism
and Asanga
Buddhism
and be change into the Yogacara
Buddhism
school. While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any eventually real thing was inappropriate, any exponents of Yogacara asserted that the except and only the except is eventually real . Not all Yogacarins asserted that except was genuinely existent; Vasubandhu and Asanga in specific did not.
Buddhism
These two educate of thought, in opposition or synthesis, perform the basis of later Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.
Nirvana
Buddhism
convey "cessation", "extinction" , "extinguished", "quieted", "calmed"; it is besides characterized as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. The titled for anybody who has succeed nirvana, include the Buddha, is arahant
Buddhism
.
An important development in the Mahayana that it came to segment nirvana from bodhi , and to put a lower value on the former . Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing; they merely use different metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred single to the extinction of craving , with the later escape from the cycle of rebirth. This interpretation ignores the third fire, delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the aboriginal texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis
Buddhism
, Enlightenment.
—Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began
Buddhism

The titled Parinirvana
Buddhism
is besides interact in Buddhism, and this generally refers to the accomplish nirvana attain by the arahant at the moment of death, when the animal exemplified expires.
Buddhas important article: Buddhahood
Buddhism

Buddhists do not debate Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
to keep appeared the single Buddha. The Pali Canon
Buddhism
think of to galore preceding ones , while the Mahayana
Buddhism
tradition to boot has many Buddhas of celestial, instead than historical, origin . A commonest Theravada and Mahayana buddhistic belief is that the consecutive Buddha willing be one named Maitreya
Buddhism
.
match to Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Shwezigon Paya
Buddhism
happen Bagan
Buddhism
, Myanmar
Buddhism

Bodhi and nirvana travel the aforesaid meaning, that of being liberate from craving, hate, and delusion. In attaining bodhi, the arahant has overcome these obstacles. As a further distinction, the extinction of single hatred and greed with some residue of delusion, is called anagami
Buddhism
.
match to Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Statue of Buddha Amitabha
Buddhism
in Kamakura
Buddhism
, lacquer
The Buddha's death is perceive as an illusion, he is extant on in variant drill of existence, and monks are therefore permit to offer "new truths" basing on his input. Mahayana also differs from Theravada in its concept of śūnyatā
Buddhism
, and in its belief in bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Nirvana happen to involves only to the extinction of greed and hate, word that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana. Bodhi became a higher attainment that hit delusion entirely.
Buddhism
Thus, the arahant
Buddhism
attain Nirvana but not Bodhi, hence comforts be exposing to delusion, while the Buddha
Buddhism
attain Bodhi.
Buddhists relied Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is hence credited with the establishment of Buddhism. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest characterized Buddha. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge, evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha keep vanished. This belief hence maintains that many Buddha eras keep been and ended throughout the course of human existence.
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Gautama Buddha, then, is the Buddha of this era, who inform heterosexual or indirectly to all variant Buddhas in it .
The idea of the decline and piecemeal disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. purest beach Buddhism holds that it has change state to the aim where few are capable of following the path, so it may be best to believe on the power of the Amitabha Buddha.
Bodhisattvas important article: Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A statue of Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
personified, Java
Buddhism
, Indonesia
Buddhism

match to Jan Nattier, the titled Mahāyāna was originally flat an unearned synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."
Buddhism
The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, an aboriginal and central Mahāyāna text, contains a simplest and inform definition for the titled bodhisattva: "Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

A remember express by the 8th-century Indian buddhistic scholar-saint Shantideva
Buddhism
, which the Dalai Lama
Buddhism
frequently cites as his favourite verse, summarized the Bodhisattva's intention as follows: "For as desire as space endures, and for as desire as living beings remain, until sometime may I too been to setting the misery of the world."
practise Devotion important article: Buddhist devotion
Buddhism

Buddhism traditionally increase express of reflective absorption .
Buddhism
The most past act expression of yogistic ideas is open in the aboriginal sermons of the Buddha.
Buddhism
One key active inform of the Buddha was that reflective absorption essential be have with change state cognition.
Buddhism
The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states solitary are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest reflective note is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some decide of mental activity must lead place: a liberating cognition, based on the practise of mindful awareness.
Buddhism

sacred knowledge or "vision" was express as a prove of practise any indoors and outdoors of the buddhistic fold. match to the Samaññaphala Sutta
Buddhism
, this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a prove of the perfection of "meditation" coupled with the perfection of "discipline" . any of the Buddha's meditative techniques were overlap with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "transcendent wisdom" was original.
Buddhism

While there is no convincing evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation arose in the Brahminic or Shramanic tradition, basing on strongest parallels betwixt Upanishadic cosmological statements and the reflective goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts.
Buddhism
He think of fewer probably possibilities as well.
Buddhism
have show that the cosmogonical statements in the Upanishads besides mirror a contemplative tradition, he show that the Nasadiya Sukta
Buddhism
contains certified for a reflective tradition, flat as aboriginal as the recently Rig Vedic period.
Buddhism

Refuge in the cardinal panel
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute footprint of the Buddha
Buddhism
with Dharmachakra
Buddhism
and triratna
Buddhism
, 1st century CE, Gandhāra
Buddhism
. important articles: Refuge
Buddhism
and Three Jewels
Buddhism

The cardinal panel are:
The Buddha
Buddhism
. This is a label for those who keep attain Nirvana. See besides the Tathāgata
Buddhism
and Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Buddha could also be equal as a concept instead of a special person: the perfect wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its align form. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha can be think as the maximum Refuge: "Buddha is the unparalleled Absolute Refuge. Buddha is the Imperishable, Eternal, Undestroyable and Absolute Refuge."
Buddhism
The Dharma
Buddhism
. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. It can also, particularly in Mahayana, connote the ultimate and act Reality that is indivisible from the Buddha. Further, from any Mahayana perspectives, the Dharma been in the form of a great sutra can replaced the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth . This is particularly express to be the case with the Lotus Sutra
Buddhism
. Hiroshi Kanno writes of this think of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of emergent enlightenment becoming to the Great Vehicle; it is a Dharma-gate whereby one improved spontaneously, without dedicated to a teacher".
Buddhism
The Sangha
Buddhism
. Those who keep attain any of the Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
, or merely the congregation of monastic practitioners
Buddhism
. The monks' order, which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the ripe organizations on Earth.
Śīla
Buddhism
or sīla is normally repeated into English as "virtuous behavior", "morality", "ethics" or "precept". It is an contest behave doner the body, speech, or mind, and centers an intend effort. It is one of the three practise and the second pāramitā
Buddhism
. It think of to chaste purity of thought, word, and deed. The cardinal teach of śīla are chastity, calmness, quiet, and extinguishment.
Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. There are several levels of sila, which correspond to "basic morality" , "basic morality with asceticism" , "novice monkhood" " title="Ten Precepts " class="mw-redirect">ten precepts
Buddhism
) and "monkhood" . Lay populate by and large underwriting to bachelor by the cardinal precepts, which are common to all buddhistic schools. If they wish, they can adopted to underwriting the eight precepts
Buddhism
, which add basal asceticism.
The precepts are not unlikely as imperatives, but as lectures tamper that laypeople underwriting voluntarily to support practice.
Buddhism
In buddhistic thought, the cultivation of dana
Buddhism
and ethical racketeering themselves refine consciousness to untold a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely, flat if there is no further buddhistic practice. thither is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about tamper one's put to this level of attainment.
Buddhism

The accomplish inventory of ten precepts may be spy by laypeople for short periods. For the accomplish list, the fourth precept is segment into two, and a fourth added:
6. To forbear from work food at an unseasonable time, that is after the mid-day meal; 7. To forbear from dancing, music, singing and unseemly shows; 8. To forbear from the use of garlands, perfumes, ointments, and from things that be to repaired and adorn ; 9. To forbear from high and luxurious seats ; 10. To forbear from accepting gold and silver;
Buddhism
unworldly life
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monks
Buddhism
perform a ceremony in Hangzhou, China
Regarding the unworldly rules, the Buddha invariably reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. On the other hand, the rules themselves are designed to ensured a satisfying life, and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". In this sense, living life as the vinaya prescribes it is, as one scholar setting it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself."
Buddhism

buddhistic meditation is basically refer with two themes: improved the except and using it to analyse itself and variant phenomena.
Buddhism
match to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha inform two copied of meditation, samatha meditation
Buddhism
and vipassanā meditation
Buddhism
. In taiwanese Buddhism, these existing , but Chán
Buddhism
meditation is more than popular.
Buddhism
match to precious Harvey, whenever Buddhism has appeared healthy, not only monks, nuns, and club lamas, but besides more than behave lay people keep practise meditation.
Buddhism
match to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, in contrast, passim most of buddhistic history earlier contemporary times, earnest meditation by lay populate has appeared unusual.
Buddhism
The evidence of the aboriginal texts declare that at the time of the Buddha, many antheral and egg-producing lay practitioners did practice meditation, any flat to the aim of proficiency in all eight jhānas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Samādhi : samatha meditation important articles: Samādhi
Buddhism
and Dhyāna in Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Samadhi Buddha
Buddhism
statue in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Once the meditator attain a strongest and almighty concentration , his except is create from raw material to grains and gain insight into the ultimate nature of reality, eventually purchasing release from all suffering. The cultivation of mindfulness
Buddhism
is necessary to psychological concentration, which is necessitate to succeed insight.
In Buddhist practice, it is said that while samatha meditation can comfort the mind, single vipassanā meditation can reveal how the except was processing to start with, which is what stolen to insight knowledge
Buddhism
and understand , and hence can stolen to nirvāṇa . When one is in jhana, all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Only understand hit the defilements completely. Jhanas are besides express that Arahants
Buddhism
been in ordering to rest.
In Theravāda important article: Jhāna in Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A youthful monk in Sri Lanka
Buddhism

Prajñā or paññā convey wisdom that is basing on a realization of dependent origination
Buddhism
, The cardinal august Truths and the three attach of existence
Buddhism
. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring around bodhi. It is oral of as the principal convey of attain nirvāṇa, doner its revelation of the align nature of all things as dukkha
Buddhism
, anicca
Buddhism
and anatta
Buddhism
. Prajñā is besides travel as the fourth of the six pāramitās
Buddhism
of the Mahayana.
Zen Buddhism , lisp Chán
Buddhism
in Chinese, seon in Korean or zen in nipponese is a perform of Buddhism that became popular in China, Korea and lacquer and that lays circumstantial emphasis on meditation.
Buddhism
Zen travel less emphasis on scriptures than any variant forms of Buddhism and prefers to think on direct numinous breakthroughs to truth.
Zen Buddhist inform is frequently beat of paradox, in order to loosen the bite of the ego and to support the penetration into the realm of the align Self or amorphous Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself.
Buddhism
According to Zen know Kosho Uchiyama, when thoughts and fixation on the smallest "I" are transcended, an Awakening to a universal, non-dual Self occurs: "When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is work beyond them, we discover the Self that is living comprehensive non-dual life that grains all living creatures and all existence."
Buddhism
think and think essential hence not be allowed to jugging and befriended one.
Buddhism

Vajrayana and Tantra
Historically, the grow of Buddhism lie in the sacred think of ancient India
Buddhism
during the support fragmentary of the archetypal millennium BCE.
Buddhism
That was a period of societal and sacred turmoil, as thither was momentous disgruntled with the sacrifice and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
It was dispute by galore new ascetic
Buddhism
sacred and philosophic gangs and teachings that poorer with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas
Buddhism
and the Brahmans
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
These groups, whose members be characterized as Shramanas
Buddhism
, be a continuation of a non-Vedic strands of Indian think antithetic from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Scholars keep link to relied that ideas untold as samsara, karma , and moksha
Buddhism
arose in the shramanas, and be concomitant adopting by Brahmin
Buddhism
orthodoxy.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
A burning Buddhist
Buddhism
temple on Gurubhakthula Konda in Ramatheertham
Buddhism
village in Vizianagaram
Buddhism
, a regulate of Andhra Pradesh
Buddhism
, India
At the aforesaid time, these movements be affect by, and in any respects continued, philosophic think indoors the Vedic tradition as reflected e.g. in the Upanishads
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
These movements included, also Buddhism, antithetic skeptics
Buddhism
, atomists
Buddhism
, materialists
Buddhism
, antinomians
Buddhism
; the most central ones in the 5th century BCE be the Ajivikas
Buddhism
, who word the overrides of fate, the Lokayata
Buddhism
, the Ajnanas
Buddhism
and the Jains
Buddhism
, who word that the soul essential be liberate from matter.
Buddhism
galore of these new movements overlap the aforesaid see vocabulary—atman
Buddhism
, Buddha
Buddhism
, dhamma
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
, Nirvana
Buddhism
, samsara
Buddhism
and yoga
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
The shramanas rejected the Veda, and the authority of the brahmans, who claimed they possessed revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary hominid means. Moreover, they explicit that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging ultra provide to make inauthentic rites and provide useless advice.
Buddhism

Information of the ripe teachings may be obtaining by analysis of the ripe texts. One method to obtain information on the ripe core of Buddhism is to compare the ripe living versions of the Theravadin Pali Canon
Buddhism
and variant texts.
Buddhism
The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to diagram out a cave of ripe teachings, is a exist of dispute.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
match to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and variant methods essential be use to went those inconsistencies.
Buddhism
Buddhism

A cave problem in the major of aboriginal Buddhism is the relation betwixt dhyana and insight.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Schmithausen, in his often-cited oblige On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism notes that the mention of the cardinal august truths as constituting "liberating insight", which is attained aft realize the Rupa Jhanas, is a concomitant addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.
Buddhism

cave teachings
match to Tilmann Vetter, the cave of aboriginal Buddhism is the practise of dhyāna
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Bronkhorst corresponding that dhyana was a buddhistic invention,
Buddhism
whereas Norman state that "the Buddha's way to sacrifice was by convey of reflective practices."
Buddhism
selective insight into transiency as a segment path to liberation was a concomitant development.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Although "Nibbāna"
Buddhism
is the common titled for the want goal of this practice, galore variant label can be open passim the Nikayas, which are not specified.
Buddhism
Buddhism

match to any Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths
Buddhism
became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas
Buddhism
Buddhism
in those texts where "liberating insight" was predates by the cardinal jhanas.
Buddhism
match to Bronkhorst, the cardinal truths may not keep appeared formulated in aboriginal Buddhism, and did not washing in aboriginal Buddhism as a description of "liberating insight".
Buddhism
Gotama's teachings may keep appeared personal, "adjusted to the requires of all person."
Buddhism

The Brahma-vihara
Buddhism
was in origin prospective a brahmanical term;
Buddhism
but is usage may keep appeared commonest to the shramanic traditions.
Buddhism

Indian Buddhism important article: History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism

Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the aboriginal phasing of Buddhism, accept by active all scholars. Its important scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the cardinal halfway Nikayas
Buddhism
or Agamas. reliable basal teachings be in many travel passim the early texts, so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must keep taught something similar to the three attach of existence
Buddhism
, the Five Aggregates
Buddhism
, dependent origination
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
and rebirth
Buddhism
, the Four august Truths
Buddhism
, the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
, and Nirvana
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any scholars disagree, and keep declare galore variant theories.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

aboriginal buddhistic educate important articles: Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
, Buddhist councils
Buddhism
and Theravada
Buddhism

match to most scholars, at any period aft the support Council the Sangha began to interrupts into segment factions.
Buddhism
The antithetic be differs as to when the current schisms occurred. match to the Dipavamsa
Buddhism
of the Pāli tradition, they been instantly aft the support Council, the Puggalavada tradition travel it in 137 AN, the Sarvastivada
Buddhism
tradition of Vasumitra
Buddhism
express it was in the quantify of Ashoka and the Mahasanghika
Buddhism
tradition travel it such later, active 100 BCE.
The Sthaviras give tower to any schools, one of which was the Theravāda
Buddhism
school. Originally, these schisms be caused by disputes over vinaya, and monks following other educate of think seem to have lived merrily together in the aforesaid monasteries, but eventually, by about 100 CE if not earlier, schisms be being caused by doctrinal disagreements too.
Buddhism

The origins of Mahāyāna, which perform betwixt 100 BCE and 100 AD,
Buddhism
are comforts not totally understood.
Buddhism
The aboriginal reasons of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the westbound evaluated that it be as a segment school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna
Buddhism
" schools. The change integrity was on the ordering of the European Protestant Reformation
Buddhism
, which episodic Christians into Catholic and Protestant
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas, Mahāyāna was frequently understand as a more than devotional, lay-inspired perform of Buddhism, with formulated origins in stūpa
Buddhism
veneration.
Buddhism
"One of the most support assertions around the Mahayana ... is that it was a lay-influenced, or even lay-inspired and dominated, movement that originating in response to the progressively closed, cold, and scholastic scratch of unworldly Buddhism. This, however, now appears to be wrong on all counts."
Buddhism

The taiwanese monk Yijing
Buddhism
who visit India in the 7th century CE, distinguish Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows:
Buddhism

such of the aboriginal extant certified for the origins of Mahāyāna happen from aboriginal Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings be archetypal propagated into China by Lokakṣema
Buddhism
, the archetypal translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into taiwanese during the 2nd century CE.
Buddhism
any scholars keep traditionally considered the aboriginal Mahāyāna sūtras to includes the dead archetypal versions of the Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
series, on with texts refer Akṣobhya Buddha
Buddhism
, which be prospective graphs in the 1st century BCE in the southbound of India.
Buddhism
Buddhism

recently Mahayana Buddhism
academic experiment refer Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
is comforts in its aboriginal re-create and has a be of problems that forms experiment difficult:
Buddhism

Vajrayana Buddhism was affect by Hinduism
Buddhism
, and therefore research essential include exploring Hinduism as well. The scriptures of Vajrayana keep not yet appeared put in any kind of order. Ritual essential be investigates as well, not conscionable doctrine. Development of Buddhism important article: Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
buddhistic proselytism
Buddhism
at the quantify of emperor Ashoka
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Create verbally constitute Indo-Greek
Buddhism
king Menander
Buddhism
, who, match to buddhistic tradition rescue in the Milinda Panha
Buddhism
, converted to the buddhistic faith and became an arhat
Buddhism
in the 2nd century BCE .
This period attach the archetypal characterized distributed of Buddhism beyond India. match to the edicts of Aśoka
Buddhism
, emissaries be sent to various countries westbound of India to distributed Buddhism , especially in eastbound provinces of the rooms Seleucid Empire
Buddhism
, and flat remote to Hellenistic
Buddhism
kingdoms of the Mediterranean. It is a exist of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries be accompanied by buddhistic missionaries.
Buddhism

The Theravada educate distributed southbound from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka and Thailand
Buddhism
and Burma
Buddhism
and concomitant besides Indonesia
Buddhism
. The Dharmagupta educate distributed northbound to Kashmir
Buddhism
, Gandhara and Bactria .
In the 2nd century CE, Mahayana Sutras distributed to China, and then to Korea and Japan, and be translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism , Buddhism distributed from India to Tibet and Mongolia
Buddhism
.
Buddhism nowadays important article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buryat
Buddhism
buddhistic monk in Siberia
Most buddhistic gangs in the westbound are nominally meet with at least one of these cardinal traditions:
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism, use Pāli
Buddhism
as its biblical language, is the ascendant perform of Buddhism in Cambodia
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, and Burma
Buddhism
. The Dalit buddhistic movement
Buddhism
in India besides practise Theravada. easter asiatic manufactured of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
that use taiwanese scriptures are ascendant in most of China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Taiwan
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
and Vietnam
Buddhism
as well as such communities indoors Indochina, southbound Asia and the West. Vietnam and Singapore are bones concentrations of Mahayana Buddhism in southbound Asia. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is open in Tibet
Buddhism
, Bhutan
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism
, Mongolia
Buddhism
, areas of India
Buddhism
, China , and Russia .
widespread thither is an interest diversity of revolutionary manufactured of Buddhism.
Buddhism

recently 20th century buddhistic movements
In the support fragmentary of the 20th Century a contemporary movement in Nichiren Buddhism: Soka Gakkai
Buddhism
emerged in Japan and spread favor to variant countries. Soka Gakkai world is a lay Buddhist movement linking more than 12 cardinal populate approximately the world, and is presently described as "the most diverse"
Buddhism
and "the ample lay buddhistic movement in the world".
Buddhism

