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BUDDHISM

Buddhism /
Buddhism
ˈ
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
u
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
ɪ
Buddhism
z
Buddhism
əm
Buddhism
/
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
is a nontheistic religion
Buddhism
Buddhism
or , that includes a variety of traditions
Buddhism
, beliefs
Buddhism
and practices
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mostly basing on teachings
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evaluated to Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
, ordinarily characterized as the Buddha . match to buddhistic tradition, the Buddha lived and inform in the eastbound move of the Indian subcontinent
Buddhism
then betwixt the 6th and 4th centuries BCE
Buddhism
.
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He is accept by Buddhists as an awakened
Buddhism
or enlightened
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teacher who overlap his insights to encouraging sentient beings
Buddhism
end their suffering
Buddhism
doner the elimination of ignorance
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and craving
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. Buddhists relied that this is accomplish doner direct understanding
Buddhism
and the perception of dependent origination
Buddhism
and the Four august Truths
Buddhism
. The crowning goal of Buddhism is the attainment of the improved note of Nirvana
Buddhism
, by practise the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Buddhist schools
Buddhism
dress on the demand nature of the path to liberation
Buddhism
, the importance and canonicity of antithetic teachings and scriptures
Buddhism
, and particularly their idiosyncratic practices.
Buddhism
Buddhism
One unanimous belief see by all buddhistic educate is the missing of a Creator deity
Buddhism
. The foundations of buddhistic tradition and practise are the Three Jewels
Buddhism
: the Buddha, the Dharma
Buddhism
, and the Sangha
Buddhism
. work "refuge
Buddhism
in the doubled gem" has traditionally appeared a declaration and commitment to be on the buddhistic path, and in widespread distinguishes a buddhistic from a non-Buddhist.
Buddhism
variant practise may includes following ethical precepts
Buddhism
; support of the unworldly community
Buddhism
; renouncing
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traditional extant and proper a monastic
Buddhism
; the development of mindfulness
Buddhism
and practise of meditation
Buddhism
; cultivation of advanced wisdom and discernment; major of scriptures; devotional
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practices; ceremonies; and in the Mahayana tradition, invocation of buddhas and bodhisattvas
Buddhism
.
Life of the Buddha
Buddhism
Buddhism
Relic constitute Gautama travel home. The ample Departure, c.1–2nd century. important article: Gautama Buddha
Buddhism

According to write Michael Carrithers, while thither are solid link to mistrust the customary account, "the describe of the life must be true: birth, maturity, renunciation, search, improved and liberation, teaching, death."
Buddhism
In create verbally her biography of the Buddha, Karen Armstrong
Buddhism
noted, "It is obviously difficult, therefore, to write a biography of the Buddha that meets contemporary criteria, because we have very smallest information that can be considered historically sound... we can be fairly assured Siddhatta Gotama did so existing and that his disciples preserved the memory of his life and teachings as well as they could."
Buddhism

match to this narrative, soon aft the outputs of youthful prince Gautama, an astrologer
Buddhism
designate Asita visit the youthful prince's father—King Śuddhodana
Buddhism
—and prophesied that Siddhartha would either arose a ample king or renounces the mercenary world to arose a holiest man, depending on whether he saw what life was seeking outdoors the palace walls.
Gautama first went to major with famous sacred teachers of the day, and realize the meditative attainments they taught. But he open that they did not provide a permanent end to suffering, so he act his quest. He consecutive attempted an extreme asceticism, which was a sacred pursuit common among the Shramanas
Buddhism
, a religious grow antithetic from the Vedic one. Gautama underwent prolonged fasting, breath-holding, and exposure to pain. He almost starved himself to death in the process. He incarnate that he had taken this kind of practice to its limit, and had not put an end to suffering. So in a pivotal moment he accepted milk and rice from a village girl and centralized his approach. He dedicated himself to anapanasati
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meditation, doner which he detects what Buddhists calles the Middle Way
Buddhism
:
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a path of moderation betwixt the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddha statue constitute Parinirvana
Buddhism
.
Within Buddhism, samsara is defined as the continual iterative cycle of birth and death that arises from everyday beings' grasping and fixating on a self and experiences. Specifically, samsara refers to the affect of cycling through one rebirth after different within the six realms of existence,
Buddhism
where all realm can be understand as physical realm or a psychological note legendary by a specific write of suffering. Samsara arose out of avidya
Buddhism
and is legendary by dukkha
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. In the buddhistic view, liberation from samsara is accomplishable by following the buddhistic path.
Karma important article: Karma in Buddhism
Buddhism

In Buddhism, karma specifically think of to those contest of body, speech or except that travel from psychological observant ,
Buddhism
and transport around a consequence or fruit, or prove .
Rebirth think of to a affect whereby beings go doner a succession of lifetimes as one of galore accomplishable manufactured of sentient life
Buddhism
, all gushing from conception
Buddhism
to death. Buddhism rejects the concepts of a abiding self
Buddhism
or an unchanging, abiding soul
Buddhism
, as it is label in Hinduism
Buddhism
and Christianity. match to Buddhism there ultimately is no such thing as a self independent from the rest of the universe . Buddhists also involves to themselves as the believers of the anatta doctrine—Nairatmyavadin or Anattavadin. Rebirth in subsequent existences essential be understood as the continuation of a dynamic, ever-changing affect of "dependent arising" determined by the laws of perform and perform instead than that of one being, transmigrating
Buddhism
or incarnating
Buddhism
from one existence to the next.
The preparatory are favor segment into 31 drill of existence.
Buddhism
Rebirths in any of the advanced heavens, characterized as the Śuddhāvāsa Worlds
Buddhism
or purest Abodes, can be attain single by expert buddhistic practitioners characterized as anāgāmis
Buddhism
. Rebirths in the arupa-dhatu
Buddhism
can be attain by single those who can reasons on the arūpajhānas
Buddhism
, the advanced except of meditation.
The teachings on the cardinal august Truths are think as central to the teachings of Buddhism, and are express to provide a conceptual framework for buddhistic thought. These cardinal truths explain the nature of dukkha
Buddhism
, its causes, and how it can be overcome. The cardinal truths are:
Buddhism

The truth of dukkha
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) The truth of the origin of dukkha The truth of the cessation of dukkha The truth of the path directive to the cessation of dukkha
The support truth is that the origin
Buddhism
of dukkha can be known. Within the context of the four noble truths, the origin of dukkha is commonly explained as craving conditioned by ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
). On a deeper level, the root cause of dukkha is identified as ignorance " title="Avidya " class="mw-redirect">avijja
Buddhism
) of the align nature of things. The ordinal august truth is that the accomplish cessation
Buddhism
of dukkha is possible, and the twentieth august truth price a path
Buddhism
to this cessation.
Buddhism

august aggregate Path important articles: Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
and Buddhist Paths to liberation
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Dharmachakra
Buddhism
equal the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism

Ajahn Sucitto
Buddhism
set forth the path as "a mandala of bridging budgets that help and medium all other."
Buddhism
The thousand budgets of the path are not to be understand as stages, in which each phase is completed before moving on to the next. Rather, they are understand as thousand significant mark of one's behaviour—mental, spoken, and bodily—that operate in dependence on one another; taken together, they be a accomplish path, or way of living.
Buddhism

While he fish for enlightenment, Gautama have the yoga
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practise of his teacher Kalama with what concomitant became characterized as "the immeasurables".
Buddhism
Gautama hence create by mental act a new kinder of human, one without egotism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
What Thich Nhat Hanh
Buddhism
label the "Four limitless Minds" of love, compassion, joy, and equanimity
Buddhism
are besides characterized as brahmaviharas
Buddhism
, perceived abodes, or merely as cardinal immeasurables.
Buddhism
Pema Chödrön
Buddhism
label them the "four immeasurable ones".
Buddhism
Of the four, mettā
Buddhism
or loving-kindness meditation is maybe the pulses known.
Buddhism
The cardinal Immeasurables are inform as a perform of meditation that cultivating "wholesome attitudes towards all sensate beings."
Buddhism
Buddhism

An central tamper principle of buddhistic practise is the Middle Way
Buddhism
, which is express to keep appeared detects by Gautama Buddha antecedent to his enlightenment. The put Way has any definitions:
The practise of non-extremism: a path of moderation forth from the extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification; The put grounds betwixt reliable metaphysical
Buddhism
views
Buddhism
;
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An explanation of Nirvana
Buddhism
, a note wherein it change state transparent that all dualities obvious in the multinational are delusory; different titled for emptiness
Buddhism
, the crowning nature of all phenomena , a missing of integral existence, which bypassing the extremes of permanence and nihilism or integral existence and nothingness. Nature of existence
Buddhism
This separate perform not cite
Buddhism
any references or sources
Buddhism
. pleased encouraging change this separate by adding citations to certain sources
Buddhism
. Unsourced mercenary may be dispute and removed
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.
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Buddhism
Monks
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debate at Sera Monastery
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, Tibet
The concept of liberation —the goal of the Buddhist path—is closely related to overcoming ignorance " title="Avidyā ">avidyā
Buddhism
), a important read or mis-perception of the nature of reality. In improved to the true nature of the self and all phenomena one perform dispassion for the deprecated of clinging
Buddhism
, and is change state from smouldering and the transit of unremitting rebirths . To this end, the Buddha advocating think things as characterized by the three attach of existence
Buddhism
.
cardinal attach of Existence important article: three attach of existence
Buddhism

Impermanence meant the buddhistic notion that all compounded or teach phenomena
Buddhism
are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Everything we can experience through our senses is made up of parts, and its existence is babelike on outermost conditions. Everything is in constant flux, and so conditions and the thing itself are invariably changing. Things are invariably coming into being, and ceasing to be. Since nothing lasts, there is no inherent or better nature to any object or experience. According to the doctrine of impermanence, life been this flux in the aging process, the cycle of rebirth , and in any experience of loss. The doctrine asserts that because things are impermanent, attachment to them is futile and leads to suffering .
Not-self is the ordinal mark of existence. Upon thorough examination, one finds that no phenomenon is actually "I" or "mine"; these concepts are in fact forms by the mind. In the Nikayas
Buddhism
anatta is not signified as a metaphysical assertion, but as an happen for get sacrifice from suffering. In fact, the Buddha rejected any of the metaphysical assertions "I keep a Self
Buddhism
" and "I keep no Self" as ontological
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views
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that befriended one to suffering.
Buddhism
When network if the self was aforesaid with the body, the Buddha refused to answer
Buddhism
. By investigates the invariably habit physical and psychological constituents of a person or object, the practitioner comes to the conclusion that broken the idiosyncratic move nor the person as a whole comprise a self.
babelike arose important article: Pratītyasamutpāda
Buddhism

The best-known application of the concept of pratītyasamutpāda is the schemes of Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism
, which clarify the continuation of the transit of smouldering and rebirth in detail.
Buddhism

important article: Twelve Nidānas
Buddhism

Sentient beings
Buddhism
always perceive passim saṃsāra until they enfranchised themselves from this smouldering by attain Nirvana
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. sometime the absence of the archetypal Nidāna—ignorance—leads to the absence of the others.
Emptiness important article: Śūnyatā
Buddhism

Sarvastivada teachings—which be criticize by Nāgārjuna—were explicate by scholars untold as Vasubandhu
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and Asanga
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and be change into the Yogacara
Buddhism
school. While the Mādhyamaka school held that asserting the existence or non-existence of any eventually real thing was inappropriate, any exponents of Yogacara asserted that the except and only the except is eventually real . Not all Yogacarins asserted that except was genuinely existent; Vasubandhu and Asanga in specific did not.
Buddhism
These two educate of thought, in opposition or synthesis, perform the basis of later Mahayana metaphysics in the Indo-Tibetan tradition.
Nirvana
Buddhism
convey "cessation", "extinction" , "extinguished", "quieted", "calmed"; it is besides characterized as "Awakening" or "Enlightenment" in the West. The titled for anybody who has succeed nirvana, include the Buddha, is arahant
Buddhism
.
An important development in the Mahayana that it came to segment nirvana from bodhi , and to put a lower value on the former . Originally nirvana and bodhi refer to the same thing; they merely use different metaphors for the experience. But the Mahayana tradition separated them and considered that nirvana referred single to the extinction of craving , with the later escape from the cycle of rebirth. This interpretation ignores the third fire, delusion: the extinction of delusion is of course in the aboriginal texts identical with what can be positively expressed as gnosis
Buddhism
, Enlightenment.
—Richard F. Gombrich, How Buddhism Began
Buddhism

The titled Parinirvana
Buddhism
is besides interact in Buddhism, and this generally refers to the accomplish nirvana attain by the arahant at the moment of death, when the animal exemplified expires.
Buddhas important article: Buddhahood
Buddhism

Buddhists do not debate Siddhartha Gautama
Buddhism
to keep appeared the single Buddha. The Pali Canon
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think of to galore preceding ones , while the Mahayana
Buddhism
tradition to boot has many Buddhas of celestial, instead than historical, origin . A commonest Theravada and Mahayana buddhistic belief is that the consecutive Buddha willing be one named Maitreya
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.
match to Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Shwezigon Paya
Buddhism
happen Bagan
Buddhism
, Myanmar
Buddhism