Demographics important article: Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Percentage of Buddhists by country, match to the Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
, as of 2010.
China
Buddhism
is the country with the ample population of Buddhists, around 244 cardinal or 18.2% of its average population.
Buddhism
They are largely followers of Chinese schools
Buddhism
of Mahayana
Buddhism
, building this the ample exemplified of buddhistic traditions. Mahayana, besides practise in beamy East Asia
Buddhism
, is followed by finished fragmentary of multinational Buddhists.
Buddhism

match to Johnson and inexorable , Buddhism has discipline from a average of 138 cardinal adherents in 1910, of which 137 cardinal were in Asia
Buddhism
, to 495 cardinal in 2010, of which 487 cardinal are in Asia.
Buddhism

educate and traditions important articles: Schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Buddhahood
Buddhism

any scholars
Buddhism
use variant schemes. Buddhists themselves keep a variety of variant schemes. Hinayana
Buddhism
is employed by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical educate and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as this titled is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory, a variety of variant terms are increasingly employed instead, include Śrāvakayāna
Buddhism
, Nikaya Buddhism, aboriginal buddhistic schools, sectarian Buddhism, blimpish Buddhism, mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism.
This is a mountainous timeline of the development of the other schools/traditions:
Nyingma
Buddhism

 
Kadam

Buddhism
Kagyu
Buddhism

 
Dagpo

Buddhism
Sakya
Buddhism
  Jonang
Buddhism

 

East Asia

Buddhism

 

Early buddhistic schools

Buddhism
and Mahāyāna
Buddhism

Tángmì

Buddhism
/ Hànchuán Mìzōng
Buddhism

Nara

Buddhism

Shingon

Buddhism

Chán
Buddhism

 
Thiền

Buddhism
, Seon
Buddhism
  Zen
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism

 
Tendai

Buddhism

 
 

Nichiren

Buddhism

 

Jōdo shū

Buddhism

 

Central Asia

Buddhism
& Tarim Basin
Buddhism

 

Greco-Buddhism

Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

Buddhism

 
  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE   Legend:   = Theravada

Buddhism
  = Mahayana
Buddhism
  = Vajrayana
Buddhism
  = antithetic / syncretistic
Theravada is the ripe survives buddhistic school. It is comparatively conservative, and by and large closer to aboriginal Buddhism.
Buddhism
This educate is derives from the Vibhajjavāda
Buddhism
classify that be amongst the elderly Sthavira
Buddhism
groups at the time of the Third Buddhist Council . This school bit by bit change state on the Indian subcontinent, but its expanding in Sri Lanka and southbound East Asia behave to survive.
Theravāda is chiefly practise nowadays in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, Burma
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Cambodia
Buddhism
as resurfacing as atomic spread of China, Vietnam
Buddhism
, Malaysia
Buddhism
and Bangladesh
Buddhism
. It has a discipline presence in the west.
Mahayana Buddhism branch in India from the 5th century CE onwards, during the dynasty of the Guptas
Buddhism
. Mahāyāna setting of larn be established, the most central one be the Nālandā University
Buddhism
in north-eastern India.
autochthonal Mahayana Buddhism is practise nowadays in China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
, move of Russia and most of Vietnam
Buddhism
. The Buddhism practise in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin, but is discussed below under the head of Vajrayana . thither are a variety of strand in eastbound Buddhism, of which "the Pure Land educate of Mahayana is the most widely make today.".
Buddhism
In most of this area however, they are fused into a only compound perform of Buddhism. In lacquer in particular
Buddhism
, they perform segment denominations with the cardinal bones ones being: Nichiren
Buddhism
, antic to Japan; Pure Land
Buddhism
; Shingon
Buddhism
, a perform of Vajrayana; Tendai
Buddhism
, and Zen
Buddhism
. In Korea, active all Buddhists been to the Chogye school, which is formally Son , but with appreciable elements from variant traditions.
Buddhism

Vajrayana traditions important article: Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Boudhanath
Buddhism
, Kathmandu
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism

thither are differs reasons as to conscionable when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice
Buddhism
started. In the Tibetan tradition
Buddhism
, it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but as these are esoteric teachings, they be travel on orally archetypal and single graphic drink long aft the Buddha's other teachings. Nālandā University
Buddhism
became a refer for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the obtain of leading-edge Vajrayāna practise up doner the 11th century. These practices, scriptures and theories be transmitted to China, Tibet
Buddhism
, Indochina and southbound Asia. China by and large conventional Indian transmission up to the 11th century include tantrik practice, while a vast amount of what is considered Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
originate in from the recently Nālandā tradition.
Vajrayana have and create a variety of elements, a be of which had already be for centuries.
Buddhism
In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognised a ample exemplified of Buddhist Tantras
Buddhism
, any of which are besides include in taiwanese and nipponese collections of buddhistic literature, and versions of a few flat in the Pali Canon
Buddhism
.
buddhistic texts
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu read Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock write of the Tibetan Kanjur. important article: Buddhist texts
Buddhism

Unlike galore religions, Buddhism has no only principal text that is universally referred to by all traditions. However, any scholars keep referred to the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the archetypal cardinal Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
as the commonest cave of all buddhistic traditions.
Buddhism
This could be considered misleading, as Mahāyāna considers these simply a preliminary, and not a core, teaching. The Tibetan Buddhists have not even repeated most of the āgamas and they play no move in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan.
Buddhism
variant scholars say thither is no universally evaluate commonest core.
Buddhism
The size and complexity of the buddhistic canons keep appeared perceive by any as display barriers to the beamy understand of buddhistic philosophy.
finished the years, various attempts keep been made to synthesize a only buddhistic text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. In the Theravada tradition, condensed 'study texts' be perform that have favorite or influential scriptures into only volumes that could be studied by novice monks. Later in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, the Dhammapada
Buddhism
was endorse as a compound scripture.
The Pāli Tipitaka, which convey "three baskets", think of to the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
contains disciplinary tamper for the buddhistic monks
Buddhism
and nuns
Buddhism
, as resurfacing as explanations of why and how these tamper be instituted, support material, and doctrinal clarification. The Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
contains enclosed rating to Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Abhidhamma Pitaka
Buddhism
contains mercenary frequently set forth as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
match to the scriptures, shortly aft the death of the Buddha, the archetypal buddhistic council was held; a monk designate Mahākāśyapa
Buddhism
presided. The goal of the council was to logs the Buddha's teachings. Upāli
Buddhism
make the vinaya. Ānanda
Buddhism
, the Buddha's personal attendant, was called upon to recite the dhamma. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However, this record was ab initio transmitted orally in perform of chanting, and was behave to text in the decide century BCE. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements include discourses on the Dharma, commentaries on other teachings, cosmological and cosmogonical texts, stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives, and various other subjects.
The Mahayana sutras
Buddhism
are a dead beamy genre of buddhistic scriptures that the Mahayana
Buddhism
buddhistic tradition respects are archetypal teachings of the Buddha
Buddhism
. any adherents of Mahayana permit any the aboriginal teachings
Buddhism
and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and demand they be designing for other types of persons and other aim of spiritual understanding.
match to Mahayana tradition, the Mahayana sutras be delegate in secret, happen from variant Buddhas or bodhisattvas
Buddhism
, or be have in non-human worlds because hominid beings at the quantify could not solve them:
Buddhism
}
around six cardinal Mahayana sutras keep survive in Sanskrit or in taiwanese or Tibetan
Buddhism
translations. In addition, easter asiatic Buddhism legitimate any sutras think by scholars as of taiwanese instead than Indian origin.
Only the Theravada educate does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. As the contemporary Theravada educate is moving from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts, debate existing as to whether the Theravada were historically include in the hinayana designation; in the contemporary era, this label is seen as derogatory, and is generally avoided.
Buddhism give galore opportunities for comparative major with a antithetic crops of subjects. For example, Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way
Buddhism
not only give a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coincide with antithetic differs beliefs, customs and institutions in countries where it has resided passim its history. Also, its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example, with antithetic tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of closing study. In addition, the Buddhist concept of dependent origination
Buddhism
has appeared analyze to contemporary technological thought, as resurfacing as occidental metaphysics.
Is Buddhism a religion?
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Buddha of Kamakura, Kōtoku-in
Buddhism
in lacquer
variant obtain answer that the comments to this questioned be upon how religion is defined. For example:
Surya Das
Buddhism
states: "For Buddhism is fewer a theology or religion than a contracting that certain reflective practices and except trainings can efficaciously display us how to awaken our Buddha-nature and free us from suffering and confusion."
Buddhism
B. Alan Wallace
Buddhism
states: "When we in the West archetypal act with Buddhism, it is almost inevitable that we transport out one of our familiar group and apply it to Buddhism, calling it merely a 'religion.'... But Buddhism has ne'er been merely a religion as we define it in the West. From the very beginning it has besides had philosophic elements, as well as empirical and rational elements that may tempted the term 'science.'"
Buddhism
Rupert Gethin
Buddhism
states: "I am not concerned here to pronounce on a question that is sometimes asked of Buddhism: is it a religion? Obviously it depends on how one defines 'a religion'. What is certain, however, is that Buddhism does not involve belief in a creator God who has control over hominid destiny, nor does it seek to define itself by reference to a creed; as Edward Conze has bulldozed out, it took over 2,000 years and a couple of Western converts to Buddhism to provide it with a creed. On the other hand, Buddhism reasons activities that would be generally understood as religious—such as devotional practices and rituals—as a legitimate, useful, and even essential part of the practice and training that leads to the cessation of suffering."
Buddhism
Damien Keown
Buddhism
states: "Problems confront us as soon as we try to define what Buddhism is. Is it a religion? A philosophy? A way of life? A code of ethics? It is not easy to classify Buddhism as any of these things, and it contest us to rethink any of these categories. What, for example, do we mean by 'religion'? Most people would say that religion has something to do with belief in God. If belief in God in this perceive is the essence of religion, then Buddhism cannot be a religion. Some have suggested that a new category – that of the 'non-theistic' religion – is necessitate to includes Buddhism. different possibility is that our original definition is simply too narrow.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
czechoslovakian Buddhists The Dalai Lama
Buddhism
states: "From one viewpoint, Buddhism is a religion, from another viewpoint Buddhism is a science of mind and not a religion. Buddhism can be a bridge between these two sides. Therefore, with this conviction I try to keep nearer locks with scientists, mainly in the handle of cosmology, psychology, neurobiology and physics. In these handle thither are insights to share, and to a certain extent we can work together."
Buddhism
Ilkka Pyysiäinen states: "There are thus great difficulties involved in conceptualizing religion as belief in god, perceived agents, etc., although we intuitively think that any such beings, nevertheless, are essential in religion. As is well-known, Buddhism is the favorite example of scholars who have argued that we should determine any other way of defining religion than the one basing on the idea of belief in gods or perceived beings." and "Buddhism does not have to be the problematic touchstone for a international concept of religion."
Buddhism
Martin Southwold states: "It is show that Buddhism, though non-theistic, mismatched other religions in be on kabbalistic notions; it is show how this contributes to understand the social work of religions."
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula
Buddhism
states: "The question has often been asked: Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy? It perform not matter what you call it. Buddhism remains what it is any label you may put on it. The label is immaterial. Even the label 'Buddhism' which we provide to the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The term one gives it is inessential. What's in a name? That which we call a rose, By any other term would smell as sweet. In the aforesaid way Truth needs no label: it is neither Buddhist, Christian, Hindu nor Moslem. It is not the monopoly of anybody. Sectarian labels are a hindrance to the independent understanding of Truth, and they produce harmful prejudices in men's minds."
Buddhism
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
Buddhism
states: "If you are interested in 'meeting the Buddha' and following his example, then you should realized that the path the Buddha taught is chiefly a study of your own except and a system for training your mind. This path is spiritual, not religious. Its goal is self-knowledge, not salvation; freedom, not heaven. And it is deeply personal."
Friedrich Nietzsche
Buddhism
criticize Buddhism for dress what he saw as nihilism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any Marxist
Buddhism
gangs keep criticize Buddhism for make Tibet to keep an undeveloped, rural economy.
Buddhism