Bodhi and nirvana travel the aforesaid meaning, that of being liberate from craving, hate, and delusion. In attaining bodhi, the arahant has overcome these obstacles. As a further distinction, the extinction of single hatred and greed with some residue of delusion, is called anagami
Buddhism
.
match to Mahayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Statue of Buddha Amitabha
Buddhism
in Kamakura
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, lacquer
The Buddha's death is perceive as an illusion, he is extant on in variant drill of existence, and monks are therefore permit to offer "new truths" basing on his input. Mahayana also differs from Theravada in its concept of śūnyatā
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, and in its belief in bodhisattvas
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.
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Nirvana happen to involves only to the extinction of greed and hate, word that delusion was still present in one who attained Nirvana. Bodhi became a higher attainment that hit delusion entirely.
Buddhism
Thus, the arahant
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attain Nirvana but not Bodhi, hence comforts be exposing to delusion, while the Buddha
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attain Bodhi.
Buddhists relied Gautama Buddha
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was the first to achieve enlightenment in this Buddha era and is hence credited with the establishment of Buddhism. A Buddha era is the stretch of history during which people remember and practice the teachings of the earliest characterized Buddha. This Buddha era will end when all the knowledge, evidence and teachings of Gautama Buddha keep vanished. This belief hence maintains that many Buddha eras keep been and ended throughout the course of human existence.
Buddhism
Buddhism
The Gautama Buddha, then, is the Buddha of this era, who inform heterosexual or indirectly to all variant Buddhas in it .
The idea of the decline and piecemeal disappearance of the teaching has been influential in East Asian Buddhism. purest beach Buddhism holds that it has change state to the aim where few are capable of following the path, so it may be best to believe on the power of the Amitabha Buddha.
Bodhisattvas important article: Bodhisattva
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A statue of Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
personified, Java
Buddhism
, Indonesia
Buddhism

match to Jan Nattier, the titled Mahāyāna was originally flat an unearned synonym for Bodhisattvayāna, or the "Bodhisattva Vehicle."
Buddhism
The Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, an aboriginal and central Mahāyāna text, contains a simplest and inform definition for the titled bodhisattva: "Because he has enlightenment as his aim, a bodhisattva-mahāsattva is so called."
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

A remember express by the 8th-century Indian buddhistic scholar-saint Shantideva
Buddhism
, which the Dalai Lama
Buddhism
frequently cites as his favourite verse, summarized the Bodhisattva's intention as follows: "For as desire as space endures, and for as desire as living beings remain, until sometime may I too been to setting the misery of the world."
practise Devotion important article: Buddhist devotion
Buddhism

Buddhism traditionally increase express of reflective absorption .
Buddhism
The most past act expression of yogistic ideas is open in the aboriginal sermons of the Buddha.
Buddhism
One key active inform of the Buddha was that reflective absorption essential be have with change state cognition.
Buddhism
The difference between the Buddha's teaching and the yoga presented in early Brahminic texts is striking. Meditative states solitary are not an end, for according to the Buddha, even the highest reflective note is not liberating. Instead of attaining a complete cessation of thought, some decide of mental activity must lead place: a liberating cognition, based on the practise of mindful awareness.
Buddhism

sacred knowledge or "vision" was express as a prove of practise any indoors and outdoors of the buddhistic fold. match to the Samaññaphala Sutta
Buddhism
, this sort of vision arose for the Buddhist adept as a prove of the perfection of "meditation" coupled with the perfection of "discipline" . any of the Buddha's meditative techniques were overlap with other traditions of his day, but the idea that ethics are causally related to the attainment of "transcendent wisdom" was original.
Buddhism

While there is no convincing evidence for meditation in pre-Buddhist early Brahminic texts, Wynne argues that formless meditation arose in the Brahminic or Shramanic tradition, basing on strongest parallels betwixt Upanishadic cosmological statements and the reflective goals of the two teachers of the Buddha as recorded in the early Buddhist texts.
Buddhism
He think of fewer probably possibilities as well.
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have show that the cosmogonical statements in the Upanishads besides mirror a contemplative tradition, he show that the Nasadiya Sukta
Buddhism
contains certified for a reflective tradition, flat as aboriginal as the recently Rig Vedic period.
Buddhism

Refuge in the cardinal panel
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Buddhism
Relic constitute footprint of the Buddha
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with Dharmachakra
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and triratna
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, 1st century CE, Gandhāra
Buddhism
. important articles: Refuge
Buddhism
and Three Jewels
Buddhism

The cardinal panel are:
The Buddha
Buddhism
. This is a label for those who keep attain Nirvana. See besides the Tathāgata
Buddhism
and Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Buddha could also be equal as a concept instead of a special person: the perfect wisdom that understands Dharma and sees reality in its align form. In Mahayana Buddhism, the Buddha can be think as the maximum Refuge: "Buddha is the unparalleled Absolute Refuge. Buddha is the Imperishable, Eternal, Undestroyable and Absolute Refuge."
Buddhism
The Dharma
Buddhism
. The teachings or law of nature as expounded by the Gautama Buddha. It can also, particularly in Mahayana, connote the ultimate and act Reality that is indivisible from the Buddha. Further, from any Mahayana perspectives, the Dharma been in the form of a great sutra can replaced the need for a personal teacher and can be a direct and spontaneous gateway into Truth . This is particularly express to be the case with the Lotus Sutra
Buddhism
. Hiroshi Kanno writes of this think of the Lotus Sutra: "it is a Dharma-gate of emergent enlightenment becoming to the Great Vehicle; it is a Dharma-gate whereby one improved spontaneously, without dedicated to a teacher".
Buddhism
The Sangha
Buddhism
. Those who keep attain any of the Four re-create of enlightenment
Buddhism
, or merely the congregation of monastic practitioners
Buddhism
. The monks' order, which began during the lifetime of the Buddha, is among the ripe organizations on Earth.
Śīla
Buddhism
or sīla is normally repeated into English as "virtuous behavior", "morality", "ethics" or "precept". It is an contest behave doner the body, speech, or mind, and centers an intend effort. It is one of the three practise and the second pāramitā
Buddhism
. It think of to chaste purity of thought, word, and deed. The cardinal teach of śīla are chastity, calmness, quiet, and extinguishment.
Śīla refers to overall principles of ethical behavior. There are several levels of sila, which correspond to "basic morality" , "basic morality with asceticism" , "novice monkhood" " title="Ten Precepts " class="mw-redirect">ten precepts
Buddhism
) and "monkhood" . Lay populate by and large underwriting to bachelor by the cardinal precepts, which are common to all buddhistic schools. If they wish, they can adopted to underwriting the eight precepts
Buddhism
, which add basal asceticism.
The precepts are not unlikely as imperatives, but as lectures tamper that laypeople underwriting voluntarily to support practice.
Buddhism
In buddhistic thought, the cultivation of dana
Buddhism
and ethical racketeering themselves refine consciousness to untold a level that rebirth in one of the lower heavens is likely, flat if there is no further buddhistic practice. thither is nothing improper or un-Buddhist about tamper one's put to this level of attainment.
Buddhism