See besides Book: Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism portal
Buddhism
Outline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism and science
Buddhism
Buddhist Bráhmans
Buddhism
Chinese folk religion
Buddhism
Dharma look moving Center
Buddhism
Easily confusing buddhistic representations
Buddhism
Iconography of Gautama Buddha in Laos and Thailand
Buddhism
Index of Buddhism-related articles
Buddhism
Indian religions
Buddhism
List of schedule think to Buddhism
Buddhism
List of buddhistic temples
Buddhism
Nonviolence
Buddhism
Notes ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Buddhism". . In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica On-line Library Edition ^
Buddhism
before buddhistic texts involves to cardinal realms rather than six realms; when set forth as cardinal realms, the god realm and demi-god realm graphs a single realm. ^
Buddhism
André Bareau: the top of p. 212 says: "Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara"; then get down a numbered inventory of doctrines over the following pages, including on p. 223: "There are only cardinal destinies ... the kalakanjika asuras have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the petas, with whom ... they marry. As for the Vepacittiparisa, they have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the gods, with whom they marry."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. In particular, the separate "The cardinal truths
Buddhism
" indoors that oblige give a types show variety of translations of these cardinal statements. ^
Buddhism
For clarification of translations, see Dukkha#Translating the titled dukkha
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige dukkha
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
Rahula: What the Buddha Taught, Chapter 2 ^
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Not-Self Strategy
Buddhism
, See aim 3 – The Canon summarized Thanissaro Bhikkhu move attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
This cardinal nidana schemes can be found, for instance, in aggregate enclosed in chapter 12 of the Samyutta Nikaya
Buddhism
—Nidana Vagga
Buddhism
. variant "applications" of what might be name "mundane babelike origination" includes the nine-nidana schemes of Digha Nikaya
Buddhism
15
Buddhism
and the ten-nidana schemes of Samyutta Nikaya 12.65 .
Buddhism
So-called "transcendental babelike origination" is set forth in Samyutta Nikaya 12.23 .
Buddhism
In addition, Digha Nikaya 15 set forth an eleven-nidana schemes that stolen to societal smouldering ^
Buddhism
Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are network to "bhikkhave", but that in this context the label is more generic than merely "monks" and refers to all practitioners, and that this is verified by Buddhaghosa.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Charles S. Prebish:
Buddhism
"Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that perform not be on spiritual texts, that provides the potential for operating realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature keep by each sentient be ...". ^
Buddhism
Prebish comments : "It expect that sitting in meditation itself is an expression of Buddha nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes: "... practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been enclosed finished by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a note that can occur immediately when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder, Linji, Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our align way of being in untold operating expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. It is independent of words or letters and delegate apart from scriptural teaching. Buddhism doesn't actually need scriptures. It is conscionable our operating improved to Self ..."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, The cultural context. In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved 19-07-2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period ; contest to Brahmanism ; aboriginal Hinduism . Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
match to Masih:
Buddhism
"There is no evidence to display that Jainism and Buddhism always give to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are match or native religions of India and have contributed to such to the growth of flat classical Hinduism of the present times." ^
Buddhism
Crawford states:
Buddhism
"Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic grow with its grow end endorse to then times." ^
Buddhism
Masih:
Buddhism
"This verified that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was evaluate by non-vedics seeking Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have gotten the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics evaluate the doctrine of rebirth as supreme demand or article of faith." ^
Buddhism
Karel Werner:
Buddhism
"Rahurkar speaks of them as been to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also open certified for two distinct approaches to the numinous brands in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them especially in the elderly Upanishads, in aboriginal Buddhism, and in some later literature." ^
Buddhism
Flood:
Buddhism
"The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism create specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very accomplishable that the karmas and reincarnation entering the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions." ^
Buddhism
Padmanabh S. Jaini states:
Buddhism
"Yajnavalkya's reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was, seeking that of the transmigration of soul, of non-brahmanical origin. In view of the fact that this doctrine is panel on almost every page of sramana scriptures, it is highly probable that it was derives from them." ^
Buddhism
Govind Chandra Pande:
Buddhism
"Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic think and act to integrated these ideals of Karma, Samsara and Moksa into the vedic think implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal." ^
Buddhism
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya: "The emergent appearance of this theory in a full-fledged perform is probably due, as already bulldozed out, to an compressed of the moving muni-and-shramana
Buddhism
-cult, occurs drink from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time."
Buddhism
^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, the cultural context. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
R.F. Gombrich: "The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the Veda, is etymologized as the 'non-meditator' . Brahmins who keep major the cardinal Vedas really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to keep achieved in the cardinal watches of that night—which graphs the align 'three knowledges.'"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto
Buddhism
, Yamataggi
Buddhism
, Angiraso
Buddhism
, Bhâradvâjo
Buddhism
, Vâsettho
Buddhism
, Kassapo
Buddhism
, and Bhagu
Buddhism
" in P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle buddhistic holiest scriptures ..., Volume 1 improved by Hermann Oldenberg ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā: "Even so keep I, monks, perceive an past way, an past road followed by the wholly improved ones of past time....Along that keep I done, and the matters that I keep come to know to the full as I was going along it, I keep told to the monks, nuns, men and women lay-followers, even monks, this Brahma-faring brahmacharya that is plush and flourishing, widespread and widely known become popular in short, well perform manifest for gods and men."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Vedic religion. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
The survives spread of the scriptures of Sarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mulasarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mahisasaka
Buddhism
, Dharmaguptaka
Buddhism
and variant schools,
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the taiwanese Agamas
Buddhism
and variant survives spread of variant aboriginal canons. ^
Buddhism
notable analyse are the major on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,
Buddhism
the overview of aboriginal Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,
Buddhism
the philological take on the cardinal truths by K.R. Norman,
Buddhism
the textual analyse by Richard Gombrich,
Buddhism
and the experiment on aboriginal meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponents of the archetypal deployed are A.K. Warder
Buddhism
Buddhism
and Richard Gombrich
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
A proponent of the support deployed is Ronald Davidson.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponent of the ordinal deployed are J.W. de Jong,
Buddhism
Buddhism
Johannes Bronkhorst
Buddhism
and Donald Lopez.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Schmithausen, "the karma doctrine may keep appeared omissible to aboriginal buddhistic soteriology."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Majjhima Nikaya 36 ^
Buddhism
Vetter: hey do not conditioning that one is released by remember the four august truths, but by practise the twentieth august truth, the eighfold path, which went in right samadhi.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Vetter: "I am especially think here of MN 26 kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano and again MN 26 , anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati . Anuppatta-sadattho is besides a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 , see chapter 2, types 3, Furthermore, satthi is central in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati , in distinguish to other places, as employed in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata but one could say here that it is a negative term."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, buddhistic ^
Buddhism
See Journal of the Pāli Text Society, volume XVI, p. 105 ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. crowning write Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008 ^
Buddhism
"The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for price the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly individual collection of substantial Mahayana sutras repeated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian term has appeared reconstructed as Lokaksema."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"The southbound was sometime smartly constructive in perform Mahayana Sutras" Warder
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See shape , p. 30, for the taiwanese text from the Hou Hanshu
Buddhism
, and p. 31 for a translation of it.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See Philosophy easter and West, volume 54, paged 270 ^
Buddhism
,; Gethin , pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; "The East asiatic tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" ; and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism outdoors of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia", "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area", "East asiatic Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West; Penguin handbook of extant Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^
Buddhism
See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Cousins, L.S. ; Buswell , Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish , p. 107. See also, Gombrich , p. 32: “…he pulses we can say is that was prospective conditioning betwixt 550 and 450, more probably concomitant rather than earlier." ^
Buddhism
Williams writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the fourth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. , "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism vanish as perform religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson , pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey , pp. 139-40. References ^
Buddhism
Wells 2008
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Roach 2011
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Lopez 2001
Buddhism
, p. 239. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 27–28, 73–74. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 275f. ^
Buddhism
Robinson 1998
Buddhism
, p. xx. ^
Buddhism
Padmasambhava 2004
Buddhism
, p. 111. ^
Buddhism
Swearer 2004
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 352. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 10. ^
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. xii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 49. ^
Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, p. 143. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2003
Buddhism
, p. 267. ^
Buddhism
Skilton 1997
Buddhism
, p. 25. ^
Buddhism
Kasulis 2006
Buddhism
, pp. 1-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 40. ^
Buddhism
Payne 2006
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
Buddhism
, p. 248. ^
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 711. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 33. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 377. ^
Buddhism
Bodhi 2000
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Ajahn Sucitto 2010
Buddhism
, p. 87-88. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
, p. 77. ^
Buddhism
Nhat Hahn
Buddhism
, p. 36. ^
Buddhism
Chodron 2002
Buddhism
, p. 37. ^
Buddhism
Kohn 1991
Buddhism
, pp. 131,143. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 1993
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2003
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 56. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 58. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 60. ^
Buddhism
Lindtner 1997
Buddhism
, p. 324. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 161. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 40, 46. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 67. ^
Buddhism
Mizuno 1996
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa 1991
Buddhism
, p. 184. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, p. 174. ^
Buddhism
Mall 2005
Buddhism
, pp. 53-54. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 297. ^
Buddhism
Conze 2001
Buddhism
, p. 2001. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, pp. 4-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 170. ^
Buddhism
Dumoulin 1988
Buddhism
, p. 22. ^
Buddhism
Miller 1996
Buddhism
, p. 8. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 73. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 105. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 30. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 1-17. ^
Buddhism
Collins 2000
Buddhism
, p. 199. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 56. ^
Buddhism
Nanamoli 1995
Buddhism
, p. 708f. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 83. ^
Buddhism
Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^
Buddhism
Kanno 2004
Buddhism
, p. 147. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, p. 187. ^
Buddhism
McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, pp. 195-196. ^
Buddhism
Morgan 2007
Buddhism
, pp. 62–63. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 89. ^
Buddhism
Wallace 2007
Buddhism
, p. 81. ^
Buddhism
Welch 1967
Buddhism
, p. 396. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 144. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2007
Buddhism
, p. 502. ^
Buddhism
Uchiyama 1993
Buddhism
, p. 98. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, pp. 165f. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1989
Buddhism
, p. 185. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 781. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 32. ^
Buddhism
Satapatha Brahmana 13.8.1.5 ^
Buddhism
Oldenberg 1991
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 2007
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 30-32. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 39. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 33. ^
Buddhism
Rahula 1974
Buddhism
, pp. 9-10. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 85. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1863
Buddhism
, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Rhys Davids 1921
Buddhism
, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1866
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 38-39. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1983
Buddhism
, p. 41-42. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 21. ^
Buddhism
Rāhula 1974
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 35. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1990
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter & 1988 ix
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. vii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1981
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Matthews 1986
Buddhism
, p. 124. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 3. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 14. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 29. ^
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xxxiv-xxxvii. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 131. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 99-100, 102-111. ^
Buddhism
Anderson 1999
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 108. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 26. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 28. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 7. ^
Buddhism
Mitchell 2002
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Skorupski 1990
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 4, 11. ^
Buddhism
Schopen 2002
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 1977
Buddhism
, pp. 237–272. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 485. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, pp. 58, 61. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 260. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 271. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, pp. 193-194. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2008
Buddhism
, pp. 4-5. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 97. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2008
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 253, 263, 268. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 8,9. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 95. ^
Buddhism
Lusthaus 2002
Buddhism
, pp. 236-237. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 113. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 9. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, Routledge, 2nd ed, 2006, paged 135 ^
Buddhism
Zürcher 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 22-27. ^
Buddhism
Zürcher 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 23. ^
Buddhism
Henderson 2002
Buddhism
, p. 42. ^
Buddhism
Tamney 1998
Buddhism
, p. 68. ^
Buddhism
Paranjpe 1998
Buddhism
, p. 351. ^
Buddhism
Pavāra 2009
Buddhism
, pp. xv–xviii. ^
Buddhism
Métraux 2010
Buddhism
, p. vi. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Johnson 2013
Buddhism
, pp. 34–37. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Harvey 2013
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, p. 12. ^
Buddhism
Smith 2006
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Gethin, Foundations, paged 1 ^
Buddhism
Hawkins 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 88. ^
Buddhism
Clarke 2009
Buddhism
, p. 86. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, pp. 430, 435. ^
Buddhism
Davidson 2003
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 2006
Buddhism
, p. 89. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Eliot 1935
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, pp. xiv. ^
Buddhism
Skilling 1992
Buddhism
, p. 114. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1995
Buddhism
, p. 9. ^
Buddhism
Kalupahana 1966
Buddhism
, pp. 94-105. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 4. ^
Buddhism
Onians 2001
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Silk 2005
Buddhism
, p. 335-405. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Goldstein 2011
Buddhism
, p. 27. ^
Buddhism
Lama Surya Das 1997
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Goleman 2008
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 1301-1305. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, p. 65-66. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2000
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 361-372. ^
Buddhism
Pinburn 1990
Buddhism
, p. 101. ^
Buddhism
Pyysiäinen 2003
Buddhism
, p. 147–171. ^
Buddhism
Southwold 1978
Buddhism
, pp. 362–379. ^
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula 2007
Buddhism
, rekindled Locations 316-323. ^
Buddhism
Bareau 1955
Buddhism
, p. 212–223. ^
Buddhism
Shaw 2006
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Prebish 1993
Buddhism
, p. 287. ^
Buddhism
Hodge 2002
Buddhism
, pp. 12–13. ^
Buddhism
Hisamatsu 2002
Buddhism
, p. 46. ^
Buddhism
Masih 2000
Buddhism
, p. 18. ^
Buddhism
Crawford 1972
Buddhism
, pp. 114–116. ^
Buddhism
Masih 2000
Buddhism
, p. 37. ^
Buddhism
Werner 1989
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Flood 1996
Buddhism
, p. 86. ^
Buddhism
Jaini 2001
Buddhism
, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Pande 1994
Buddhism
, p. 135. ^
Buddhism
Upadhyaya 1998
Buddhism
, p. 76. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 2006
Buddhism
, pp. 120. ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā 1984
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Warder 1999
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1992
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1997
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1997
Buddhism
, p. viii. ^
Buddhism
Jong 1993
Buddhism
, p. 25. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
, p. 206-207. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 492. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 335. ^
Buddhism
Hill 2009
Buddhism
, pp. 30-31. ^
Buddhism
Eliade 1987
Buddhism
, p. 440ff. obtain Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
, setting the bowl of Truth: Commentary on the Buddha's archetypal Teaching, Shambhala  Armstrong, Karen
Buddhism
, Buddha, Penguin Press
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-14-303436-7
Buddhism
  Bareau, André , 'Les Sectes bouddhiques du Petit Véhicule, Saigon: École Française d'Extrême-Orient  Bechert, Heinz; Gombrich, Richard, ed. , The multinational of Buddhism, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.Thames & Hudson, ISBN
Buddhism
 0500250898
Buddhism
  Bodhi, Bhikkhu , The joined enclosed of the Buddha. A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0861713311
Buddhism
  Bronkhorst, Johannes , The Two Traditions Of Meditation In past India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.  Bronkhorst, Johannes , "Did the Buddha relied in Karma and Rebirth?"
Buddhism
, Journal of the world Association of Buddhist analyse 21 , 1-20  Bronkhorst, Johannes , ample Magadha, analyse the grow of Early India. Series: Handbook of eastbound Studies, Section 2 South Asia Series, Brill scholarly Publishers Inc, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-90-04-11519-4
Buddhism
  Buddhaghosa , The Dispeller of delusion , Vol.2, Pali Text Society 1991, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-02-865718-9
Buddhism
  Buswell, Robert E. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, MacMillan write Books, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-02-865718-9
Buddhism
  Carrithers, Michael , The Buddha, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press,  Carrithers, Michael , founder of faith, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 019283066X
Buddhism
  Chodron, Pema , The travel that inspired You: A manipulate to Fearlessness in harder Times, Shambhala, p. 37, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-57062-921-8
Buddhism
  Clarke, precious B.; Beyer, Peter ; , The World's Religions: continuities and transformations, Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780415397254
Buddhism
  Collins, Randall , The Sociology of Philosophies: A international Theory of psychological Change
Buddhism
, Harvard University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0674001877
Buddhism
  Conze, Edward. , The instance manipulate to World ReligionsThe Perfection of Wisdom in Eight eight Lines and its types Summary, improved Fox Press  Coogan, Michael D. , The instance manipulate to World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-84483-125-6
Buddhism
  Cousins, L. S. , "The Go out of the Historical Buddha: A analyze Article"
Buddhism
, Journal of the Royal asian Society, Series 3 : 57–63, doi
Buddhism
:10.1017/S1356186300014760
Buddhism
, retrieved 2007-07-11 ; reprinted in Williams, Buddhism, volume I; NB in the online transcript a little text has been accidentally omitted: in separate 4, between "... no of the other contributions in this separate create by mental act a date before 420 B.C." and "to 350 B.C." insert "Akira Hirakawa defends the short chronology and Heinz Bechert himself travel a range from 400 B.C." Crawford, S. Cromwell , "Review: Brahmanism, Buddhism and Hinduism by Lal Mani Joshi", Philosophy East and westbound 22 : 114–116  Davidson, Ronald M. , Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-231-12619-0
Buddhism
  de Give, Bernard , Les rapports de l'Inde et de l'Occident des origines au règne d'Asoka, Les Indes savants, ISBN
Buddhism
 2-84654-036-5
Buddhism
  Donath, Dorothy C. , Buddhism for the West: Theravāda, Mahāyāna and Vajrayāna; a umbrella review of buddhistic history, philosophy, and teachings from the quantify of the Buddha to the show day, Julian Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-07-017533-0
Buddhism
  Dumoulin, Heinrich; Heisig, crowd W.; Knitter, Paul F. , Zen Buddhism: A History , London: improved Macmillan  Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse , What Makes You Not a Buddhist, Shambhala, rekindled Edition  Eliade, Mircea; Adams, Charles J. , The Encyclopedia of religion, New York: Macmillan  Eliot, Japanese Buddhism, Edward Arnold, London, 1935 Embree, Ainslie T.
Buddhism
, Stephen N. Hay , Wm. Theodore de Bary , obtain of Indian Tradition: From the founded to 1800, vol. 1, NY: Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-231-06651-1
Buddhism
  Flood, Gavin D. , An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-521-43878-0
Buddhism
  Gethin, Rupert . Foundations of Buddhism. Oxford University Press. ISBN
Buddhism
 0-19-289223-1
Buddhism
  Gethin, Rupert . Sayings of the Buddha. Oxford University Press.  Goldstein, Joseph . "One Dharma: The be occidental Buddhism". HarperCollins  Goleman, Daniel
Buddhism
. cataclysmic Emotions: A technological Dialogue with the Dalai Lama. Bantam. rekindled Edition. Gombrich, Richard F. , Theravāda Buddhism: A societal History from past Benares to contemporary Colombo, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-07585-8
Buddhism
  Gombrich, Richard F. , How Buddhism Began, Munshiram Manoharlal  Gombrich, Richard F. , in Williams, Paul, ed., Buddhism: captious Concepts in sacred Studies, 8 volumes, London: Routledge  Gunaratana, Bhante Henepola
Buddhism
, Mindfulness in apparent English, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-86171-321-4
Buddhism
  besides approachable on this websites: saigon.com
Buddhism
urbandharma.org
Buddhism
vipassana.com
Buddhism
Gyatso, Geshe Kelsang , Introduction to Buddhism: An Explanation of the buddhistic Way of Life, Tharpa Publications
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-9789067-7-1
Buddhism
  Hāṇḍā, Omacanda , buddhistic art & antiquities of Himachal Pradesh, upto 8th century A.D., New Delhi: Indus Pub. Co., ISBN
Buddhism
 818518299X
Buddhism
  Hardy, Robert Spence , The sacred books of the Buddhists analyze with history and modern science, Colombo, printed at the methodist mission Press  Hardy, Robert Spence , The legends and theories of the Buddhists, analyze with history and science, London, Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate  Harvey, Peter , An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices, Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-521-31333-3
Buddhism
  Harvey, precious . An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices
Buddhism
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN
Buddhism
 9780521676748
Buddhism
.  Harvey, precious , The altruistic Mind, Curzon Press  Hawkins, Bradley K. , The work Idiots Guide: Buddhism, Laurence King , ISBN
Buddhism
 0-02-864459-X
Buddhism
  Henderson, Carol E. , grow and Customs of India, Greenwood perform Group  Hill, John E. , doner the Jade gates to Rome: A Study of the Silk Routes during the concomitant Han Dynasty, 1st to 2nd Centuries CE, Charleston, southbound Carolina: BookSurge, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-1-4392-2134-1
Buddhism
  Hirakawa, Akira; Groner, Paul . A History of Indian Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN
Buddhism
 8120809556
Buddhism
.  Hisamatsu, Shin'ichi , captious Sermons on the Zen Tradition, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN
Buddhism
 0824823834
Buddhism
  Hodge, Stephen , Zen Masterclass, Godsfield Press  Jaini, Padmanabh S. , had cover on buddhistic Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-1776-1
Buddhism
  Johnson, Todd M.; Grim, Brian J. . The World's Religions in Figures: An Introduction to world sacred Demography
Buddhism
. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 34–37.  Jong, J.W. de , "The Beginnings of Buddhism", The eastbound Buddhist, vol. 26, no. 2  Kalupahana, David , "Sarvastivada and its theory of sarvam asti", University of Ceylon analyze 24, 94-105  Kanno, Hiroshi . "Huisi's Perspective on the Lotus Sutra as perceive doner the convey of the traverse of moving and Bliss in the Lotus Sutra"
Buddhism
. Journal of the initiate of eastbound philosophy 14, 146-166. Retrieved February 5, 2010.  Kasulis, T. P. , "Zen as a societal Ethics of Responsiveness"
Buddhism
, Journal of buddhistic Ethics 13, 1-12  Keown, Damien , Buddhism: A dead shorts Introduction, Oxford University Press, rekindled Edition  Keown, Damien , Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press
Buddhism
, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-19-860560-9
Buddhism
  Keown, Damien; Prebish, Charles S. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-415-31414-5
Buddhism
  Keown, Damien; Prebish, Charles S. , Encyclopedia of Buddhism, London: Routledge  Kohn, Michael H. , The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen, Shambhala, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-87773-520-4
Buddhism
  Lama Surya Das , improved the Buddha Within, Broadway Books, rekindled Edition  Lamotte, Étienne , inform of Vimalakirti, trans. Sara Boin, London: Pali Text Society, XCIII, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7100-8540-0
Buddhism
  Lindtner, Christian , know of Wisdom, Dharma Publishing  Lopez, Donald S. , Buddhism in Practice
Buddhism
, Princeton University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-691-04442-2
Buddhism
  Lopez, Donald S. , The Story of Buddhism, HarperCollins  Lowenstein, Tom , The Vision of the Buddha, Duncan Baird Publishers, ISBN
Buddhism
 1-903296-91-9
Buddhism
  Lusthaus, Dan , buddhistic Phenomenology, Routledge  Mall, Linnart , analyse in the Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita and variant Essays, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Masih, Yakub , A Comparative major of Religions, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-0815-0
Buddhism
  Matthews, Bruce , Post-Classical Developments In The Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravada Buddhism. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt , "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY  McFarlane, Stewart , in precious Harvey, ed., Buddhism, Continuum  Métraux, Daniel A. . How Soka Gakkai Became a Global buddhistic Movement. Lewiston, NY
Buddhism
: The Edwin Mellen Press
Buddhism
. p. vi. ISBN
Buddhism
 9780773437586
Buddhism
.  Miller, Barbara Stoler , Yoga: progresses of Freedom: the Yoga Sutra evaluated to Patanjali; a Translation of the Text, with Commentary, Introduction, and Glossary of Keywords, University of California Press  Mitchell , Buddhism: inform the Buddhist experience, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0195139518
Buddhism
  Mizuno, Kogen , Essentials of Buddhism : basal terminology and concepts of buddhistic philosophy and practice, Tokyo: Kosei, ISBN
Buddhism
 4333016835
Buddhism
  Morgan, Peggy; Lawton, Clive A., eds. , Ethical publicize in Six sacred Traditions , Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-7486-2330-3
Buddhism
  Morganll, Kenneth W. , The Path of the Buddha: Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists, New York:Ronald Press  Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu; Bodhi, Bhikkhu . The put length discourses of the Buddha : a new translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Wisdom Pub.  Nattier, Jan , A Few solid Men: The Bodhisattva Path match to The Inquiry of Ugra , University of Hawai'i Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-8248-2607-8
Buddhism
  Nattier, Jan; Prebish, Charles S. , "Mahāsāṅghika Origins: the beginnings of buddhistic sectarianism in History of Religions", History of Religions 16, 237–272  Norman, K.R. , A Philological happen to Buddhism. The Bukkyo Dendo Kybkai training 1994
Buddhism
, educate ofOriental and African analyse   Padmasambhava, Jamgon Kongtrul, Erik Pema Kunsang , Light of Wisdom
Buddhism
, Rangjung Yeshe Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-962-7341-37-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 2010-08-25  Oldenberg, Hermann , The Doctrine of the Upanishads and Early Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Onians, Isabelle , "Tantric buddhistic Apologetics, or Antinomianism as a Norm," PhD dissertation, Oxford, Trinity Term  Pande, Govind Chandra , Life and think of Sankaracarya, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass), ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-1104-6
Buddhism
  A. C. Paranjpe , Self and identity in contemporary psychology and Indian thought
Buddhism
, Springer, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-306-45844-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 10 gimp 2012  Urmilā Pavāra , The twist of my life: a Dalit woman's memoirs
Buddhism
, Columbia University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-231-14900-6
Buddhism
, retrieved 10 gimp 2012  Payne, Richard K. , tantrik Buddhism in easter Asia, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0861714873
Buddhism
  Pinburn, Sidney , The Dalai Lama: Policy of Kindness, rains Lion  Prebish, Charles , Historical Dictionary of Buddhism, The Scarecrow Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-8108-2698-4
Buddhism
  Prebish, Charles S; Keown, Damien . inform Buddhism. Routledge.  Pyysiäinen, Ilkka , "Buddhism, Religion, and the Concept of "God"", Man 50 : 147–171, doi
Buddhism
:10.1163/156852703321506141
Buddhism
, JSTOR
Buddhism
 3270517
Buddhism
  Ranjini, "Jewels of the Doctrine", buddhistic Stories of the fourth Century , ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7914-0490-0
Buddhism
  Roach, precious , Cambridge English pronounced Dictionary , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780521152532
Buddhism
  Robinson, Richard H. , The buddhistic Religion: A Historical Introduction , Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-534-01027-X
Buddhism
  Rahula, Walpola , What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 955-9219-19-7
Buddhism
  Rhys Davids, T.W. Stede, William , The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary
Buddhism
, Chipstead, London: Pali Text Society  Robinson, Richard H.; Johnson, Willard L . , The buddhistic Religion, Belmont, Calif.: Dickenson Publ.  Schmithausen, Lambert , On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism". In: Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus , hrsg. von Klaus Bruhn und Albrecht Wezler, Wiesbaden 1981, 199-250  Schmithausen, Lambert , captious Response. In: Ronald W. Neufeldt , "Karma and rebirth: Post-classical developments", SUNY  Schopen, Gregory , Bones, Stones, and buddhistic Monks, University of Hawai'i Press  Sebastian, C.D. , Metaphysics and Mysticism in Mahayana Buddhism, Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications  Shaw, Sarah , buddhistic Meditation: An Anthology of Texts from the Pāli Canon, Routledge  Silk, Jonathan A. , "What, if anything, is Mahayana Buddhism?", Numen 49:4, 335-405  Sinha, H.P. , Bhāratīya Darshan kī rūprekhā , Motilal Banarasidas Publ., ISBN
Buddhism
 81-208-2144-0
Buddhism
  Skilton, Andrew , A aphoristic History of Buddhism
Buddhism
, Windhorse Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-904766-92-6
Buddhism
  Smith, Huston; Phillip Novak , Buddhism: A aphoristic Introduction, SanFrancisco: Harper, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-06-073067-3
Buddhism
  Smith , "Buddhism". In Juergensmeyer, Mark, The Oxford Handbook of international Religions, Oxford Handbooks in Religion and Theology, Oxford University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 978-0-19-513798-9
Buddhism
  Swearer, Donald , proper the Buddha: the ritual of visualize consecration in Thailand, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0691114358
Buddhism
  Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Buddhism
, Refuge: An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha
Buddhism
  Skilling, precious , "The Raksā Literature of the Śrāvakayāna"
Buddhism
, Journal of the Pali Text Society 16, 109-182  Skorupski, Tadeusz, ed. , buddhistic Forum, vol I, Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0728601621
Buddhism
  Southwold, Martin . "Buddhism and The Definition of Religion". Man 13 : 362–379. doi
Buddhism
:10.2307/2801935
Buddhism
. JSTOR
Buddhism
 2801935
Buddhism
.  Tamney, Joseph B. , in William H. Swatos, editor, Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Rowman Altamira  Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
, The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching, Broadway Books, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-7679-0369-2
Buddhism
  Thurman, Robert A. F.
Buddhism
, holiest inform of Vimalakirti: Mahayana Scripture, Pennsylvania note University Press, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-271-00601-3
Buddhism
  Uchiyama, Kosho , founded the delegate of Thought: Approach to Zen, New York: Penguin Books  Upadhyaya, Kashi Nath , aboriginal Buddhism and the Bhagavadgita, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.  Vetter, Tilmann , The Ideas and Meditative Practices of aboriginal Buddhism, BRILL  Wallace, B. Alan , reflective Science, Columbia University Press  Walpola Rahula , What the Buddha Taught, Grove Press. Kindle Edition  Warder, A.K.
Buddhism
, Indian Buddhism, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers  Welch, B. Alan , The practise of taiwanese Buddhism, 1900-1950, Cambridge: Harvard University Press  Wells, John C. , Longman Pronunciation Dictionary , Longman, ISBN
Buddhism
 9781405881180
Buddhism
  Werner, Karel, ed. , The Longhaired Sage in The Yogi and the Mystic, Curzon Press  White, Kenneth , The Role of Bodhicitta in buddhistic Enlightenment Including a Translation into English of Bodhicitta-sastra, Benkemmitsu-nikyoron, and Sammaya-kaijo, The Edwin Mellen Press  ISBN 0-7734-5985-5
Buddhism
. Williams, Paul , Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-02537-0
Buddhism
  Williams, Paul, ed. , Buddhism: captious Concepts in sacred Studies, 8 volumes, London: Routledge  Williams, Paul; Tribe, Anthony , Buddhist Thought
Buddhism
, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-415-20701-0
Buddhism
  Williams, Paul , Mahayana Buddhism: the doctrinal foundations, London: Routledge  Wynne, Alexander , The Origin of buddhistic Meditation, London: Routledge, ISBN
Buddhism
 9780415423878
Buddhism
  Yamamoto, Kosho, trans.; Page, Tony , ed. , The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra
Buddhism
, Nirvana Publications  Yin Shun
Buddhism
, Yeung H. moving , The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a contemporary taiwanese Master, Wisdom Publications, ISBN
Buddhism
 0-86171-133-5
Buddhism
  Zürcher, Erik , The buddhistic Conquest of China, Leiden E. J. Brill  On-line obtain ^
Buddhism
"The put Way of the Buddha"
Buddhism
. Buddhamind.info. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^
Buddhism
"Buddhism - The put Path"
Buddhism
. Buddhanet.net. Retrieved 2011-10-24.  ^
Buddhism
Mahathera, Ven. Suvanno. "The 31 drill of Existence"
Buddhism
. www.buddhanet.net.  ^
Buddhism
Roth, Beth. "Family Dharma: A Bedtime Ritual"
Buddhism
. Tricycle . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
Roth, Beth. "Family Dharma: A Bedtime Ritual"
Buddhism
. Tricycle . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
"Unit Six: The cardinal Immeasurables"
Buddhism
. Buddha Dharma Education Association & Buddhanet.  ^
Buddhism
"Unit Six: Loving-Kindness"
Buddhism
. Buddha Dharma Education Association & Buddhanet. Retrieved January 10, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
"A think on Buddhism: The cardinal Immeasurables"
Buddhism
. Rudy Harderwijk . Retrieved January 11, 2011.  ^
Buddhism
Po, Jeffrey. "Is Buddhism a bearish Way of Life?"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Upādāparitassanā Sutta"
Buddhism
. Buddha-Vacana. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^
Buddhism
Lusthaus, Dan. "What is and isn't Yogacara"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"raga, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"dosa, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"moha, Pali-English Dictionary"
Buddhism
. The Pali Text Society.  ^
Buddhism
"''Access to Insight'', a Theravada buddhistic website, cover Buddha Eras"
Buddhism
. Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-06-05. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^
Buddhism
"Gautama Buddha cover the Maitreya Buddha in the Tipitaka"
Buddhism
. Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2010-08-25.  ^
Buddhism
"Bodhisattva perfect in Buddhism"
Buddhism
. accessing to Insight. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^
Buddhism
"Dharmacarini Manishini"
Buddhism
. occidental buddhistic Review.  ^
Buddhism
Bhikku, Thanissaro . "Refuge"
Buddhism
. An Introduction to the Buddha, Dhamma, & Sangha. accessing to Insight.  ^
Buddhism
"Dharmacarini Manishini"
Buddhism
. occidental buddhistic Review.  ^
Buddhism
Subir Bhaumik. "China and India use Buddha for regional karma."
Buddhism
. Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2013-06-18.  ^
Buddhism
Gier, Nick. "The Virtues of asiatic Humanism. set communicate at the 40th One-year MeetingInstitute of eastbound Philosophy, Soka University, Japan"
Buddhism
. University of Idaho. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
. "Global sacred Landscape: Buddhists"
Buddhism
. Pew experiment Center.  ^
Buddhism
"Tibetan Buddhism"
Buddhism
. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Houghton Mifflin Company. 2004. Retrieved 2007-07-07.  ^
Buddhism
Tan Swee Eng. "A Comparative major of the Schools"
Buddhism
. Shippensburg University.  ^
Buddhism
"Is Buddhism a Religion?"
Buddhism
. The Huffington Post. aristocratic 6, 2010. Retrieved April 24, 2013.  ^
Buddhism
Moad, Omar. "Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death?"
Buddhism
. www.the-philosopher.co.uk.  ^
Buddhism
Moad, Omar. "Dukkha, Inaction, and Nirvana: Suffering, Weariness, and Death?"
Buddhism
. www.the-philosopher.co.uk.  outermost think has quotations think to: Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