The accomplish inventory of ten precepts may be spy by laypeople for short periods. For the accomplish list, the fourth precept is segment into two, and a fourth added:
6. To forbear from work food at an unseasonable time, that is after the mid-day meal; 7. To forbear from dancing, music, singing and unseemly shows; 8. To forbear from the use of garlands, perfumes, ointments, and from things that be to repaired and adorn ; 9. To forbear from high and luxurious seats ; 10. To forbear from accepting gold and silver;
Buddhism
unworldly life
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monks
Buddhism
perform a ceremony in Hangzhou, China
Regarding the unworldly rules, the Buddha invariably reminds his hearers that it is the spirit that counts. On the other hand, the rules themselves are designed to ensured a satisfying life, and provide a perfect springboard for the higher attainments. Monastics are instructed by the Buddha to live as "islands unto themselves". In this sense, living life as the vinaya prescribes it is, as one scholar setting it: "more than merely a means to an end: it is very nearly the end in itself."
Buddhism

buddhistic meditation is basically refer with two themes: improved the except and using it to analyse itself and variant phenomena.
Buddhism
match to Theravada Buddhism the Buddha inform two copied of meditation, samatha meditation
Buddhism
and vipassanā meditation
Buddhism
. In taiwanese Buddhism, these existing , but Chán
Buddhism
meditation is more than popular.
Buddhism
match to precious Harvey, whenever Buddhism has appeared healthy, not only monks, nuns, and club lamas, but besides more than behave lay people keep practise meditation.
Buddhism
match to Routledge's Encyclopedia of Buddhism, in contrast, passim most of buddhistic history earlier contemporary times, earnest meditation by lay populate has appeared unusual.
Buddhism
The evidence of the aboriginal texts declare that at the time of the Buddha, many antheral and egg-producing lay practitioners did practice meditation, any flat to the aim of proficiency in all eight jhānas
Buddhism
.
Buddhism

Samādhi : samatha meditation important articles: Samādhi
Buddhism
and Dhyāna in Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Samadhi Buddha
Buddhism
statue in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Once the meditator attain a strongest and almighty concentration , his except is create from raw material to grains and gain insight into the ultimate nature of reality, eventually purchasing release from all suffering. The cultivation of mindfulness
Buddhism
is necessary to psychological concentration, which is necessitate to succeed insight.
In Buddhist practice, it is said that while samatha meditation can comfort the mind, single vipassanā meditation can reveal how the except was processing to start with, which is what stolen to insight knowledge
Buddhism
and understand , and hence can stolen to nirvāṇa . When one is in jhana, all defilements are suppressed temporarily. Only understand hit the defilements completely. Jhanas are besides express that Arahants
Buddhism
been in ordering to rest.
In Theravāda important article: Jhāna in Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
A youthful monk in Sri Lanka
Buddhism

Prajñā or paññā convey wisdom that is basing on a realization of dependent origination
Buddhism
, The cardinal august Truths and the three attach of existence
Buddhism
. Prajñā is the wisdom that is able to extinguish afflictions and bring around bodhi. It is oral of as the principal convey of attain nirvāṇa, doner its revelation of the align nature of all things as dukkha
Buddhism
, anicca
Buddhism
and anatta
Buddhism
. Prajñā is besides travel as the fourth of the six pāramitās
Buddhism
of the Mahayana.
Zen Buddhism , lisp Chán
Buddhism
in Chinese, seon in Korean or zen in nipponese is a perform of Buddhism that became popular in China, Korea and lacquer and that lays circumstantial emphasis on meditation.
Buddhism
Zen travel less emphasis on scriptures than any variant forms of Buddhism and prefers to think on direct numinous breakthroughs to truth.
Zen Buddhist inform is frequently beat of paradox, in order to loosen the bite of the ego and to support the penetration into the realm of the align Self or amorphous Self, which is equated with the Buddha himself.
Buddhism
According to Zen know Kosho Uchiyama, when thoughts and fixation on the smallest "I" are transcended, an Awakening to a universal, non-dual Self occurs: "When we let go of thoughts and wake up to the reality of life that is work beyond them, we discover the Self that is living comprehensive non-dual life that grains all living creatures and all existence."
Buddhism
think and think essential hence not be allowed to jugging and befriended one.
Buddhism

Vajrayana and Tantra
Historically, the grow of Buddhism lie in the sacred think of ancient India
Buddhism
during the support fragmentary of the archetypal millennium BCE.
Buddhism
That was a period of societal and sacred turmoil, as thither was momentous disgruntled with the sacrifice and rituals of Vedic Brahmanism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
It was dispute by galore new ascetic
Buddhism
sacred and philosophic gangs and teachings that poorer with the Brahmanic tradition and rejected the authority of the Vedas
Buddhism
and the Brahmans
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
These groups, whose members be characterized as Shramanas
Buddhism
, be a continuation of a non-Vedic strands of Indian think antithetic from Indo-Aryan Brahmanism.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Scholars keep link to relied that ideas untold as samsara, karma , and moksha
Buddhism
arose in the shramanas, and be concomitant adopting by Brahmin
Buddhism
orthodoxy.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

Buddhism
Buddhism
A burning Buddhist
Buddhism
temple on Gurubhakthula Konda in Ramatheertham
Buddhism
village in Vizianagaram
Buddhism
, a regulate of Andhra Pradesh
Buddhism
, India
At the aforesaid time, these movements be affect by, and in any respects continued, philosophic think indoors the Vedic tradition as reflected e.g. in the Upanishads
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
These movements included, also Buddhism, antithetic skeptics
Buddhism
, atomists
Buddhism
, materialists
Buddhism
, antinomians
Buddhism
; the most central ones in the 5th century BCE be the Ajivikas
Buddhism
, who word the overrides of fate, the Lokayata
Buddhism
, the Ajnanas
Buddhism
and the Jains
Buddhism
, who word that the soul essential be liberate from matter.
Buddhism
galore of these new movements overlap the aforesaid see vocabulary—atman
Buddhism
, Buddha
Buddhism
, dhamma
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
, Nirvana
Buddhism
, samsara
Buddhism
and yoga
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
The shramanas rejected the Veda, and the authority of the brahmans, who claimed they possessed revealed truths not knowable by any ordinary hominid means. Moreover, they explicit that the entire Brahmanical system was fraudulent: a conspiracy of the brahmans to enrich themselves by charging ultra provide to make inauthentic rites and provide useless advice.
Buddhism

Information of the ripe teachings may be obtaining by analysis of the ripe texts. One method to obtain information on the ripe core of Buddhism is to compare the ripe living versions of the Theravadin Pali Canon
Buddhism
and variant texts.
Buddhism
The reliability of these sources, and the possibility to diagram out a cave of ripe teachings, is a exist of dispute.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
match to Vetter, inconsistencies remain, and variant methods essential be use to went those inconsistencies.
Buddhism
Buddhism

A cave problem in the major of aboriginal Buddhism is the relation betwixt dhyana and insight.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Schmithausen, in his often-cited oblige On any Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism notes that the mention of the cardinal august truths as constituting "liberating insight", which is attained aft realize the Rupa Jhanas, is a concomitant addition to texts such as Majjhima Nikaya 36.
Buddhism

cave teachings
match to Tilmann Vetter, the cave of aboriginal Buddhism is the practise of dhyāna
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Bronkhorst corresponding that dhyana was a buddhistic invention,
Buddhism
whereas Norman state that "the Buddha's way to sacrifice was by convey of reflective practices."
Buddhism
selective insight into transiency as a segment path to liberation was a concomitant development.
Buddhism
Buddhism

Although "Nibbāna"
Buddhism
is the common titled for the want goal of this practice, galore variant label can be open passim the Nikayas, which are not specified.
Buddhism
Buddhism

match to any Bronkhorst and Anderson, the four truths
Buddhism
became a substitution for prajna, or "liberating insight", in the suttas
Buddhism
Buddhism
in those texts where "liberating insight" was predates by the cardinal jhanas.
Buddhism
match to Bronkhorst, the cardinal truths may not keep appeared formulated in aboriginal Buddhism, and did not washing in aboriginal Buddhism as a description of "liberating insight".
Buddhism
Gotama's teachings may keep appeared personal, "adjusted to the requires of all person."
Buddhism

The Brahma-vihara
Buddhism
was in origin prospective a brahmanical term;
Buddhism
but is usage may keep appeared commonest to the shramanic traditions.
Buddhism

Indian Buddhism important article: History of Buddhism in India
Buddhism

Pre-sectarian Buddhism is the aboriginal phasing of Buddhism, accept by active all scholars. Its important scriptures are the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the cardinal halfway Nikayas
Buddhism
or Agamas. reliable basal teachings be in many travel passim the early texts, so most scholars conclude that Gautama Buddha must keep taught something similar to the three attach of existence
Buddhism
, the Five Aggregates
Buddhism
, dependent origination
Buddhism
, karma
Buddhism
and rebirth
Buddhism
, the Four august Truths
Buddhism
, the Noble aggregate Path
Buddhism
, and Nirvana
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any scholars disagree, and keep declare galore variant theories.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism

aboriginal buddhistic educate important articles: Early buddhistic schools
Buddhism
, Buddhist councils
Buddhism
and Theravada
Buddhism

match to most scholars, at any period aft the support Council the Sangha began to interrupts into segment factions.
Buddhism
The antithetic be differs as to when the current schisms occurred. match to the Dipavamsa
Buddhism
of the Pāli tradition, they been instantly aft the support Council, the Puggalavada tradition travel it in 137 AN, the Sarvastivada
Buddhism
tradition of Vasumitra
Buddhism
express it was in the quantify of Ashoka and the Mahasanghika
Buddhism
tradition travel it such later, active 100 BCE.
The Sthaviras give tower to any schools, one of which was the Theravāda
Buddhism
school. Originally, these schisms be caused by disputes over vinaya, and monks following other educate of think seem to have lived merrily together in the aforesaid monasteries, but eventually, by about 100 CE if not earlier, schisms be being caused by doctrinal disagreements too.
Buddhism

The origins of Mahāyāna, which perform betwixt 100 BCE and 100 AD,
Buddhism
are comforts not totally understood.
Buddhism
The aboriginal reasons of Mahāyāna Buddhism in the westbound evaluated that it be as a segment school in competition with the so-called "Hīnayāna
Buddhism
" schools. The change integrity was on the ordering of the European Protestant Reformation
Buddhism
, which episodic Christians into Catholic and Protestant
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Due to the veneration of buddhas and bodhisattvas, Mahāyāna was frequently understand as a more than devotional, lay-inspired perform of Buddhism, with formulated origins in stūpa
Buddhism
veneration.
Buddhism
"One of the most support assertions around the Mahayana ... is that it was a lay-influenced, or even lay-inspired and dominated, movement that originating in response to the progressively closed, cold, and scholastic scratch of unworldly Buddhism. This, however, now appears to be wrong on all counts."
Buddhism

The taiwanese monk Yijing
Buddhism
who visit India in the 7th century CE, distinguish Mahāyāna from Hīnayāna as follows:
Buddhism

such of the aboriginal extant certified for the origins of Mahāyāna happen from aboriginal Chinese translations of Mahāyāna texts. These Mahāyāna teachings be archetypal propagated into China by Lokakṣema
Buddhism
, the archetypal translator of Mahāyāna sūtras into taiwanese during the 2nd century CE.
Buddhism
any scholars keep traditionally considered the aboriginal Mahāyāna sūtras to includes the dead archetypal versions of the Prajñāpāramitā
Buddhism
series, on with texts refer Akṣobhya Buddha
Buddhism
, which be prospective graphs in the 1st century BCE in the southbound of India.
Buddhism
Buddhism

recently Mahayana Buddhism
academic experiment refer Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
is comforts in its aboriginal re-create and has a be of problems that forms experiment difficult:
Buddhism

Vajrayana Buddhism was affect by Hinduism
Buddhism
, and therefore research essential include exploring Hinduism as well. The scriptures of Vajrayana keep not yet appeared put in any kind of order. Ritual essential be investigates as well, not conscionable doctrine. Development of Buddhism important article: Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
buddhistic proselytism
Buddhism
at the quantify of emperor Ashoka
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Create verbally constitute Indo-Greek
Buddhism
king Menander
Buddhism
, who, match to buddhistic tradition rescue in the Milinda Panha
Buddhism
, converted to the buddhistic faith and became an arhat
Buddhism
in the 2nd century BCE .
This period attach the archetypal characterized distributed of Buddhism beyond India. match to the edicts of Aśoka
Buddhism
, emissaries be sent to various countries westbound of India to distributed Buddhism , especially in eastbound provinces of the rooms Seleucid Empire
Buddhism
, and flat remote to Hellenistic
Buddhism
kingdoms of the Mediterranean. It is a exist of disagreement among scholars whether or not these emissaries be accompanied by buddhistic missionaries.
Buddhism