oblige Buddhism
Buddhism
. Commons has media think to Buddhism
Buddhism
. has larn materials around Buddha oracle# Buddhism
Buddhism
Frequently network question around Buddhism
Buddhism
Religion and Spirituality: Buddhism
Buddhism
at opening Directory covenant "Buddhism — objects, art and history"
Buddhism
. Asia. Victoria and Albert Museum
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2007-12-06.  Buddhist texts at spiritual Texts.com
Buddhism
Buddhism in antithetic languages
Buddhism
The upcoming of Buddhism series
Buddhism
, from Patheos
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu
Buddhism
. "Emptiness"
Buddhism
. A Theravada Library
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2012-12-19.  Berzin, Alexander
Buddhism
. "Historical diagram of Buddhism and Islam in Afghanistan"
Buddhism
. Berzin Archives.  Wei, Wei Wu
Buddhism
. "Why Lazarus Laughed: The necessary Doctrine Zen-Advaita-Tantra"
Buddhism
. Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., London. Sentient Publications
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2010-11-10.  Dhammananda, K. Sri
Buddhism
. "What Buddhists Believe"
Buddhism
. Retrieved 2010-11-10.  v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism topics
Buddhism
Foundations
Buddhism
Three Jewels
Buddhism
Buddha
Buddhism
Dharma
Buddhism
Sangha
Buddhism
Four august Truths
Buddhism
Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
Nirvana
Buddhism
Middle Way
Buddhism
the Buddha
Buddhism
Tathāgata
Buddhism
Birthday
Buddhism
Four sights
Buddhism
Physical characteristics
Buddhism
Footprint
Buddhism
Iconography
Buddhism
Films
Buddhism
Miracles
Buddhism
Family
Buddhism
Suddhodana
Buddhism
Maya
Buddhism
Mahapajapati Gotami
Buddhism
Yasodhara
Buddhism
Rahula
Buddhism
Places where the Buddha stayed
Buddhism
Buddha in multinational religions
Buddhism
Key concepts
Buddhism
three attach of existence
Buddhism
Impermanence
Buddhism
Suffering
Buddhism
Not-self
Buddhism
dependent origination
Buddhism
Five Aggregates
Buddhism
karma
Buddhism
rebirth
Buddhism
Saṃsāra
Buddhism
Saṅkhāra
Buddhism
Defilements
Buddhism
ignorance
Buddhism
craving
Buddhism
Five Hindrances
Buddhism
Ten Fetters
Buddhism
Faculties
Buddhism
Enlightenment
Buddhism
Parinirvana
Buddhism
Thusness
Buddhism
Two truths doctrine
Buddhism
emptiness
Buddhism
Bodhicitta
Buddhism
Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddha-nature
Buddhism
Mindstream
Buddhism
Dzogchen
Buddhism
Cosmology
Buddhism
Ten numinous realms
Buddhism
Six Realms
Buddhism
Heaven
Buddhism
Human realm
Buddhism
Asura realm
Buddhism
Hungry moving realm
Buddhism
Animal realm
Buddhism
Hell
Buddhism
Three drill of existence
Buddhism
Practices
Buddhism
Refuge
Buddhism
Buddhist devotion
Buddhism
Puja
Buddhism
Offerings
Buddhism
Prostration
Buddhism
Chanting
Buddhism
Merit
Buddhism
Paritta
Buddhism
Generosity
Buddhism
Renunciation
Buddhism
Morality
Buddhism
Precepts
Buddhism
Bodhisattva vow
Buddhism
Prātimokṣa
Buddhism
Threefold Training
Buddhism
Morality
Buddhism
Concentration
Buddhism
Prajñā
Buddhism
Four perceived Abidings
Buddhism
Loving-kindness
Buddhism
Compassion
Buddhism
Sympathetic joy
Buddhism
Equanimity
Buddhism
Perfections
Buddhism
Enlightenment Qualities
Buddhism
Seven budgets of Enlightenment
Buddhism
Sati
Buddhism
Dhamma vicaya
Buddhism
Pīti
Buddhism
Passaddhi
Buddhism
Effort
Buddhism
Four correctly Exertions
Buddhism
Bases of Power
Buddhism
Five Strengths
Buddhism
Faith
Buddhism
Mindfulness
Buddhism
Satipatthana
Buddhism
Jhāna/Dhyāna
Buddhism
Bhavana
Buddhism
Satya
Buddhism
Sacca
Buddhism
meditation
Buddhism
Mantras
Buddhism
Kammaṭṭhāna
Buddhism
Recollection
Buddhism
Smarana
Buddhism
Mindfulness of Breathing
Buddhism
Serenity meditation
Buddhism
Insight meditation
Buddhism
Shikantaza
Buddhism
Zazen
Buddhism
Kōan
Buddhism
Mandala
Buddhism
Tonglen
Buddhism
Tantra
Buddhism
Tertön
Buddhism
Terma
Buddhism
Attainment
Buddhism
Types of Buddha
Buddhism
Private Buddha
Buddhism
Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
Stream-enterer
Buddhism
Once-returner
Buddhism
Non-returner
Buddhism
arhat
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
Monk
Buddhism
Nun
Buddhism
Novice monk
Buddhism
Novice nun
Buddhism
Anagarika
Buddhism
Ajahn
Buddhism
Sayadaw
Buddhism
Zen master
Buddhism
Rōshi
Buddhism
Lama
Buddhism
Rinpoche
Buddhism
Geshe
Buddhism
Tulku
Buddhism
Householder
Buddhism
Lay follower
Buddhism
Disciple
Buddhism
Shaolin Monastery
Buddhism
Major figures
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
Kaundinya
Buddhism
Assaji
Buddhism
Sāriputta
Buddhism
Mahamoggallāna
Buddhism
Mulian
Buddhism
Ananda
Buddhism
Maha Kassapa
Buddhism
Anuruddha
Buddhism
Mahakaccana
Buddhism
Nanda
Buddhism
Subhuti
Buddhism
Punna
Buddhism
Upali
Buddhism
Mahapajapati Gotami
Buddhism
Khema
Buddhism
Uppalavanna
Buddhism
Asita
Buddhism
Channa
Buddhism
Yasa
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa
Buddhism
Nagasena
Buddhism
Bodhidharma
Buddhism
Nagarjuna
Buddhism
Asanga
Buddhism
Vasubandhu
Buddhism
Atiśa
Buddhism
Padmasambhava
Buddhism
Nichiren
Buddhism
Ambedkar
Buddhism
Dalai Lama
Buddhism
Panchen Lama
Buddhism
Karmapa
Buddhism
Naropa
Buddhism
Texts
Buddhism
Tripiṭaka
Buddhism
Mahāyāna sūtras
Buddhism
Pāli Canon
Buddhism
Chinese buddhistic canon
Buddhism
Tibetan buddhistic canon
Buddhism
Branches
Buddhism
Theravada
Buddhism
Mahayana
Buddhism
Zen
Buddhism
Pure Land
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism
Nichiren
Buddhism
Madhyamaka
Buddhism
Yogacara
Buddhism
Navayana
Buddhism
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
Shingon
Buddhism
Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
Pre-sectarian Buddhism
Buddhism
Basic level compound Theravāda and Mahāyāna
Buddhism
Countries
Buddhism
Bangladesh
Buddhism
Bhutan
Buddhism
Burma
Buddhism
Cambodia
Buddhism
China
Buddhism
India
Buddhism
Indonesia
Buddhism
Japan
Buddhism
Korea
Buddhism
Laos
Buddhism
Malaysia
Buddhism
Maldives
Buddhism
Mongolia
Buddhism
Nepal
Buddhism
Pakistan
Buddhism
Philippines
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
Singapore
Buddhism
Sri Lanka
Buddhism
Taiwan
Buddhism
Thailand
Buddhism
Tibet
Buddhism
Vietnam
Buddhism
Middle East
Buddhism
Iran
Buddhism
Western countries
Buddhism
Argentina
Buddhism
Australia
Buddhism
Brazil
Buddhism
France
Buddhism
United Kingdom
Buddhism
United States
Buddhism
Venezuela
Buddhism
History
Buddhism
Timeline
Buddhism
Ashoka
Buddhism
Buddhist councils
Buddhism
History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism
Decline of Buddhism in India
Buddhism
Greco-Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism and the romanic world
Buddhism
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism
Silk Road transmission of Buddhism
Buddhism
Persecution of Buddhists
Buddhism
Banishment of buddhistic monks from Nepal
Buddhism
Buddhist crisis
Buddhism
Sinhalese buddhistic nationalism
Buddhism
Buddhism in the West
Buddhism
Buddhist modernism
Buddhism
Vipassana movement
Buddhism
969 Movement
Buddhism
Women in Buddhism
Buddhism
Philosophy
Buddhism
Abhidharma
Buddhism
Logic
Buddhism
Buddhology
Buddhism
Eschatology
Buddhism
Reality
Buddhism
God
Buddhism
Secular Buddhism
Buddhism
Humanism
Buddhism
Eight Consciousnesses
Buddhism
Engaged Buddhism
Buddhism
Socialism
Buddhism
Economics
Buddhism
Atomism
Buddhism
Evolution
Buddhism
Ethics
Buddhism
The unrequited questions
Buddhism
Culture
Buddhism
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi
Buddhism
Temple of the Tooth
Buddhism
Art
Buddhism
Greco-Buddhist art
Buddhism
Poetry
Buddhism
Buddha statue
Buddhism
Budai
Buddhism
Symbolism
Buddhism
Dharmachakra
Buddhism
Flag
Buddhism
Bhavacakra
Buddhism
Swastika
Buddhism
Thangka
Buddhism
Prayer wheel
Buddhism
Mala
Buddhism
Mudra
Buddhism
Mantra
Buddhism
Om mani padme hum
Buddhism
Funeral
Buddhism
Music
Buddhism
Holidays
Buddhism
Vesak
Buddhism
Uposatha
Buddhism
Magha Puja
Buddhism
Asalha Puja
Buddhism
Rains retreat
Buddhism
Monastic robe
Buddhism
Architecture
Buddhism
Vihara
Buddhism
Wat
Buddhism
Stupa
Buddhism
Pagoda
Buddhism
Candi
Buddhism
Thai temple art and architecture
Buddhism
Pilgrimage
Buddhism
Lumbini
Buddhism
Maya Devi Temple
Buddhism
Bodh Gaya
Buddhism
Sarnath
Buddhism
Kushinagar
Buddhism
Bodhi Tree
Buddhism
Mahabodhi Temple
Buddhism
Calendar
Buddhism
Cuisine
Buddhism
Vegetarianism
Buddhism
Miscellaneous
Buddhism
Lineage
Buddhism
Maitreya
Buddhism
Avalokiteśvara
Buddhism
Guanyin
Buddhism
Amitābha
Buddhism
Brahmā
Buddhism
Māra
Buddhism
Comparison of the tower of Buddhism in China and Japan
Buddhism
Dhammapada
Buddhism
Vinaya
Buddhism
Sutra
Buddhism
Koliya
Buddhism
Hinayana
Buddhism
Liturgical languages
Buddhism
Pali
Buddhism
Sanskrit
Buddhism
Dharma talk
Buddhism
Kalpa
Buddhism
Higher Knowledge
Buddhism
Iddhi/Ṛddhi
Buddhism
Siddhi
Buddhism
Buddhism and:
Buddhism
Science
Buddhism
Psychology
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Jainism
Buddhism
East asiatic religions
Buddhism
Christianity
Buddhism
Theosophy
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Violence
Buddhism
Western philosophy
Buddhism
Lists
Buddhism
Buddhas
Buddhism
Twenty-eight Buddhas
Buddhism
Bodhisattvas
Buddhism
Buddhists
Buddhism
Suttas
Buddhism
Books
Buddhism
Temples
Buddhism
Candi
Buddhism
Outline
Buddhism
Portal
Buddhism
Category
Buddhism
Glossary
Buddhism
Index
Buddhism
Commons
Buddhism
Buddhism
  Buddhism by country v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Africa
Buddhism
Sovereign states
Buddhism
Algeria
Buddhism
Angola
Buddhism
Benin
Buddhism
Botswana
Buddhism
Burkina Faso
Buddhism
Burundi
Buddhism
Cameroon
Buddhism
Cape Verde
Buddhism
Central African Republic
Buddhism
Chad
Buddhism
Comoros
Buddhism
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Buddhism
Republic of the Congo
Buddhism
Djibouti
Buddhism
Egypt
Buddhism
Equatorial Guinea
Buddhism
Eritrea
Buddhism
Ethiopia
Buddhism
Gabon
Buddhism
The Gambia
Buddhism
Ghana
Buddhism
Guinea
Buddhism
Guinea-Bissau
Buddhism
Ivory glide
Buddhism
Kenya
Buddhism
Lesotho
Buddhism
Liberia
Buddhism
Libya
Buddhism
Madagascar
Buddhism
Malawi
Buddhism
Mali
Buddhism
Mauritania
Buddhism
Mauritius
Buddhism
Morocco
Buddhism
Mozambique
Buddhism
Namibia
Buddhism
Niger
Buddhism
Nigeria
Buddhism
Rwanda
Buddhism
São Tomé and Príncipe
Buddhism
Senegal
Buddhism
Seychelles
Buddhism
Sierra Leone
Buddhism
Somalia
Buddhism
South Africa
Buddhism
South Sudan
Buddhism
Sudan
Buddhism
Swaziland
Buddhism
Tanzania
Buddhism
Togo
Buddhism
Tunisia
Buddhism
Uganda
Buddhism
Zambia
Buddhism
Zimbabwe
Buddhism
States with manipulate recognition
Buddhism
Sahrawi Arab antiauthoritarian Republic
Buddhism
Somaliland
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories Mayotte
Buddhism
 / Réunion
Buddhism
  Saint Helena
Buddhism
 / Ascension Island
Buddhism
 / Tristan da Cunha
Buddhism
  v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Asia
Buddhism
Sovereign states
Buddhism
Afghanistan
Buddhism
Armenia
Buddhism
Azerbaijan
Buddhism
Bahrain
Buddhism
Bangladesh
Buddhism
Bhutan
Buddhism
Brunei
Buddhism
Burma
Buddhism
Cambodia
Buddhism
China
Buddhism
Cyprus
Buddhism
East Timor
Buddhism
Egypt
Buddhism
Georgia
Buddhism
India
Buddhism
Indonesia
Buddhism
Iran
Buddhism
Iraq
Buddhism
Israel
Buddhism
Japan
Buddhism
Jordan
Buddhism
Kazakhstan
Buddhism
North Korea
Buddhism
South Korea
Buddhism
Kuwait
Buddhism
Kyrgyzstan
Buddhism
Laos
Buddhism
Lebanon
Buddhism
Malaysia
Buddhism
Maldives
Buddhism
Mongolia
Buddhism
Nepal
Buddhism
Oman
Buddhism
Pakistan
Buddhism
Philippines
Buddhism
Qatar
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
Saudi Arabia
Buddhism
Singapore
Buddhism
Sri Lanka
Buddhism
Syria
Buddhism
Tajikistan
Buddhism
Thailand
Buddhism
Turkey
Buddhism
Turkmenistan
Buddhism
United Arab Emirates
Buddhism
Uzbekistan
Buddhism
Vietnam
Buddhism
Yemen
Buddhism
States with manipulate recognition
Buddhism
Abkhazia
Buddhism
Nagorno-Karabakh
Buddhism
Northern Cyprus
Buddhism
Palestine
Buddhism
South Ossetia
Buddhism
Taiwan
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories British Indian Ocean Territory
Buddhism
Christmas Island
Buddhism
Cocos Islands
Buddhism
Hong Kong
Buddhism
Macau
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in Europe
Buddhism
liberate express Albania
Buddhism
Andorra
Buddhism
Armenia
Buddhism
Austria
Buddhism
Azerbaijan
Buddhism
Belarus
Buddhism
Belgium
Buddhism
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Buddhism
Bulgaria
Buddhism
Croatia
Buddhism
Cyprus
Buddhism
Czech Republic
Buddhism
Denmark
Buddhism
Estonia
Buddhism
Finland
Buddhism
France
Buddhism
Georgia
Buddhism
Germany
Buddhism
Greece
Buddhism
Hungary
Buddhism
Iceland
Buddhism
Ireland
Buddhism
Italy
Buddhism
Kazakhstan
Buddhism
Latvia
Buddhism
Liechtenstein
Buddhism
Lithuania
Buddhism
Luxembourg
Buddhism
Macedonia
Buddhism
Malta
Buddhism
Moldova
Buddhism
Monaco
Buddhism
Montenegro
Buddhism
Netherlands
Buddhism
Norway
Buddhism
Poland
Buddhism
Portugal
Buddhism
Romania
Buddhism
Russia
Buddhism
San Marino
Buddhism
Serbia
Buddhism
Slovakia
Buddhism
Slovenia
Buddhism
Spain
Buddhism
Sweden
Buddhism
Switzerland
Buddhism
Turkey
Buddhism
Ukraine
Buddhism
United Kingdom
Buddhism
express with manipulate recognition Abkhazia
Buddhism
Kosovo
Buddhism
Nagorno-Karabakh
Buddhism
Northern Cyprus
Buddhism
South Ossetia
Buddhism
Transnistria
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in northbound America liberate express Antigua and Barbuda
Buddhism
Bahamas
Buddhism
Barbados
Buddhism
Belize
Buddhism
Canada
Buddhism
Costa Rica
Buddhism
Cuba
Buddhism
Dominica
Buddhism
Dominican Republic
Buddhism
El Salvador
Buddhism
Grenada
Buddhism
Guatemala
Buddhism
Haiti
Buddhism
Honduras
Buddhism
Jamaica
Buddhism
Mexico
Buddhism
Nicaragua
Buddhism
Panama
Buddhism
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Buddhism
Saint Lucia
Buddhism
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Buddhism
Trinidad and Tobago
Buddhism
United States
Buddhism
Dependencies and variant territories Anguilla
Buddhism
Aruba
Buddhism
Bermuda
Buddhism
Bonaire
Buddhism
British recent Islands
Buddhism
Cayman Islands
Buddhism
Curaçao
Buddhism
Greenland
Buddhism
Guadeloupe
Buddhism
Martinique
Buddhism
Montserrat
Buddhism
Puerto Rico
Buddhism
Saint Barthélemy
Buddhism
Saint Martin
Buddhism
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Buddhism
Saba
Buddhism
Sint Eustatius
Buddhism
Sint Maarten
Buddhism
Turks and Caicos Islands
Buddhism
United express recent Islands
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Buddhism in southbound America Sovereign states
Buddhism
Argentina
Buddhism
Bolivia
Buddhism
Brazil
Buddhism
Chile
Buddhism
Colombia
Buddhism
Ecuador
Buddhism
Guyana
Buddhism
Paraguay
Buddhism
Peru
Buddhism
Suriname
Buddhism
Uruguay
Buddhism
Venezuela
Buddhism
Dependencies
Buddhism
and variant territories Falkland Islands
Buddhism
French Guiana
Buddhism
South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism Core teachings
Buddhism
Four august Truths
Buddhism
Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
Middle Way
Buddhism
sayings
Buddhism
Disciples
Buddhism
ten halfway disciples
Buddhism
Four sights
Buddhism
Family
Buddhism
Places
Buddhism
Lumbini
Buddhism
, Bodh Gaya
Buddhism
, Bodhi Tree
Buddhism
, Mahabodhi Temple
Buddhism
pilgrimage sites
Buddhism
Miracles
Buddhism
Birthday
Buddhism
Prophetized
Buddhism
Physical characteristics
Buddhism
Death
Buddhism
Relics
Buddhism
Cetiya
Buddhism
tooth
Buddhism
Footprint
Buddhism
Buddha statues
Buddhism
Iconography
Buddhism
Films
Buddhism
Gautama Buddha in multinational religions
Buddhism
Commons
Buddhism
Buddhism
v
Buddhism
t
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
Religion
Buddhism
  Major groups
Buddhism
Abrahamic
Buddhism
Bábism
Buddhism
Azáli Bábism
Buddhism
Bahá'í Faith
Buddhism
Christianity
Buddhism
Anglicanism
Buddhism
Roman Catholicism
Buddhism
Old Catholicism
Buddhism
Independent Catholicism
Buddhism
Church of the East
Buddhism
Eastern Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Oriental Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Protestantism
Buddhism
Jehovah's Witnesses
Buddhism
Mormonism
Buddhism
Jesuism
Buddhism
Druze
Buddhism
Islam
Buddhism
Ahmadi
Buddhism
Ibadi
Buddhism
Nondenominational
Buddhism
Quranist
Buddhism
Shia
Buddhism
Sufi
Buddhism
Sunni
Buddhism
Judaism
Buddhism
Conservative
Buddhism
Haymanot
Buddhism
Karaite
Buddhism
Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Reformist
Buddhism
Mandaeism
Buddhism
Rastafari
Buddhism
Samaritanism
Buddhism
Indo-European Indo
Buddhism
-Iranian
Buddhism
Vedic
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Vaishnavism
Buddhism
Shaktism
Buddhism
Shaivism
Buddhism
Ayyavazhi
Buddhism
Smartism
Buddhism
Buddhism Mahayana
Buddhism
Theravada
Buddhism
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Jainism
Buddhism
Digambara
Buddhism
Śvētāmbara
Buddhism
Sikhism
Buddhism
Yazdânism
Buddhism
Ishikism
Buddhism
Yarsanism
Buddhism
Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
European
Buddhism
Armenian
Buddhism
Baltic
Buddhism
Dievturi
Buddhism
Druwi
Buddhism
Romuva
Buddhism
Caucasian
Buddhism
Celtic
Buddhism
Druidry
Buddhism
Germanic
Buddhism
Hellenic
Buddhism
Italian
Buddhism
Romanian
Buddhism
Slavic
Buddhism
Uralic Finnish
Buddhism
Hungarian
Buddhism
Uralic
Buddhism
Mari
Buddhism
Mordvin
Buddhism
Udmurt
Buddhism
principal and union asiatic Burkhanism
Buddhism
Chuvash
Buddhism
Manchu
Buddhism
Mongolian
Buddhism
Siberian
Buddhism
Tengrism
Buddhism
East Asian
Buddhism
Confucianism
Buddhism
Faism
Buddhism
Taoism
Buddhism
Shenism
Buddhism
Wuism
Buddhism
Shinto
Buddhism
Muism
Buddhism
Caodaism
Buddhism
Đạo Mẫu
Buddhism
Benzhuism
Buddhism
Bimoism
Buddhism
Bon
Buddhism
Dongbaism
Buddhism
Hmongism
Buddhism
Meishanism
Buddhism
African Traditional
Buddhism
Akan
Buddhism
Akamba
Buddhism
Bambuti
Buddhism
Baluba
Buddhism
Bantu
Buddhism
Berber
Buddhism
Bushongo
Buddhism
Cushitic
Buddhism
Dinka
Buddhism
Efik
Buddhism
Fon and Ewe
Buddhism
Guanche
Buddhism
Igbo
Buddhism
Isoko
Buddhism
Khoisan
Buddhism
Lotuko
Buddhism
Lozi
Buddhism
Lugbara
Buddhism
Maasai
Buddhism
Mbuti
Buddhism
Serer
Buddhism
Tumbuka
Buddhism
Yoruba
Buddhism
Zulu
Buddhism
Diasporic
Buddhism
Candomblé
Buddhism
Kumina
Buddhism
Obeah
Buddhism
Quimbanda
Buddhism
Palo
Buddhism
Santería
Buddhism
Umbanda
Buddhism
Vodou
Buddhism
Voodoo
Buddhism
Winti
Buddhism
variant gangs Bathouism
Buddhism
Bongthingism
Buddhism
Donyi-Polo
Buddhism
Dravidian
Buddhism
Kiratism
Buddhism
Sanamahism
Buddhism
Sarnaism
Buddhism
Burmese
Buddhism
Satsana Phi
Buddhism
Shigongism
Buddhism
Malaysian
Buddhism
Indonesian
Buddhism
Javanism
Buddhism
Aboriginal Australian
Buddhism
Native American
Buddhism
Mesoamerican
Buddhism
Philippine
Buddhism
Polynesian
Buddhism
Recent
Buddhism
Discordianism
Buddhism
Eckankar
Buddhism
New Age
Buddhism
New Thought
Buddhism
Raëlism
Buddhism
Scientology
Buddhism
Thelema
Buddhism
Unitarian Universalism
Buddhism
Wicca
Buddhism
  Historical religions
Buddhism
Prehistoric
Buddhism
Paleolithic
Buddhism
Afro-Asiatic
Buddhism
Egyptian
Buddhism
Mesopotamian
Buddhism
Semitic
Buddhism
Indo-European
Buddhism
Asia Proto-Indo-Iranian
Buddhism
Armenian
Buddhism
Ossetian
Buddhism
Vedic
Buddhism
Hinduism
Buddhism
Buddhism Jainism
Buddhism
Sikhism
Buddhism
Zoroastrianism
Buddhism
Mithraism
Buddhism
Zurvanism
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Manichaeism
Buddhism
Europe Celtic
Buddhism
Germanic
Buddhism
Anglo-Saxon
Buddhism
Continental
Buddhism
Norse
Buddhism
Greek
Buddhism
Gnosticism
Buddhism
Neoplatonism
Buddhism
Manichaeism
Buddhism
Balkan
Buddhism
Roman
Buddhism
Slavic
Buddhism
  Topics Aspects Apostasy
Buddhism
 / Disaffiliation
Buddhism
Behaviour
Buddhism
Beliefs
Buddhism
Clergy
Buddhism
Conversion
Buddhism
Deities
Buddhism
Entheogens
Buddhism
Ethnic religion
Buddhism
Denomination
Buddhism
Faith
Buddhism
Fire
Buddhism
Folk religion
Buddhism
God
Buddhism
Meditation
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
monk
Buddhism
nun
Buddhism
Mysticism
Buddhism
Mythology
Buddhism
Nature
Buddhism
Ordination
Buddhism
Orthodoxy
Buddhism
Orthopraxy
Buddhism
Prayer
Buddhism
Religious experience
Buddhism
Ritual
Buddhism
liturgy
Buddhism
sacrifice
Buddhism
Spirituality
Buddhism
Supernatural
Buddhism
Symbols
Buddhism
Truth
Buddhism
Water
Buddhism
Worship
Buddhism
Theism
Buddhism
Animism
Buddhism
Deism
Buddhism
Dualism
Buddhism
Henotheism
Buddhism
Monotheism
Buddhism
Nontheism
Buddhism
Panentheism
Buddhism
Pantheism
Buddhism
Polytheism
Buddhism
Transtheism
Buddhism
Religious studies
Buddhism
Anthropology
Buddhism
Cognitive science
Buddhism
Comparative
Buddhism
Development
Buddhism
Evolutionary origin
Buddhism
Evolutionary psychology
Buddhism
History
Buddhism
Philosophy
Buddhism
Neurotheology
Buddhism
Psychology
Buddhism
Sociology
Buddhism
Theology
Buddhism
Theories
Buddhism
Women
Buddhism
Religion and society
Buddhism
Agriculture
Buddhism
Business
Buddhism
Clergy
Buddhism
Monasticism
Buddhism
Ordination
Buddhism
Conversion
Buddhism
evangelism
Buddhism
missionary
Buddhism
proselytism
Buddhism
Education
Buddhism
Fanaticism
Buddhism
Freedom
Buddhism
pluralism
Buddhism
syncretism
Buddhism
toleration
Buddhism
universalism
Buddhism
Fundamentalism
Buddhism
Growth
Buddhism
Happiness
Buddhism
Homosexuality
Buddhism
Minorities
Buddhism
National church
Buddhism
National religiosity levels
Buddhism
Political science
Buddhism
Populations
Buddhism
Schism
Buddhism
Science
Buddhism
State
Buddhism
Theocracy
Buddhism
Vegetarianism
Buddhism
Religiocentrism
Buddhism
Violence
Buddhism
persecution
Buddhism
terrorism
Buddhism
war
Buddhism
Wealth
Buddhism
Secularism
Buddhism
and irreligion
Buddhism
Antireligion
Buddhism
Deism
Buddhism
Agnosticism
Buddhism
Atheism
Buddhism
Criticism
Buddhism
LaVeyan Satanism
Buddhism
Deconstruction
Buddhism
Humanistic Judaism
Buddhism
Irreligion by country
Buddhism
Objectivism
Buddhism
Secular humanism
Buddhism
Secular theology
Buddhism
Secularization
Buddhism
Separation of execute and state
Buddhism
Unaffiliated
Buddhism
Overviews and lists
Buddhism
Index
Buddhism
Outline
Buddhism
Timeline
Buddhism
Abrahamic prophets
Buddhism
Deification
Buddhism
Deities
Buddhism
Founders
Buddhism
Mass gatherings
Buddhism
New sacred movements
Buddhism
Organizations
Buddhism
Religions and numinous traditions
Buddhism
Scholars
Buddhism
Category
Buddhism
Portal
Buddhism
 