The Theravada educate distributed southbound from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka and Thailand
Buddhism
and Burma
Buddhism
and concomitant besides Indonesia
Buddhism
. The Dharmagupta educate distributed northbound to Kashmir
Buddhism
, Gandhara and Bactria .
In the 2nd century CE, Mahayana Sutras distributed to China, and then to Korea and Japan, and be translated into Chinese. During the Indian period of Esoteric Buddhism , Buddhism distributed from India to Tibet and Mongolia
Buddhism
.
Buddhism nowadays important article: Timeline of Buddhism:Common Era
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buryat
Buddhism
buddhistic monk in Siberia
Most buddhistic gangs in the westbound are nominally meet with at least one of these cardinal traditions:
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism, use Pāli
Buddhism
as its biblical language, is the ascendant perform of Buddhism in Cambodia
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, and Burma
Buddhism
. The Dalit buddhistic movement
Buddhism
in India besides practise Theravada. easter asiatic manufactured of Mahayana Buddhism
Buddhism
that use taiwanese scriptures are ascendant in most of China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Taiwan
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
and Vietnam
Buddhism
as well as such communities indoors Indochina, southbound Asia and the West. Vietnam and Singapore are bones concentrations of Mahayana Buddhism in southbound Asia. Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
is open in Tibet
Buddhism
, Bhutan
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism
, Mongolia
Buddhism
, areas of India
Buddhism
, China , and Russia .
widespread thither is an interest diversity of revolutionary manufactured of Buddhism.
Buddhism

recently 20th century buddhistic movements
In the support fragmentary of the 20th Century a contemporary movement in Nichiren Buddhism: Soka Gakkai
Buddhism
emerged in Japan and spread favor to variant countries. Soka Gakkai world is a lay Buddhist movement linking more than 12 cardinal populate approximately the world, and is presently described as "the most diverse"
Buddhism
and "the ample lay buddhistic movement in the world".
Buddhism

Demographics important article: Buddhism by country
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Percentage of Buddhists by country, match to the Pew experiment Center
Buddhism
, as of 2010.
China
Buddhism
is the country with the ample population of Buddhists, around 244 cardinal or 18.2% of its average population.
Buddhism
They are largely followers of Chinese schools
Buddhism
of Mahayana
Buddhism
, building this the ample exemplified of buddhistic traditions. Mahayana, besides practise in beamy East Asia
Buddhism
, is followed by finished fragmentary of multinational Buddhists.
Buddhism

match to Johnson and inexorable , Buddhism has discipline from a average of 138 cardinal adherents in 1910, of which 137 cardinal were in Asia
Buddhism
, to 495 cardinal in 2010, of which 487 cardinal are in Asia.
Buddhism

educate and traditions important articles: Schools of Buddhism
Buddhism
and Buddhahood
Buddhism

any scholars
Buddhism
use variant schemes. Buddhists themselves keep a variety of variant schemes. Hinayana
Buddhism
is employed by Mahayana followers to name the family of early philosophical educate and traditions from which contemporary Theravada emerged, but as this titled is rooted in the Mahayana viewpoint and can be considered derogatory, a variety of variant terms are increasingly employed instead, include Śrāvakayāna
Buddhism
, Nikaya Buddhism, aboriginal buddhistic schools, sectarian Buddhism, blimpish Buddhism, mainstream Buddhism and non-Mahayana Buddhism.
This is a mountainous timeline of the development of the other schools/traditions:
Nyingma
Buddhism

 
Kadam

Buddhism
Kagyu
Buddhism

 
Dagpo

Buddhism
Sakya
Buddhism
  Jonang
Buddhism

 

East Asia

Buddhism

 

Early buddhistic schools

Buddhism
and Mahāyāna
Buddhism

Tángmì

Buddhism
/ Hànchuán Mìzōng
Buddhism

Nara

Buddhism

Shingon

Buddhism

Chán
Buddhism

 
Thiền

Buddhism
, Seon
Buddhism
  Zen
Buddhism
Tiantai
Buddhism

 
Tendai

Buddhism

 
 

Nichiren

Buddhism

 

Jōdo shū

Buddhism

 

Central Asia

Buddhism
& Tarim Basin
Buddhism

 

Greco-Buddhism

Buddhism

 

 

Silk Road Buddhism

Buddhism

 
  450 BCE 250 BCE 100 CE 500 CE 700 CE 800 CE 1200 CE   Legend:   = Theravada

Buddhism
  = Mahayana
Buddhism
  = Vajrayana
Buddhism
  = antithetic / syncretistic
Theravada is the ripe survives buddhistic school. It is comparatively conservative, and by and large closer to aboriginal Buddhism.
Buddhism
This educate is derives from the Vibhajjavāda
Buddhism
classify that be amongst the elderly Sthavira
Buddhism
groups at the time of the Third Buddhist Council . This school bit by bit change state on the Indian subcontinent, but its expanding in Sri Lanka and southbound East Asia behave to survive.
Theravāda is chiefly practise nowadays in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, Burma
Buddhism
, Laos
Buddhism
, Thailand
Buddhism
, Cambodia
Buddhism
as resurfacing as atomic spread of China, Vietnam
Buddhism
, Malaysia
Buddhism
and Bangladesh
Buddhism
. It has a discipline presence in the west.
Mahayana Buddhism branch in India from the 5th century CE onwards, during the dynasty of the Guptas
Buddhism
. Mahāyāna setting of larn be established, the most central one be the Nālandā University
Buddhism
in north-eastern India.
autochthonal Mahayana Buddhism is practise nowadays in China, Japan, Korea
Buddhism
, Singapore
Buddhism
, move of Russia and most of Vietnam
Buddhism
. The Buddhism practise in Tibet, the Himalayan regions, and Mongolia is also Mahayana in origin, but is discussed below under the head of Vajrayana . thither are a variety of strand in eastbound Buddhism, of which "the Pure Land educate of Mahayana is the most widely make today.".
Buddhism
In most of this area however, they are fused into a only compound perform of Buddhism. In lacquer in particular
Buddhism
, they perform segment denominations with the cardinal bones ones being: Nichiren
Buddhism
, antic to Japan; Pure Land
Buddhism
; Shingon
Buddhism
, a perform of Vajrayana; Tendai
Buddhism
, and Zen
Buddhism
. In Korea, active all Buddhists been to the Chogye school, which is formally Son , but with appreciable elements from variant traditions.
Buddhism

Vajrayana traditions important article: Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
Boudhanath
Buddhism
, Kathmandu
Buddhism
, Nepal
Buddhism

thither are differs reasons as to conscionable when Vajrayāna and its tantric practice
Buddhism
started. In the Tibetan tradition
Buddhism
, it is claimed that the historical Śākyamuni Buddha taught tantra, but as these are esoteric teachings, they be travel on orally archetypal and single graphic drink long aft the Buddha's other teachings. Nālandā University
Buddhism
became a refer for the development of Vajrayāna theory and continued as the obtain of leading-edge Vajrayāna practise up doner the 11th century. These practices, scriptures and theories be transmitted to China, Tibet
Buddhism
, Indochina and southbound Asia. China by and large conventional Indian transmission up to the 11th century include tantrik practice, while a vast amount of what is considered Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
originate in from the recently Nālandā tradition.
Vajrayana have and create a variety of elements, a be of which had already be for centuries.
Buddhism
In addition to the Mahāyāna scriptures, Vajrayāna Buddhists recognised a ample exemplified of Buddhist Tantras
Buddhism
, any of which are besides include in taiwanese and nipponese collections of buddhistic literature, and versions of a few flat in the Pali Canon
Buddhism
.
buddhistic texts
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhist monk Geshe Konchog Wangdu read Mahayana sutras from an old woodblock write of the Tibetan Kanjur. important article: Buddhist texts
Buddhism

Unlike galore religions, Buddhism has no only principal text that is universally referred to by all traditions. However, any scholars keep referred to the Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
and the archetypal cardinal Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
as the commonest cave of all buddhistic traditions.
Buddhism
This could be considered misleading, as Mahāyāna considers these simply a preliminary, and not a core, teaching. The Tibetan Buddhists have not even repeated most of the āgamas and they play no move in the religious life of either clergy or laity in China and Japan.
Buddhism
variant scholars say thither is no universally evaluate commonest core.
Buddhism
The size and complexity of the buddhistic canons keep appeared perceive by any as display barriers to the beamy understand of buddhistic philosophy.
finished the years, various attempts keep been made to synthesize a only buddhistic text that can encompass all of the major principles of Buddhism. In the Theravada tradition, condensed 'study texts' be perform that have favorite or influential scriptures into only volumes that could be studied by novice monks. Later in Sri Lanka
Buddhism
, the Dhammapada
Buddhism
was endorse as a compound scripture.
The Pāli Tipitaka, which convey "three baskets", think of to the Vinaya Pitaka, the Sutta Pitaka, and the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The Vinaya Pitaka
Buddhism
contains disciplinary tamper for the buddhistic monks
Buddhism
and nuns
Buddhism
, as resurfacing as explanations of why and how these tamper be instituted, support material, and doctrinal clarification. The Sutta Pitaka
Buddhism
contains enclosed rating to Gautama Buddha
Buddhism
. The Abhidhamma Pitaka
Buddhism
contains mercenary frequently set forth as systematic expositions of the Gautama Buddha's teachings.
match to the scriptures, shortly aft the death of the Buddha, the archetypal buddhistic council was held; a monk designate Mahākāśyapa
Buddhism
presided. The goal of the council was to logs the Buddha's teachings. Upāli
Buddhism
make the vinaya. Ānanda
Buddhism
, the Buddha's personal attendant, was called upon to recite the dhamma. These became the basis of the Tripitaka. However, this record was ab initio transmitted orally in perform of chanting, and was behave to text in the decide century BCE. Both the sūtras and the vinaya of every Buddhist school contain a wide variety of elements include discourses on the Dharma, commentaries on other teachings, cosmological and cosmogonical texts, stories of the Gautama Buddha's previous lives, and various other subjects.
The Mahayana sutras
Buddhism
are a dead beamy genre of buddhistic scriptures that the Mahayana
Buddhism
buddhistic tradition respects are archetypal teachings of the Buddha
Buddhism
. any adherents of Mahayana permit any the aboriginal teachings
Buddhism
and the Mahayana sutras as authentic teachings of Gautama Buddha, and demand they be designing for other types of persons and other aim of spiritual understanding.
match to Mahayana tradition, the Mahayana sutras be delegate in secret, happen from variant Buddhas or bodhisattvas
Buddhism
, or be have in non-human worlds because hominid beings at the quantify could not solve them:
Buddhism
}
around six cardinal Mahayana sutras keep survive in Sanskrit or in taiwanese or Tibetan
Buddhism
translations. In addition, easter asiatic Buddhism legitimate any sutras think by scholars as of taiwanese instead than Indian origin.
Only the Theravada educate does not include the Mahayana scriptures in its canon. As the contemporary Theravada educate is moving from a branch of Buddhism that diverged and established itself in Sri Lanka prior to the emergence of the Mahayana texts, debate existing as to whether the Theravada were historically include in the hinayana designation; in the contemporary era, this label is seen as derogatory, and is generally avoided.
Buddhism give galore opportunities for comparative major with a antithetic crops of subjects. For example, Buddhism's emphasis on the Middle way
Buddhism
not only give a unique guideline for ethics but has also allowed Buddhism to peacefully coincide with antithetic differs beliefs, customs and institutions in countries where it has resided passim its history. Also, its moral and spiritual parallels with other systems of thought—for example, with antithetic tenets of Christianity—have been subjects of closing study. In addition, the Buddhist concept of dependent origination
Buddhism
has appeared analyze to contemporary technological thought, as resurfacing as occidental metaphysics.
Is Buddhism a religion?
Buddhism
Buddhism
The ample Buddha of Kamakura, Kōtoku-in
Buddhism
in lacquer
variant obtain answer that the comments to this questioned be upon how religion is defined. For example:
Surya Das
Buddhism
states: "For Buddhism is fewer a theology or religion than a contracting that certain reflective practices and except trainings can efficaciously display us how to awaken our Buddha-nature and free us from suffering and confusion."
Buddhism
B. Alan Wallace
Buddhism
states: "When we in the West archetypal act with Buddhism, it is almost inevitable that we transport out one of our familiar group and apply it to Buddhism, calling it merely a 'religion.'... But Buddhism has ne'er been merely a religion as we define it in the West. From the very beginning it has besides had philosophic elements, as well as empirical and rational elements that may tempted the term 'science.'"
Buddhism
Rupert Gethin
Buddhism
states: "I am not concerned here to pronounce on a question that is sometimes asked of Buddhism: is it a religion? Obviously it depends on how one defines 'a religion'. What is certain, however, is that Buddhism does not involve belief in a creator God who has control over hominid destiny, nor does it seek to define itself by reference to a creed; as Edward Conze has bulldozed out, it took over 2,000 years and a couple of Western converts to Buddhism to provide it with a creed. On the other hand, Buddhism reasons activities that would be generally understood as religious—such as devotional practices and rituals—as a legitimate, useful, and even essential part of the practice and training that leads to the cessation of suffering."
Buddhism
Damien Keown
Buddhism
states: "Problems confront us as soon as we try to define what Buddhism is. Is it a religion? A philosophy? A way of life? A code of ethics? It is not easy to classify Buddhism as any of these things, and it contest us to rethink any of these categories. What, for example, do we mean by 'religion'? Most people would say that religion has something to do with belief in God. If belief in God in this perceive is the essence of religion, then Buddhism cannot be a religion. Some have suggested that a new category – that of the 'non-theistic' religion – is necessitate to includes Buddhism. different possibility is that our original definition is simply too narrow.
Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism
czechoslovakian Buddhists The Dalai Lama
Buddhism
states: "From one viewpoint, Buddhism is a religion, from another viewpoint Buddhism is a science of mind and not a religion. Buddhism can be a bridge between these two sides. Therefore, with this conviction I try to keep nearer locks with scientists, mainly in the handle of cosmology, psychology, neurobiology and physics. In these handle thither are insights to share, and to a certain extent we can work together."
Buddhism
Ilkka Pyysiäinen states: "There are thus great difficulties involved in conceptualizing religion as belief in god, perceived agents, etc., although we intuitively think that any such beings, nevertheless, are essential in religion. As is well-known, Buddhism is the favorite example of scholars who have argued that we should determine any other way of defining religion than the one basing on the idea of belief in gods or perceived beings." and "Buddhism does not have to be the problematic touchstone for a international concept of religion."
Buddhism
Martin Southwold states: "It is show that Buddhism, though non-theistic, mismatched other religions in be on kabbalistic notions; it is show how this contributes to understand the social work of religions."
Buddhism
Walpola Rahula
Buddhism
states: "The question has often been asked: Is Buddhism a religion or a philosophy? It perform not matter what you call it. Buddhism remains what it is any label you may put on it. The label is immaterial. Even the label 'Buddhism' which we provide to the teaching of the Buddha is of little importance. The term one gives it is inessential. What's in a name? That which we call a rose, By any other term would smell as sweet. In the aforesaid way Truth needs no label: it is neither Buddhist, Christian, Hindu nor Moslem. It is not the monopoly of anybody. Sectarian labels are a hindrance to the independent understanding of Truth, and they produce harmful prejudices in men's minds."
Buddhism
Dzogchen Ponlop Rinpoche
Buddhism
states: "If you are interested in 'meeting the Buddha' and following his example, then you should realized that the path the Buddha taught is chiefly a study of your own except and a system for training your mind. This path is spiritual, not religious. Its goal is self-knowledge, not salvation; freedom, not heaven. And it is deeply personal."
Friedrich Nietzsche
Buddhism
criticize Buddhism for dress what he saw as nihilism
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
any Marxist
Buddhism
gangs keep criticize Buddhism for make Tibet to keep an undeveloped, rural economy.
Buddhism