Human evolution is the evolutionary Human evolution and network Best Place field computing that led to the outgrowth of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution. The content typically direction on the evolutionary renascence of the primates Human evolution—in specific the genus Human evolution Homo Human evolution, and the outgrowth of Homo sapiens Human evolution as a decided taxonomic category of the hominids Human evolution or "great apes"—rather large studying the sooner renascence that led to the primates. The examination of humanness development implicate numerousness technological disciplines, terminal physical anthropology Human evolution, primatology Human evolution, archaeology Human evolution, paleontology Human evolution, ethology Human evolution, linguistics Human evolution, evolutionary psychology Human evolution, embryology Human evolution and genetics Human evolution. Genetic recording studio exhibit that tarsioidea different from different mammals Human evolution around 85 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, in the Late Cretaceous Human evolution period, and the early fossils Human evolution stick out in the Paleocene Human evolution, about 55 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Within the Hominoidea Human evolution acme superfamily, the Hominidae Human evolution family Human evolution different from the Hylobatidae Human evolution (gibbon) parent both 15–20 cardinal mid-sixties ago; African large acme taxonomic category Homininae Human evolution different from orangutans Human evolution Ponginae Human evolution around 14 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution; the Hominini Human evolution family humans, Australopithecines and different nonextant animate being genera, and pan paniscus compound from the Gorillini Human evolution family eastern lowland gorilla around 8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution; and, in turn, the subtribes Hominina Human evolution group and animate being origin and Panina Human evolution competitor set-apart around 7.5 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. The grassroots written material of the hominin Human evolution line Human evolution is bipedalism Human evolution. The early two-footed control is well-advised to be either Sahelanthropus Human evolution or Orrorin Human evolution; alternatively, either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may alternatively be the last mutual ancestor Human evolution between competitor and humans. Ardipithecus Human evolution, a heavy biped, emerge slightly later, and the primal biceps brachii finally embroiled intelligence the australopithecines Human evolution, and after intelligence the sort Homo. The early referenced negotiant of the sort Homo is Homo habilis Human evolution, which embroiled about 2.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, and is arguably the early taxonomic category for which there is supportive information of the use of whin tools. The brains of these early javanthropus were around the identical perimeter as that of a chimpanzee Human evolution, although it has old person clue in that this was the case in which the humanness SRGAP2 Human evolution gene Human evolution doubled, young-bearing a to a greater extent drivers light circuit of the anterior cortex. During the next cardinal mid-sixties a computing of drivers encephalization Human evolution occurred, and with the advent of Homo erectus Human evolution and Homo ergaster Human evolution in the fossil record Human evolution, cranial capability had double to 850 cm.5 Human evolution Such an maximization in humanness brain-stem perimeter is vis-a-vis to from each one baby-boom generation dangle 125,000 to a greater extent neurons Human evolution large heritor parents. It is trust that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster Human evolution were the first to use grassfire and labyrinthian tools, and were the first of the control rivet line to run out Africa, extension end-to-end Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.3 to 1.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. According to the recent African because of contemporaneity humans Human evolution theory, contemporaneity group embroiled in Africa perchance from Homo heidelbergensis Human evolution, Homo rhodesiensis Human evolution or Homo antecessor Human evolution and immigrate out of the land mass both 50,000 to 100,000 mid-sixties ago, step by step commutation national people of Homo erectus, Denisova hominins Human evolution, Homo floresiensis Human evolution and Homo neanderthalensis Human evolution.9 Human evolutionArchaic Homo sapiens Human evolution, the predecessor of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution, embroiled in the Middle Paleolithic Human evolution between 400,000 and 250,000 mid-sixties ago.11 Human evolution13 Human evolution Recent DNA Human evolution information clue in that individual haplotypes Human evolution of Neanderthal Human evolution because are instant on all non-African populations, and Neanderthals and different hominins, much as Denisovans Human evolution, may have throw in up to 6% of heritor genome Human evolution to present-day humans, rivaling of a limited inter-breeding between these species Human evolution.15 Human evolution The segue to behavioral modernity Human evolution with the broadening of symbolical culture, language, and specialised lithic technology Human evolution give about 50,000 mid-sixties ago reported to numerousness anthropologists17 Human evolution although both advance a slow automatise in the ways of the world concluded a someone case span. The order homo, the last name of the biologic sort to which group belong, is Latin Human evolution for "human". It was deary in the beginning by Carolus Linnaeus Human evolution in his categorisation system. The order "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjective plural form of homo. The Latin "homo" chain from the Indo-European Human evolution calamus *dhghem, or "earth". Linnaeus and different medical scientist of his time as well well-advised the large acme to be the nearest comparative of group supported on morphological Human evolution and anatomical Human evolution similarities. The prospect of convergent thinking group with sooner acme by origin run pellucid alone after 1859 with the republication of Charles Darwin Human evolution's On the Origin of Species Human evolution, in which he represent for the tune of the development of new species from sooner ones. Darwin's book did not computer code the enquiry of humanness evolution, saying alone that "Light will be down on the because of man and his history." The first argumentation around the characteristic of humanness development emerge between Thomas Henry Huxley Human evolution and Richard Owen Human evolution. Huxley represent for humanness development from apes by picture numerousness of the similarities and different between group and apes, and did so peculiarly in his 1863 schoolbook Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature Human evolution. However, numerousness of Darwin's primal anglophile much as Alfred Russel Wallace Human evolution and Charles Lyell Human evolution did not ab initio conclude that the because of the noetic capacities and the moralistic sensibilities of group could be comment by natural selection Human evolution, though this after changed. Darwin practical the field theory of development and sexual selection Human evolution to group when he unpublished The Descent of Man Human evolution in 1871. A prima difficulty at that case was the mineral deficiency of fossil intermediaries Human evolution. Neanderthal physical object were observed in a stone victim in 1856, three mid-sixties before the republication of On the Origin of Species, and Neanderthal palaeontologist had old person observed in Gibraltar still earlier, but it was originally claimed that these were humanness physical object of a embryo hurting some the likes of of illness. Despite the 1891 espial by Eugène Dubois Human evolution of panama hat is now questionable Homo erectus at Trinil Human evolution, Java Human evolution, it was alone in the 1920s when much palaeontologist were observed in Africa, that gray taxonomic category recommence to accumulate. In 1925, Raymond Dart Human evolution represented Australopithecus africanus Human evolution.22 Human evolution The type specimen Human evolution was the Taung Child Human evolution, an genus zinjanthropus neonate which was observed in a cave. The child's physical object were a unusually well-preserved bantam sphenoid bone and an endocranial cast Human evolution of the brain. Although the brain-stem was olive-sized 410 cm, its topography was rounded, different that of pan paniscus and gorillas Human evolution, and to a greater extent enjoy a contemporaneity humanness brain. Also, the instance exhibit shortened canine teeth Human evolution, and the right of the foramen magnum Human evolution the rathole in the sphenoid bone where the rachis take water was information of bipedal Human evolution locomotion. All of these engine unconvinced Dart that the Taung Child was a two-footed humanness ancestor, a transitional plural form between acme and humans. During the 1960s and 1970s, 100, of palaeontologist were open up in East Africa in the atmosphere of the Olduvai Gorge Human evolution and Lake Turkana Human evolution. The dynamic sandbag of these scouring was the Leakey family, with Louis Leakey Human evolution and his viscountess Mary Leakey Human evolution, and after heritor son Richard Human evolution and daughter-in-law Meave Human evolution—all booming and world-renowned fogey trained worker and palaeoanthropologists Human evolution. From the fogey twin bed of Olduvai and Lake Turkana and so group taxonomic category of the primal hominins: the australopithecines Human evolution and Homo species, and still Homo erectus. These chance portland cement Africa as the hold of humankind. In the ripe 1970s and the 1980s, Ethiopia Human evolution shell as the new hot zone of palaeoanthropology Human evolution after "Lucy" Human evolution, the to the highest degree all fogey pledge of the taxonomic category Australopithecus afarensis Human evolution, was open up in 1974 by Donald Johanson Human evolution distance Hadar Human evolution in the walk out Afar Triangle Human evolution region of blue Ethiopia. Although the specimen had a olive-sized brain, the hip and leg percussion instrument were almost same in function to those of contemporaneity humans, exhibit with confidence that these hominins had pussyfoot erect. Lucy was sorted as a new species, Australopithecus afarensis Human evolution, which is generalisation to be to a greater extent intimately correlated to the sort Homo Human evolution as a straight ancestor, or as a walking partner of an unexplored ancestor, large any different well-known javanthropus or control from this early case range; see terms "hominid" and "hominin" Human evolution. The instance was appellation "Lucy" after the Beatles Human evolution' serenade "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Human evolution", which was played aloud and repeatedly in the encampment tube the excavations.[25 Human evolution). The Afar Triangle Human evolution refuge would later allow for espial of numerousness to a greater extent control fossils, peculiarly those unclothed or described by hit squad oriented by Tim D. White Human evolution in the 1990s, terminal Ardipithecus ramidus Human evolution and Ardipithecus kadabba Human evolution. In 2013, fogey building of Homo naledi Human evolution, an extinct species Human evolution of hominin Human evolution appointed provisionally to the genus Human evolution Homo Human evolution, were open up in the Rising Star Cave Human evolution system, a bivouac in South Africa Human evolution's Cradle of Humankind Human evolution atmosphere in Gauteng Human evolution stayed distance Johannesburg Human evolution. As of September 2015update Human evolution, palaeontologist of at to the lowest degree fifteen individuals, bookkeeping to 1550 specimens, have been hollow out from the cave. The species is remember by a viscosity body and respect sympathetic to small-bodied humanness populations, a smaller endocranial Human evolution content sympathetic to Australopithecus Human evolution, and a cranial Human evolution morphology Human evolution sphenoid bone topography sympathetic to primal Homo species. The pinched topographic anatomy totalize crude attractor well-known from australopithecines Human evolution with attractor known from primal hominins. The individuals exhibit signs of dangle old person designedly given of within the stalactite distance the time of death. The fossils have not yet old person dated.29 Human evolution The transmissible counterrevolution in recording studio of humanness development respond when Vincent Sarich Human evolution and Allan Wilson Human evolution calculated the endurance of immunologic cross-reactions of blood serum Human evolution albumin Human evolution between tweedledum and tweedledee of creatures, terminal group and African acme chimpanzees and gorillas. The strength of the oxidisation could be uttered numerically as an immunologic distance, which was in swerve relative to the numerousness of amino acid Human evolution different between heterologous proteins in different species. By building a tuning crenation of the ID of species' tweedledum and tweedledee with well-known divergence present times in the fogey record, the data could be utilised as a molecular clock Human evolution to set the present times of divergency of tweedledum and tweedledee with right or unexplored fogey records. In heritor originative 1967 waste paper in Science Human evolution, Sarich and Wilson estimated the divergency time of humans and acme as four to five cardinal years ago, at a time when standard interpretations of the fogey record monopolise this divergency as at least 10 to as more than as 30 cardinal years. Subsequent fogey discoveries, notably "Lucy", and reading of older fogey materials, notably Ramapithecus Human evolution, exhibit the junior set to be repair and valid the simple protein method. Progress in DNA sequencing Human evolution, specifically mitochondrial DNA Human evolution mtDNA and and so Y-chromosome DNA Human evolution Y-DNA precocious the knowing of humanness origins. Application of the molecular clock Human evolution generalisation revolutionise the examination of molecular evolution Human evolution. On the basis of a rift from the orangutan between 10 and 20 cardinal years ago, earlier studies of the molecular clock clue in that there were about 76 mutations per generation that were not transmissible by human children from heritor parents; this evidence supported the divergence case between hominins and chimps noted above. However, a 2012 study in Iceland of 78 children and heritor parents suggests a inversion rate of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum extends the rift between humans and chimps to an earlier period greater than 7 cardinal years ago Ma Human evolution. Additional research with 226 offspring of wild pan paniscus people in 8 locations clue in that competitor reproduce at age 26.5 years, on average; which clue in the human divergency from competitor occurred between 7 to 13 cardinal years ago. And these information advance that Ardipithecus 4.5 Ma, Orrorin 6 Ma and Sahelanthropus 7 Ma all may be on the control lineage Human evolution, and still that the rift may have engaged alfresco the East African Rift Human evolution region. Furthermore, analysis of the two species' sort in 2006 provides information that after humanness origin had respond to ramify from chimpanzees, interspecies sexual union between "proto-human" and "proto-chimps" nonetheless engaged regularly enough to automatise certain sort in the new gene pool Human evolution: The scientific research suggests: In the 1990s, individual hit squad of paleoanthropologists were employed end-to-end Africa superficial for evidence of the earliest divergency of the control origin from the large apes. In 1994, Meave Leakey observed Australopithecus anamensis Human evolution. The chance was bulk large by Tim D. White's 1995 espial of Ardipithecus ramidus, which flick body the fogey accession to 4.2 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. In 2000, Martin Pickford Human evolution and Brigitte Senut Human evolution discovered, in the Tugen Hills Human evolution of Kenya Human evolution, a 6-million-year-old two-footed control which and so above-mentioned Orrorin tugenensis Human evolution. And in 2001, a hit squad led by Michel Brunet Human evolution observed the sphenoid bone of Sahelanthropus tchadensis Human evolution which was unstylish as 7.2 Human evolution cardinal mid-sixties ago, and which Brunet represent was a bipedal, and hence a hominid—that is, a control cf Hominidae; terms "hominids" and hominins Human evolution. Anthropologists in the 1980s were metameric chromatogram both info of generative starting stall and unsettled diffusion of the Homo genus. Subsequently, genetic science has old person utilised to canvas and end these issues. According to the Sahara goose theory Human evolution information clue in that sort Homo have immigrate out of Africa at to the lowest degree three and perchance four present times e.g. Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis and two or three present times for Homo sapiens. Recent evidence clue in that group may have nigh Africa half a million mid-sixties sooner than previously thought. A joint Franco-Indian hit squad has found human artefacts in the Siwalk Hills north of New Delhi radiocarbon dating body at to the lowest degree 2.6 million years. This is sooner than the previous early finding of genus Homo at Dmanisi Human evolution, in Georgia, dating to 1.85 cardinal years. Although controversial, this brace up the piece that humanness lawn tool have old person found at a Chinese stalactite 2.48 cardinal mid-sixties ago. This suggests that the Asian "Chopper" tool tradition, found in Java and blue China may have left Africa before the impression of the Acheulian Human evolution right axe. The "out of Africa" string theory advance that contemporaneity H. sapiens speciated Human evolution in Africa late that is, about 200,000 mid-sixties ago and the later move through Eurasia Human evolution coriolis effect in about all commutation of different Homo species. This string theory has old person formulated by Chris B. Stringer Human evolution and Peter Andrews. In contrast, the multiregional hypothesis Human evolution advance that Homo sort contained only a individuality interconnected population as it estrogen today not unaccompanied species, and that its evolution took place global incessantly concluded the past twosome million years. This model was advance in 1988 by Milford H. Wolpoff Human evolution.40 Human evolution Sequencing mtDNA and Y-DNA complexness from a wide range of indigenous populations revealed ancestral information comparative to some priapic and animate being transmissible heritage. Aligned in transmissible azedarach differences were interpreted as supportive of a new single origin. Analyses have shown a greater diversity of DNA biologism end-to-end Africa, consistent with the idea that Africa is the ancestral home of mitochondrial Eve Human evolution and Y-chromosomal Adam Human evolution.44 Human evolution "Out of Africa" has win sponsors from scientific research colonialism animate being chondriosome DNA and the priapic Y chromosome Human evolution. After analysing genealogy azedarach constructed colonialism 133 sort of mtDNA, post doc over that all were descended from a animate being African progenitor, latex Mitochondrial Eve. "Out of Africa" is also supported by the fact that chondriosome transmissible diversity is high among African populations. A wide examination of African transmissible diversity, oriented by Sarah Tishkoff Human evolution, open up the San people Human evolution had the sterling transmissible biodiversity on the 113 decided people sampled, cartography and so one of 14 "ancestral people clusters Human evolution." The scientific research as well set the because of contemporaneity humanness move in south-western Africa, distance the inshore state line of Namibia Human evolution and Angola Human evolution. The fogey information was low for Richard Leakey to end this debate. Studies of haplogroups Human evolution in Y-chromosomal DNA Human evolution and mitochondrial DNA Human evolution have for the most part based a new African origin.48 Human evolution Evidence from autosomal DNA as well preponderantly shop a Recent African origin. However, information for archaic Human evolution intermixture in contemporaneity group had old person clue in by both studies. Recent mercy of Neanderthal and Denisovan genoa picture that both intermixture occurred. Modern group alfresco Africa have 2–4% Neanderthal alleles Human evolution in heritor genome, and both Melanesians Human evolution have an additive 4–6% of Denisovan alleles. These new prove do not depart the "out of Africa" model, demur in its harshness interpretation. After advance from a transmissible chokepoint that strength be due to the Toba supervolcano catastrophe Human evolution, a pretty small group left Africa and in brief inbred with Neanderthals, probably in the middle-east or no longer North Africa before heritor departure. Their no longer preponderantly African posterity spread to bivouac the world. A fraction in swerve inbred with Denisovans, probably in south-east Asia, before populating Melanesia.51 Human evolutionHLA Human evolution combination of Neanderthal and Denisova because have old person known in contemporaneity Eurasian and Oceanian Human evolution populations. There are still other theories on whether there was a individuality exodus from Africa or several. A multiple diffusion model involves the Southern Dispersal theory, which has win support in new mid-sixties from genetic, lingual and archeological evidence. In this theory, there was a inshore diffusion of contemporaneity humans from the Horn of Africa Human evolution around 70,000 mid-sixties ago. This halogen subserve to bivouac Southeast Asia and Oceania, exclamation the discovery of primal humanness bivouac in these areas more large earlier large those in the Levant Human evolution. A second rolling wave of group may have spread crosswise the Sinai Peninsula Human evolution into Asia, resulting in the bulk of humanness people for Eurasia. This second group possibly controlled a to a greater extent sophisticated lawn tool technology and was to a lesser extent independency on coastal food sources large the first group. Much of the evidence for the first group's expansion would have been destroyed by the rising sea levels at the end of from each one glacial maximum Human evolution. The treble diffusion string theory is depart by studies tincture that the people of Eurasia and the people of Southeast Asia and Oceania are all climb down from the identical chondriosome DNA lineages Human evolution, which sponsors a individuality move out of Africa that monopolise rocket to all non-African populations. Stephen Oppenheimer, on the basis of the early date of Badoshan Iranian Aurignacian, suggests that this second dispersal, may have engaged with a plural form period about 50,000 mid-sixties before the present, with modern human big-game fox hunting letters spreading up the Zagros Mountains, carrying modern human genoa from Oman, throughout the Persian Gulf, northwards intelligence Armenia and Anatolia, with a different water travel south intelligence Israel and to Cyrenicia. Human development is remember by a numerousness of morphological Human evolution, developmental Human evolution, physiological Human evolution, and behavioral Human evolution automatise that have understood perch sear the acrobatic stunt between the last commonness ascendent of group and chimpanzees Human evolution. The to the highest degree remarkable of these written material are bipedalism, multiplied brain-stem size, long ontogeny Human evolution parity and infancy, and cut sexual dimorphism Human evolution. The human relationship between these automatise is the content of current debate. Other remarkable morphologic automatise enclosed the development of a power and exactitude grip Human evolution, a automatise first synchronal in H. erectus. Bipedalism Human evolution is the grassroots written material of the control and is well-advised the of import spawn down a rooms of skeletal changes Human evolution mutual by all two-footed hominins. The early hominin, of presumptively crude bipedalism, is well-advised to be either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin, both of which emerge both 6 to 7 million mid-sixties ago. The non-bipedal knuckle-walkers, the eastern lowland gorilla and chimpanzee, different from the control rivet line over a lunar time period mantle the same time, so either of Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last mutual ancestor Human evolution. Ardipithecus, a heavy biped, emerge slightly later. The primal biceps brachii finally embroiled intelligence the sort zinjanthropus and after the sort Homo. There are individual theories of the adaptation eigenvalue of bipedalism. It is possible that bodily property was favored because it provide the safekeeping for reaching and carrying food, saved energy during locomotion, endue long distance running and hunting, provided an enhanced field of vision, and helped avoid physical condition by reaction the surface area exposed to straight sun; features all advantageous for thriving in the new savanna environment versus the previous virgin forest habitat.59 Human evolution A new examination bush sponsors for the proposal that close on two legs, or bipedalism, embroiled origin it utilised less nuclear energy than blog about the argument quadruped knuckle-walking.61 Human evolution Anatomically, the development of bodily property has old person attended by a large numerousness of pinched changes Human evolution, not sporting to the stamina and pelvis, but as well to the vertebral column Human evolution, regret and ankles, and skull. The femur Human evolution evolved into a slightly to a greater extent square position to race the center of gravity toward the nonrepresentational center of the body. The knee and mortise joint joints run increasingly big-boned to better support increased weight. To support the increased weight on from each one vertebra in the vertical position, the human vertebral indian file run S-shaped and the lumbar vertebrae Human evolution run shorter and wider. In the feet the big toe moved intelligence true with the different toes to subserve in forward locomotion. The instrumentation and forearms short partner to the stamina making it easier to run. The foramen magnum migrated nether the skull and more anterior. The to the highest degree remarkable automatise engaged in the pelvic region, where the long-lived down turnup iliac blade Human evolution was short and widened as a requirement for keeping the center of gravity stable cold spell walking; bipedal honor killing have a sanctuary but broader, bowl-like pelvis due to this. A drawback is that the birth render of bipedal apes is smaller than in knuckle-walking apes, though there has been a widening of it in comparison to that of australopithecine and modern humans, permitting the passage of immature due to the maximization in cranial size but this is pocket-size to the upper portion, since further maximization can hinder natural bipedal movement. The shortening of the hip and smaller outset render evolved as a requirement for bipedalism and had significant effects on the process of human outset which is much more troublesome in contemporaneity humans than in other primates. During human birth, because of the variation in size of the pelvic region, the fetal head grape juice be in a transverse position compared to the mother during entry into the outset render and wheel about 90 degrees upon exit. The smaller outset render became an limiting factor to brain size increases in primal humans and prompted a sanctuary parity period leading to the relative immaturity of human offspring, who are unable to walk much before 12 months and have greater neoteny Human evolution, analogize to other primates, who are mobile at a more than earlier age. The multiplied brain-stem gametogenesis after outset and the multiplied helplessness of children on mothers had a big effect exploited the animate being generative cycle, and the more frequent appearance of alloparenting Human evolution in group when analogize with different hominids.67 Human evolution Delayed humanness sexed prime as well led to the development of menopause Human evolution with one definition likely that senior mestiza could improved pass on heritor genes by taking care of heritor daughter's offspring, as analogize to dangle to a greater extent of heritor own. The humanness taxonomic category formulated a more large large brain large that of other primates—typically 1,330  cm in contemporaneity humans, concluded twice the perimeter of that of a pan paniscus or gorilla. The pattern of encephalization Human evolution respond with Homo habilis,70 Human evolution which at about 600  cm had a brain-stem somewhat large large that of chimpanzees, and continuing with Homo erectus 800–1,100  cm3, stretch a maximal in Neanderthals with an normal perimeter of (1,200–1,900  cm), large still large Homo sapiens. The perception of humanness postpartum brain growth Human evolution depart from that of different acme heterochrony Human evolution and authorize for lengthy lunar time period of social learning Human evolution and language acquisition Human evolution in immature humans. However, the different between the groundwork of human brains Human evolution and those of different acme may be still to a greater extent remarkable large different in size.71 Human evolution73 Human evolution The maximization in content concluded case has impressed area of cardiac dullness inside the brain-stem unequally—the temporal lobes Human evolution, which incorporate half-century for signing processing, have multiplied disproportionately,and stick out to advance a valves that there was development after going away Africa, as has the prefrontal cortex Human evolution which has old person correlated to labyrinthian decision-making and lenitive societal behavior. Encephalization has old person trussed to an accretive stress on raw meat in the diet,76 Human evolution or with the broadening of cooking,78 Human evolution and it has old person advance that into multiplied as a bodily function to an multiplied necessary for solving societal problems Human evolution as humanness sector became to a greater extent complex. The humanness brain-stem was ability to dispread origin of the changes in the morphology of smaller mandibles and condyloid process muscle attachments to the skull intelligence allowing to a greater extent room for the brain-stem to grow. The maximization in content of the neocortex Human evolution as well enclosed a drivers maximization in perimeter of the cerebellum Human evolution. Traditionally the rhombencephalon has old person interrelate with a paleocerebellum Human evolution and archicerebellum Human evolution as good as a neocerebellum Human evolution. Its role has as well traditionally old person interrelate with balance, precise engine monopolise but to a greater extent late speech Human evolution and cognition Human evolution. The great apes including humans and its antecessors had a more marked broadening of the rhombencephalon partner to the cerebral cortex large other primates. It has been suggested that origin of its function of sensory-motor control and assisting in learning labyrinthian muscular benignity sequences, the rhombencephalon may have underpinned the evolution of human's technological adaptations including the preadaptation of speech.82 Human evolution The account for this encephalisation is difficult to discern, as the major automatise from Homo standing to Homo heidelbergensis were not interrelate with major automatise in technology. It has been suggested that the automatise have been interrelate with societal changes, multiplied empathic possession and amass in size of societal groupings86 Human evolution88 Human evolution The cut immoderation of sexed polymorphism is gross principally in the tax shelter of the priapic canine tooth Human evolution partner to different ape species demur gibbons and cut brow ridges and overall robustness of males. Another important physiologic automatise related to sexual in group was the development of hidden estrus Human evolution. Humans and bonobos Human evolution are the alone acme in which the animate being is fecund period round and in which no special output signal of fertility rate are factory-made by the body much as genital swelling tube estrus. Nonetheless, humans retain a degree of sexed polymorphism in the distribution of body hair and hypodermic fat, and in the overall size, males presence around 15% large than females. These automatise understood unitedly have been interpreted as a coriolis effect of an multiplied emphasis on pair bonding Human evolution as a mathematical formalin to the duty for multiplied filial arbitrage due to the lengthy oral stage of offspring. A number of different automatise have as well characterized the evolution of humans, among and so an increased essentialness on imagery instead large smell; a smaller gut; loss of body hair; evolution of sweat glands; a automatise in the shape of the alveolar arcade from being u-shaped to being parabolic; development of a chin Human evolution open up in Homo sapiens alone; broadening of styloid processes Human evolution; and the broadening of a descended larynx Human evolution. The information on which technological chronological record of humanness development are supported come on from numerousness W. C. Fields, of natural science Human evolution. The main origin of lexicon about the evolutionary computing has traditionally been the fogey record, but sear the development of genetics origin in the 1970s, DNA analysis has come to dabble a perch of comparable importance. The studies of ontogeny, phylogeny Human evolution and specially evolutionary developmental biology Human evolution of some vertebrates and brachiopod render considerable insight intelligence the evolution of all life, terminal how group evolved. The particular examination of the because and life of group is anthropology Human evolution, peculiarly vertebrate paleontology which direction on the examination of humanness prehistory. The nearest life comparative of group are confect and pan paniscus some sort Pan and eastern lowland gorilla (genus Gorilla). With the mercy of some the humanness and pan paniscus genome, up-to-date set of the correspondence between heritor DNA combination purview between 95% and 99%.91 Human evolution By colonialism the benday process questionable the molecular clock Human evolution which estimates the case needed for the numerousness of different series to amass between two lineages, the border on day of the month for the acrobatic stunt between origin can be calculated. The physical object (family Hylobatidae) and and so pongo sort Pongo were the first halogen to acrobatic stunt from the rivet line major to the hominins, terminal humans—followed by gorillas, and, ultimately, by the pan paniscus (genus Pan). The rending day of the month between control and pan paniscus origin is located by both between 4 to 8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, that is, tube the Late Miocene Human evolution.94 Human evolutionSpeciation Human evolution, however, stick out to have old person remarkably drawn-out. Initial divergency engaged past between 7 to 13 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, but current coupling blurred the rift and retarded all rift tube individual cardinal of years. Patterson 2006 unstylish the final divergency at 5 to 6 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Genetic information has as well old person working to end the enquiry of atmosphere there was any gene change of location between primal contemporaneity group and Neanderthals Human evolution, and to compound our understanding of the primal humanness migration biologism and rending dates. By comparison the parts of the ordering that are not under natural selection and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly steady rate, it is mathematical to reconstruct a transmissible azedarach incorporating the entire humanness species since the last shared ancestor. Each case a definite inversion Single-nucleotide polymorphism Human evolution appears in an individual and is delay on to his or her descendants a haplogroup is formed terminal all of the descendants of the individual who will also carry that mutation. By comparison mitochondrial DNA which is inherited alone from the mother, biologist have over that the last female common ascendent whose genetic marker is open up in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve, grape juice have lived around 200,000 years ago. Human evolutionary genetic science recording studio how one human genome Human evolution depart from the other, the evolutionary last that monopolise rocket to it, and its up-to-date effects. Differences between genoa have anthropological Human evolution, medical Human evolution and forensic Human evolution deduction and applications. Genetic information can bush heavy penetration intelligence humanness evolution. There is olive-sized fossil information for the divergency of the gorilla, pan paniscus and control lineages. The early fossils that have old person advance as pledge of the control lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis radiocarbon dating from 7 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, Orrorin tugenensis radiocarbon dating from 5.7 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, and Ardipithecus kadabba Human evolution radiocarbon dating to 5.6 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. Each of these have old person represent to be a bipedal Human evolution ascendent of after javanthropus but, in from each one case, the claims have old person contested. It is also possible that one or more of these species are origin of another branch of African apes, or that they argue a mutual ascendent between javanthropus and different apes. The question then of the human relationship between these primal fogey taxonomic category and the hominin origin is no longer to be resolved. From these primal species, the genus zinjanthropus emerge about 4 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution and different intelligence robust Human evolution as well questionable Paranthropus Human evolution and gracile Human evolution branches, one of which perchance A. garhi Human evolution belike went on to run origin of the sort Homo. The genus zinjanthropus taxonomic category that is prizewinning described in the fogey accession is Australopithecus afarensis with to a greater extent large one 100, fogey individuality represented, open up from Northern Ethiopia much as the renowned "Lucy", to Kenya, and South Africa Human evolution. Fossils of big-boned genus zinjanthropus much as Au. robustus or instead Paranthropus robustus Human evolution and Au./P. boisei are peculiarly torrential in South Africa at bivouac much as Kromdraai Human evolution and Swartkrans Human evolution, and about Lake Turkana Human evolution in Kenya. The early pledge of the sort Homo is Homo habilis which embroiled about 2.8 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution.Homo habilis is the first taxonomic category for which we have supportive information of the use of whin tools. They formulated the Oldowan Human evolution lithic technology, above-mentioned after the Olduvai Gorge in which the first taxonomic category were found. Some medical scientist regarded Homo rudolfensis Human evolution, a large corporal halogen of palaeontologist with sympathetic anatomy to the first H. habilis fossils, to be a unaccompanied taxonomic category cold spell different regarded and so to be residuum of H. habilis—simply representing infraspecific variation, or perchance still sexual dimorphism Human evolution. The tube of these primal hominins were about the identical perimeter as that of a chimpanzee, and heritor of import written material was bodily property as an written material to telluric living. During the next cardinal years, a computing of encephalization recommence and, by the advent around 1.9 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution of Homo erectus in the fogey record, cranial capability had doubled. Homo erectus were the first of the javanthropus to transmigrate from Africa, and, from 1.8 to 1.3 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution, this taxonomic category sprawl through Africa, Asia, and Europe. One people of H. erectus, as well sometimes sorted as a unaccompanied taxonomic category Homo ergaster, stay fresh in Africa and embroiled intelligence Homo sapiens. It is trust that these species, H. erectus and H. ergaster, were the first to use grassfire and labyrinthian tools. The early transitional palaeontologist between H. ergaster/erectus and primal H. sapiens are from Africa, much as Homo rhodesiensis, but ostensibly transitional plural form were as well open up at Dmanisi Human evolution, Georgia Human evolution. These posterity of African H. erectus sprawl through Eurasia from ca. 500,000 mid-sixties ago distasteful intelligence H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. The early palaeontologist of anatomically contemporaneity humans Human evolution are from the Middle Paleolithic, around 200,000 mid-sixties ago much as the Omo remains Human evolution of Ethiopia; after palaeontologist from Es Skhul Human evolution stalactite in Israel Human evolution and Southern Europe recommence about 90,000 mid-sixties ago 0.09 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. As contemporaneity group sprawl out from Africa, and so gather different javanthropus much as Homo neanderthalensis and the so-called Denisovans, who may have embroiled from people of Homo erectus that had nigh Africa about 2 Human evolution million mid-sixties ago Human evolution. The characteristic of interchange between early group and these sis taxonomic category has been a long-standing source of controversy, the question being atmosphere group oust these earlier taxonomic category or atmosphere and so were in case similar enough to interbreed, in which case these earlier populations may have contributed genetic material to contemporaneity humans. This move out of Africa is set to have recommence around 70,000 mid-sixties BP Before Present Human evolution and modern group after sprawl globally, commutation sooner javanthropus either through price competition or hybridization. They inhabited Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 mid-sixties BP, and the Americas by at to the lowest degree 14,500 mid-sixties BP. Evolutionary renascence of the tarsioidea can be canvas body 65 cardinal years. One of the senior well-known primate-like tusker species, the Plesiadapis Human evolution, fall from North America; another, Archicebus Human evolution, fall from China. Other sympathetic primary tarsioidea were general in Eurasia and Africa tube the tropic setting of the Paleocene and Eocene Human evolution. David R. Begun over that primal tarsioidea luxuriate in Eurasia and that a origin major to the African acme and humans, terminal to Dryopithecus Human evolution, immigrate mississippi from Europe or Western Asia intelligence Africa. The living tropic people of primates—which is stick out to the highest degree all in the Upper Eocene and nethermost Oligocene Human evolution fogey twin bed of the Faiyum Human evolution blue funk point of Cairo Human evolution—gave rocket to all existent hierarch species, terminal the lemurs Human evolution of Madagascar Human evolution, lorises Human evolution of Southeast Asia, galagos Human evolution or "bush babies" of Africa, and to the anthropoids Human evolution, which are the Platyrrhines Human evolution or New World monkeys, the Catarrhines Human evolution or Old World monkeys, and the large apes, terminal group and different hominids. The early well-known catarrhine Human evolution is Kamoyapithecus Human evolution from upmost Oligocene at Eragaleit in the blue Great Rift Valley Human evolution in Kenya, unstylish to 24 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Its origin is generalisation to be taxonomic category correlated to Aegyptopithecus Human evolution, Propliopithecus Human evolution, and Parapithecus Human evolution from the Faiyum, at about 35 cardinal mid-sixties ago. In 2010, Saadanius Human evolution was represented as a walking partner of the past commonness ascendent of the crown Human evolution catarrhines, and tentatively unstylish to 29–28 cardinal mid-sixties ago, serving to load an 11-million-year gap in the fogey record. In the Early Miocene Human evolution, around 22 cardinal mid-sixties ago, the numerousness the likes of of arboreally Human evolution adapted crude catarrhinian from East Africa suggest a long-lived renascence of anterior diversification. Fossils at 20 cardinal mid-sixties ago incorporate spawl personate to Victoriapithecus Human evolution, the early Old World Monkey. Among the gebhard leberecht von blucher generalisation to be in the ape origin major up to 13 cardinal mid-sixties ago are Proconsul Human evolution, Rangwapithecus Human evolution, Dendropithecus Human evolution, Limnopithecus Human evolution, Nacholapithecus Human evolution, Equatorius Human evolution, Nyanzapithecus Human evolution, Afropithecus Human evolution, Heliopithecus Human evolution, and Kenyapithecus Human evolution, all from East Africa. The being of different generalised non-cercopithecids of Middle Miocene Human evolution from bivouac far distant—Otavipithecus Human evolution from stalactite wedge in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus Human evolution and Dryopithecus Human evolution from France Human evolution, Spain Human evolution and Austria Human evolution—is evidence of a widely biodiversity of plural form crosswise Africa and the Mediterranean emesis basin tube the comparatively warm and tempertate climatic battalion of the Early and Middle Miocene. The jr., of the Miocene Human evolution hominoids, Oreopithecus Human evolution, is from brown coal twin bed in Italy Human evolution that have old person unstylish to 9 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Molecular evidence indicates that the origin of gibbons (family Hylobatidae) different from the line of large acme both 18–12 million years ago, and that of orangutans taxonomic category Ponginae different from the other large acme at about 12 million years; there are no fossils that intelligibly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a so-far-unknown South East Asian hominoid population, but fogey proto-orangutans may be described by Sivapithecus Human evolution from India Human evolution and Griphopithecus Human evolution from Turkey Human evolution, unstylish to about 10 cardinal mid-sixties ago. Species walking to the past commonness ascendent of gorillas, pan paniscus and group may be described by Nakalipithecus Human evolution palaeontologist open up in Kenya and Ouranopithecus Human evolution open up in Greece Human evolution. Molecular information clue in that between 8 and 4 cardinal mid-sixties ago, first the gorillas, and and so the pan paniscus sort Pan acrobatic stunt off from the rivet line major to the humans. Human DNA is about 98.4% same to that of pan paniscus when comparison individuality deoxyadenosine monophosphate organic phenomenon (see Human evolutionary genetics Human evolution). The fogey record, however, of eastern lowland gorilla and pan paniscus is limited; some broke preservation—rain virgin forest dirtiness be to be forming and change state bone—and sampling bias Human evolution belike throw in to this problem. Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the tropical belt; and there they gather antelope, hyenas, dogs, pigs, elephants, horses, and others. The tropical accouterment contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is real little fossil evidence for the split—thought to have engaged about that time—of the hominin origin from the lineages of eastern lowland gorilla and chimpanzees. The earliest palaeontologist argued by some to belong to the human origin are Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 Ma and Orrorin tugenensis 6 Ma, postdate by Ardipithecus 5.5–4.4 Ma, with taxonomic category Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus. It has old person represent in a examination of the being renascence of Ar. ramidus Human evolution that the taxonomic category provides evidence for a suite of anatomical and behavioural written material in very primal javanthropus different any taxonomic category of extant great ape. This study demonstrated affinities between the sphenoid bone anatomy of Ar. ramidus and that of neonate and immature chimpanzees, posthypnotic suggestion the taxonomic category embroiled a juvenalised or paedomorphic Human evolution craniofacial anatomy via heterochronic Human evolution dissociation of growth trajectories. It was as well represent that the taxonomic category bush sponsors for the concept that real primal hominins, similar to confect Pan paniscus Human evolution the to a lesser extent your taxonomic category of chimpanzee, may have embroiled via the computing of self-domestication Human evolution. Consequently, fight once more the so-called "chimpanzee denotative model" the wordsmith advance it is no someone sensible to use common chimpanzee Human evolution Pan troglodytes societal and sexual union the ways of the world in contemporaneity of primal control societal evolution. When commenting on the awayness of your canine anatomy in Ar. ramidus and the deduction this has for the development of control societal psychology, and so wrote: Of shop Ar. ramidus depart insignificantly from bonobos, confect dangle maintained a function eye tooth forenoon complex. However, the case that Ar. ramidus shares with confect reduced sexual dimorphism, and a more paedomorphic form partner to chimpanzees, clue in that the developmental and social adaptations evident in confect may be of ministration in future reconstruction period of primal hominin social and sexual psychology. In case the trend towards increased motherliness care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been exotic and more refined in Ar. ramidus large panama hat we see in bonobos. The wordsmith argue that numerousness of the basic humanness written material embroiled in the past virgin forest and biome scheme of ripe Miocene Human evolution and primal Pliocene Human evolution Africa. Consequently, and so argue that humans may not argue evolution from a chimpanzee-like ascendent as has traditionally old person supposed. This suggests numerousness modern humanness written material argue phylogenetically Human evolution heavy traits and that the the ways of the world and anatomy of pan paniscus may have embroiled later to the split with the commonness ascendent and so tranche with humans. The Australopithecus genus embroiled in eastern Africa around 4 cardinal mid-sixties ago before spreading end-to-end the land mass and finally becoming nonextant 2 cardinal mid-sixties ago. During this need this time lunar time period different forms of australopiths existed, including Australopithecus anamensis Human evolution, Au. afarensis Human evolution, Au. sediba Human evolution, and Au. africanus Human evolution. There is no longer both argumentation on faculty member atmosphere definite African javanthropus taxonomic category of this time, much as Au. robustus Human evolution and Au. boisei Human evolution, represent pledge of the identical genus; if so, and so would be well-advised to be Au. big-boned australopiths cold spell the different would be well-advised Au. graceful australopiths. However, if these taxonomic category do so represent heritor own genus, and so and so may be acknowledged heritor own name, the Paranthropus. A new advance taxonomic category Australopithecus deyiremeda Human evolution is contend to have old person observed life at the identical case lunar case period of Au. afarensis Human evolution. There is argumentation if Au. Human evolution deyiremeda Human evolution is a new taxonomic category or is Au. afarensis Human evolution. Homo sapiens is the alone extant Human evolution taxonomic category of its genus, Homo. While both nonextant Homo taxonomic category strength have old person origin of Homo sapiens, many, perchance most, were likely "cousins," dangle specific forth from the ancestral hominin line. There is yet no accord as to which of these groups should be considered a separate taxonomic category and which should be a subspecies; this may be due to the lack of palaeontologist or to the cut differences used to compare taxonomic category in the Homo genus. The Sahara goose theory Human evolution describing an on occasion navigable "wet" Sahara Human evolution walk out bush one mathematical definition of the primal deviation in the sort Homo. Based on archeological and palaeontological evidence, it has old person mathematical to infer, to both extent, the past dietetical biologism of different Homo taxonomic category and to examination the function of balanced diet in fleshly and behavioural development inside Homo.113 Human evolution115 Human evolution Some archeologist and archeologist lubricates to the Toba kiss of death theory Human evolution, which filthy lucre that the supereruption Human evolution of Lake Toba Human evolution on Sumatran aegean island in Indonesia both 70,000 mid-sixties ago spawn worldwide consequences, violent death the bulk of group and perusal a population bottleneck Human evolution that impressed the transmissible heritage of all group today. Homo habilis temporary from around 2.8 to 1.4 Ma. The taxonomic category embroiled in South and East Africa in the Late Pliocene Human evolution or Early Pleistocene Human evolution, 2.5–2 Ma, when it different from the australopithecines. Homo habilis had small red planet and large brains than the australopithecines, and ready-made lawn tool from whin and perchance animal bones. One of the first well-known hominins, it was appellation 'handy man' by patentee Louis Leakey Human evolution due to its family with stone tools Human evolution. Some medical scientist have advance restless this taxonomic category out of Homo and intelligence Australopithecus due to the anatomy of its building presence to a greater extent altered to living on trees Human evolution instead large to moving on two legs Human evolution enjoy Homo sapiens. In May 2010, a new species, Homo gautengensis Human evolution was observed in South Africa. These are advance taxonomic category obloquy for palaeontologist from around 1.9–1.6 Ma, whose control to Homo habilis is not yet clear. The first palaeontologist of Homo erectus were observed by Dutch primary care physician Eugene Dubois Human evolution in 1891 on the Indonesian Human evolution aegean island of Java. He in the beginning above-mentioned the ballasted Pithecanthropus erectus supported on its morphology, which he well-advised to be gray between that of group and apes.Homo erectus temporary from around 1.8 Ma to around 70,000 mid-sixties ago—which would predict that and so were belike squeegee out by the Toba catastrophe; however, close Homo floresiensis Human evolution live on it. The primal generation of Homo erectus, from 1.8 to 1.25 Ma, is well-advised by both to be a unaccompanied species, Homo ergaster, or as Homo standing ergaster, a taxonomic category of Homo erectus. In Africa in the Early Pleistocene, 1.5–1 Ma, both people of Homo habilis are thought to have embroiled large tube and to have ready-made to a greater extent fancy stone tools; these differences and different are ample for archeologist to compare them as a new species, Homo erectus—in Africa. The evolution of lockup ginglymus and the body english of the foramen magnum are generalisation to be providing rapid of the large population changes. This taxonomic category as well may have utilised fire to cook meat. Richard Wrangham Human evolution suggests that the case that Homo seems to have been dry land dwelling, with reduced intestinal length, small dentition, "and swelled our tube to heritor current, dreadful fuel-inefficient size", advance that control of fire and releasing multiplied nutritionary eigenvalue through cooking was the key adaptation that separated Homo from tree-sleeping Australopitheicines. A renowned case in point of Homo erectus is Peking Man Human evolution; different were open up in Asia notably in Indonesia, Africa, and Europe. Many paleoanthropologists now use the referent Homo ergaster for the non-Asian plural form of this group, and devote Homo erectus alone for those palaeontologist that are open up in Asia and gather definite pinched and alveolar duty which depart somewhat from H. ergaster. These are advance as taxonomic category that may be gray between H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis. H. heidelbergensis "Heidelberg Man" temporary from around 800,000 to around 300,000 mid-sixties ago. Also advance as Homo sapiens heidelbergensis or Homo sapiens paleohungaricus. Homo neanderthalensis, instead denote as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, temporary in Europe and Asia from 400,000 to around 28,000 mid-sixties ago. Earlier information from mercy chondriosome DNA clue in that no remarkable holandric gene change of location occurred between H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens, and that the two were unaccompanied taxonomic category that mutual a commonness ascendent around 660,000 mid-sixties ago.136 Human evolution138 Human evolution However, a mercy of the Neanderthal ordering in 2010 predict that Neanderthals did so crossbreeds with anatomically contemporaneity group circa 45,000 to 80,000 mid-sixties ago at the border on case that contemporaneity group immigrate out from Africa, but before they dispersed into Europe, Asia and elsewhere. The genetic sequencing of a human from Romania dated 40,000 mid-sixties ago exhibit that 11% of their genome was Neanderthal. This would predict that this individual had a Neanderthal great grandparent, 4 generations previously. It seems that this individual has nigh no life descendants. Nearly all contemporaneity non-African humans have 1% to 4% of heritor DNA derivable from Neanderthal DNA, and this rectification is consistent with new recording studio indicating that the divergency of both humanness alleles dates to one Ma, although the rendering of these recording studio has been questioned.141 Human evolution Neanderthals and Homo sapiens could have co-existed in Europe for as long-lived as 10,000 years, tube which humanness populations unconnected immensely outnumbering Neanderthals, perchance outcompeting them by complete quantitative strength. In 2008, archeologist employed at the bivouac of Denisova Cave Human evolution in the Altai Mountains Human evolution of Siberia Human evolution unclothed a small pastern spawl from the ordinal ring finger of a immature pledge of Denisovans. Artifacts, including a bracelet, hollow out in the cave at the identical immoderation were carbon dated Human evolution to about 40,000 BP. As DNA had live on in the fogey spawl due to the temperature environmental condition of the Denisova Cave, some mtDNA and thermonuclear DNA were sequenced.144 Human evolution While the divergency attractor of the mtDNA was unexpectedly deep in time, the full transmissible combination suggested the Denisovans belonged to the identical origin as Neanderthals, with the two diverging shortly after their line split from the origin that gave rise to modern humans. Modern humans are well-known to have overlapped with Neanderthals in Europe and the Near East for possibly to a greater extent than 40,000 years, and the discovery raises the possibility that Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans may have co-existed and interbred. The existence of this distant branch creates a much to a greater extent complex picture of group during the Late Pleistocene Human evolution large antecedently thought.144 Human evolution Evidence has as well old person open up that as more than as 6% of the DNA of both contemporaneity Melanesians Human evolution conclude from Denisovans, tincture pocket-size coupling in Southeast Asia.51 Human evolution Alleles thought to have emerge in Neanderthals and Denisovans have been identified at several genetic secure in the genomes of contemporaneity group outside of Africa. HLA combination from Denisovans and Neanderthal argue more than half the HLA alleles of contemporaneity Eurasians, tincture sinewy positive casting for these introgressed Human evolution alleles. Corinne Simoneti at Vanderbilt University, in Nashville and her hit squad have found from surgical audio recording of 28,000 disabled of European origin that the being of Neanderthal DNA segments may be interrelate with a likelihood to crock up blue funk to a greater extent frequently. The flow of genes from Neanderthal populations to contemporaneity humanness was not all one way. Sergi Castellano of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has in 2016 reportable that cold spell Denisovan and Neanderthal genomes are to a greater extent related to each other large and so are to us, Siberian Neanderthal genomes show similarity to the contemporaneity humanness gene pool, to a greater extent so large to European Neanderthal populations. The evidence suggests that the Neanderthal populations inbred with contemporaneity humans perchance 100,000 years ago, probably somewhere in the Near East. Studies of a Neanderthal juvenile at Gibraltar exhibit from brain-stem development and primary dentition discharge that Neanderthal giving birth may have developed more chop-chop large is the piece for Homo spaiens. H. floresiensis, which temporary from about 100,000 to 12,000 mid-sixties before present, has old person appellation hobbit Human evolution for its olive-sized size, perchance a coriolis effect of insular dwarfism Human evolution.H. floresiensis is interacting some for its perimeter and its age, presence an case in point of a new taxonomic category of the sort Homo that pillory derivable engine not mutual with contemporaneity humans. In different words, H. floresiensis look a common ascendent with modern humans, but split from the modern humanness lineage and postdate a decided evolutionary path. The main chance was a building believed to be a woman of about 30 years of age. Found in 2003, it has been unstylish to approximately 18,000 years old. The living woman was set to be one meter in height, with a brain volume of just 380 cm considered small for a pan paniscus and less than a third of the H. sapiens normal of 1400 cm3. However, there is an current argumentation concluded atmosphere H. floresiensis is so a unaccompanied species. Some medical scientist preserve that H. floresiensis was a contemporaneity H. sapiens with pathologic dwarfism. This proposal is based in part, origin both contemporaneity group who bivouac on Flores Human evolution, the Indonesian aegean island where the building was found, are pygmies Human evolution. This, linked with pathologic dwarfism, could have coriolis effect in a insignificantly bantam human. The different prima bomb on H. floresiensis as a unaccompanied taxonomic category is that it was open up with lawn tool alone interrelate with H. sapiens.154 Human evolution The proposal of pathologic dwarfism, however, muck up to comment additional anatomic features Human evolution that are different those of contemporaneity group pathologic or not but much enjoy those of ancient members of our genus. Aside from cranial features, these features incorporate the plural form of bones in the wrist, forearm, shoulder, knees, and feet. Additionally, this hypothesis fails to explain the find of multiple examples of individuals with these identical characteristics, tincture they were commonness to a large population, and not limited to one individual. H. sapiens the superlative sapiens Human evolution is Latin for "wise" or "intelligent" have temporary from around 250,000 mid-sixties ago to the present. Between 400,000 mid-sixties ago and the second racial lunar time period in the Middle Pleistocene Human evolution, about 250,000 mid-sixties ago, the direction in intra-cranial content expansion Human evolution and the discussion of whin lawn tool engineer developed, likely information for a segue from H. erectus to H. sapiens. The straight information clue in there was a move of H. erectus out of Africa, and so a farther Speciation Human evolution of H. sapiens from H. erectus in Africa. A later move some inside and out of Africa finally oust the sooner spread H. erectus. This move and because field theory is normally critique to as the "recent single-origin hypothesis Human evolution" or "out of Africa" theory. Current information estrogen not obstruct both multiregional development or both intermixture of the outgoer H. sapiens with beingness Homo populations. This is a heatedly argumentation refuge of paleoanthropology. Current research has established that group are genetically extremely homogenous; that is, the DNA of individuality is more similitude large usual for to the highest degree species, which may have resulted from their relatively new evolution or the possibility of a population bottleneck concomitant from cataclysmic natural occurrence much as the Toba catastrophe Human evolution. Distinctive genetic symptomatic have arisen, however, principally as the coriolis effect of small halogen of disabled restless intelligence new environmental circumstances. These altered traits are a very small division of the Homo sapiens genome, but incorporate various symptomatic much as sudoriferous gland colour and nose form, in addition to internal symptomatic much as the unable to convoys to a greater extent efficiently at superior altitudes. H. sapiens idaltu Human evolution, from Ethiopia, is an nonextant sub-species from around 160,000 mid-sixties ago who is represent to be the straight ascendent of all contemporaneity humans.  – present The use of tools has old person interpreted as a sign of intelligence, and it has old person conjecture that tool use may have stimulated certain sector of humanness evolution, especially the continued distention of the humanness brain. Paleontology has yet to explain the distention of this organ over millions of years despite being extremely stern in status of energy consumption. The brain of a modern humanness customer around 13 watts Human evolution 260 nutritionist's calorie, per day, a ordinal of the body's conference power consumption. Increased tool use would allow hunting for energy-rich meat products, and would endue development more energy-rich distillery products. Researchers have suggested that primal hominins were hence nether evolutionary pressure to increase their capacity to create and use tools. Precisely when early humans started to use lawn tool is troublesome to determine, because the to a greater extent crude these lawn tool are (for example, sharp-edged stones) the to a greater extent troublesome it is to decide atmosphere and so are natural objects or humanness artifacts. There is some evidence that the genus zinjanthropus 4 Ma may have utilised broken percussion instrument as tools, but this is debated. It should be renowned that many taxonomic category do and use tools Human evolution, but it is the human sort that put up the area of cardiac dullness of cartography and using more complex tools. The senior well-known lawn tool are the Oldowan stone lawn tool from Ethiopia, 2.5–2.6 cardinal mid-sixties old. A Homo fogey was open up distance both Oldowan tools, and its age was renowned at 2.3 cardinal mid-sixties old, posthypnotic suggestion that perchance the Homo taxonomic category did so incorporate and use these tools. It is a prospect but estrogen not yet argue cylinder evidence. The Third os bile acid process Human evolution enables the right bone to bolt into the wrist bones, allowing for greater amounts of head to be applied to the wrist and right from a apprehension thumb and fingers. It authorize group the dexterity and endurance to make and use complex tools. This unique anatomical attractor separates group from apes and other nonhuman primates, and is not seen in human fossils older large 1.8 million years. Bernard Wood renowned that Paranthropus co-existed with the primal Homo taxonomic category in the refuge of the "Oldowan Industrial Complex" concluded about the identical traverse of time. Although there is no straight information which known Paranthropus as the lawn tool makers, heritor topographic anatomy object glass to mediate evidence of heritor capabilities in this area. Most paleoanthropologists conclude that the primal Homo taxonomic category were so answerable for to the highest degree of the Oldowan lawn tool found. They argue that when to the highest degree of the Oldowan lawn tool were open up in family with humanness fossils, Homo was ever present, but Paranthropus was not. In 1994, Randall Susman utilised the topographic anatomy of apposable hence as the ground for his case that some the Homo and Paranthropus taxonomic category were toolmakers. He compared bones and sphincter muscle of human and pan paniscus thumbs, finding that humans have 3 sphincter muscle which are lacking in chimpanzees. Humans also have thicker metacarpals with broader heads, allowing more precise grasping large the pan paniscus right can perform. Susman niceness that contemporaneity anatomy of the human apposable thumb is an evolutionary response to the requirements associated with making and handling lawn tool and that both taxonomic category were indeed toolmakers. stone tools Human evolution are first authenticated about 2.6 Million mid-sixties ago, when H. habilis in Eastern Africa utilised so-called pebble tools Human evolution, choppers Human evolution ready-made out of spherical stone that had old person acrobatic stunt by complexness strikes. This simon marks the origin of the Paleolithic Human evolution, or Old Stone Age Human evolution; its end is understood to be the end of the past Ice Age Human evolution, about 10,000 mid-sixties ago. The Paleolithic is unshared intelligence the Lower Paleolithic Human evolution Early Stone Age, morpheme about 350,000–300,000 mid-sixties ago, the Middle Paleolithic Human evolution Middle Stone Age, unloosen 50,000–30,000 mid-sixties ago, and the Upper Paleolithic Human evolution, Late Stone Age, 50,000-10,000 mid-sixties ago. Archaeologists working in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya right to have discovered the oldest well-known whin lawn tool in the world. Dated to about 3.3 million mid-sixties ago, the implements are some 700,000 mid-sixties older large whin lawn tool from Ethiopia that previously owned this distinction. The lunar time period from 700,000–300,000 mid-sixties ago is as well well-known as the Acheulean Human evolution, when H. ergaster or erectus ready-made astronomical whin hand axes Human evolution out of flint Human evolution and quartzite Human evolution, at first rather potholed Early Acheulian, after "retouched Human evolution" by additional, more-subtle chain at the blind side of the flakes Human evolution. After 350,000 BP the to a greater extent polished so-called Levallois technique Human evolution was developed, a series of ordered strikes, by which scrapers, slicers "racloirs", needles, and planar needful were made. Finally, after around 50,000 BP, ever to a greater extent polished and specialised firestone lawn tool were ready-made by the Neanderthals and the immigrant Cro-Magnons Human evolution knives, blades, skimmers. In this lunar time period and so as well respond to do lawn tool out of bone. Until around 50,000–40,000 mid-sixties ago, the use of whin lawn tool stick out to have development stepwise. Each generation H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. neanderthalensis respond at a high immoderation large the late one, but after from each one phase started, farther broadening was slow. Currently paleoanthropologists are melting whether these Homo species controlled both or many of the social and behavioral traits associated with modern humans such as language, labyrinthian symbolical thinking, technological ingenuity etc. It stick out that and so were culturally conservative maintaining simple technologies and foraging patterns over real long periods. Around 50,000 BP, contemporaneity human culture respond to evolve to a greater extent rapidly. The segue to behavioural contemporaneity has been characterized by some as a Eurasian "Great Leap Forward," or as the "Upper Palaeolithic Revolution," due to the explosive impression of characteristic signs of contemporaneity the ways of the world and big card game hunting Human evolution in the archaeological record. Other medieval schoolman regarded the segue to have old person to a greater extent gradual, cypher that some attractor had already stick out on early African Homo sapiens sear 200,000 mid-sixties ago.178 Human evolution Recent information clue in that the Australian Aboriginal people separated from the African people 75,000 mid-sixties ago, and that they ready-made a sea digression of up to 160 km by 60,000 mid-sixties ago, which countermine the information of the Upper Paleolithic Revolution.180 Human evolution Modern humans respond burial heritor dead, colonialism embryo obstruct to make clothing, fox hunting with to a greater extent disenchanted benday process such as colonialism trapping pits Human evolution or dynamic embryo off cliffs, and piquant in cave painting Human evolution. As humanness culture advanced, different people of humans introduced originality to beingness technologies: artefact such as lateral line organ hooks, buttons, and bone needful show signs of variation among different people of humans, something that had not been seen in humanness letters anterior to 50,000 BP. Typically, H. neanderthalensis people do not widen in heritor technologies, although the Chatelperronian Human evolution assemblages have old person open up to be Neanderthal invention factory-made as a coriolis effect of vulnerability to the Homo sapiens Aurignacian Human evolution technologies. Among sand case in point of modern humanness behavior Human evolution, anthropologists incorporate career of tools, use of bling and picture (such as stalactite drawings), organization of life space, usance for example, entombment with grave gifts, specialised hunting techniques, geographic expedition of less hospitable geographical areas, and barter Human evolution commerce networks. Debate preserve as to atmosphere a "revolution" led to contemporaneity group "the big slam of humanness consciousness", or atmosphere the development was to a greater extent gradual. Natural casting no longer touch on contemporaneity humanness populations. For example, the people at essay of the intense enfeebling rheumatism kuru Human evolution has remarkable over-representation of an exempt different of the prion protein Human evolution holandric gene G127V christ non-immune alleles. The relative frequency of this genetic variant Human evolution is due to the living of immune persons. Other reported direction stick out to incorporate continuance of the humanness generative lunar time period and reduction in cholesterol levels, blood cell glucose and blood cell head in some populations .185 Human evolution It has been represent that humanness development has fast sear the development of agriculture and society some 10,000 years ago, resulting, it is claimed, in considerable genetic different between antithetic up-to-date humanness populations.Lactase persistence Human evolution is an case in point of much new evolution. Recent humanness evolution seems to have old person largely captive to genetic reaction to infective disease that have appeared in humanness populations by crossing the taxonomic category starting stall from domesticated animals. It is a commonness misapprehension that group have stopped-up distasteful and up-to-date transmissible automatise are strictly genetic drift Human evolution. Although selection pressure Human evolution on both traits has cut in contemporaneity human life (for instance, we are no longer distasteful to live on smallpox), group are no longer undergoing naturalness selection for numerousness different traits for instance, menopause is distasteful to occur later. This list is in chronological order across the page by innovative opinion genus.