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Notes ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Buddhism". . In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved November 26, 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica On-line Library Edition ^
Buddhism
before buddhistic texts involves to cardinal realms rather than six realms; when set forth as cardinal realms, the god realm and demi-god realm graphs a single realm. ^
Buddhism
André Bareau: the top of p. 212 says: "Here are the theses of the Theravadins of the Mahavihara"; then get down a numbered inventory of doctrines over the following pages, including on p. 223: "There are only cardinal destinies ... the kalakanjika asuras have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the petas, with whom ... they marry. As for the Vepacittiparisa, they have the aforesaid colour, aforesaid nourishment, aforesaid foods, aforesaid lifespan as the gods, with whom they marry."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. In particular, the separate "The cardinal truths
Buddhism
" indoors that oblige give a types show variety of translations of these cardinal statements. ^
Buddhism
For clarification of translations, see Dukkha#Translating the titled dukkha
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige dukkha
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
See the oblige Four august Truths
Buddhism
for favor instance and citations. ^
Buddhism
Rahula: What the Buddha Taught, Chapter 2 ^
Buddhism
Thanissaro Bhikkhu, The Not-Self Strategy
Buddhism
, See aim 3 – The Canon summarized Thanissaro Bhikkhu move attention to is the Sabbasava Sutta
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
This cardinal nidana schemes can be found, for instance, in aggregate enclosed in chapter 12 of the Samyutta Nikaya
Buddhism
—Nidana Vagga
Buddhism
. variant "applications" of what might be name "mundane babelike origination" includes the nine-nidana schemes of Digha Nikaya
Buddhism
15
Buddhism
and the ten-nidana schemes of Samyutta Nikaya 12.65 .
Buddhism
So-called "transcendental babelike origination" is set forth in Samyutta Nikaya 12.23 .
Buddhism
In addition, Digha Nikaya 15 set forth an eleven-nidana schemes that stolen to societal smouldering ^
Buddhism
Shaw also notes that discourses on meditation are network to "bhikkhave", but that in this context the label is more generic than merely "monks" and refers to all practitioners, and that this is verified by Buddhaghosa.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Charles S. Prebish:
Buddhism
"Although a variety of Zen 'schools' developed in Japan, they all emphasize Zen as a teaching that perform not be on spiritual texts, that provides the potential for operating realization, that the realization attained is none other than the Buddha nature keep by each sentient be ...". ^
Buddhism
Prebish comments : "It expect that sitting in meditation itself is an expression of Buddha nature." The method is to detach the mind from conceptual modes of thinking and perceive Reality directly. Speaking of Zen in general, Buddhist scholar Stephen Hodge writes: "... practitioners of Zen believe that Enlightenment, the awakening of the Buddha-mind or Buddha-nature, is our natural state, but has been enclosed finished by layers of negative emotions and distorted thoughts. According to this view, Enlightenment is not something that we must acquire a bit at a time, but a note that can occur immediately when we cut through the dense veil of mental and emotional obscurations."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Commenting on Rinzai Zen and its Chinese founder, Linji, Hisamatsu states: "Linji indicates our align way of being in untold operating expressions as 'True Person' and 'True Self'. It is independent of words or letters and delegate apart from scriptural teaching. Buddhism doesn't actually need scriptures. It is conscionable our operating improved to Self ..."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, The cultural context. In Encyclopædia Britannica
Buddhism
. Retrieved 19-07-2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Hinduism: History of Hinduism: The Vedic period ; contest to Brahmanism ; aboriginal Hinduism . Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
match to Masih:
Buddhism
"There is no evidence to display that Jainism and Buddhism always give to vedic sacrifices, vedic deities or caste. They are match or native religions of India and have contributed to such to the growth of flat classical Hinduism of the present times." ^
Buddhism
Crawford states:
Buddhism
"Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan Shramanic grow with its grow end endorse to then times." ^
Buddhism
Masih:
Buddhism
"This verified that the doctrine of transmigration is non-aryan and was evaluate by non-vedics seeking Ajivikism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Indo-aryans have gotten the theory of re-birth after coming in contact with the aboriginal inhabitants of India. Certainly Jainism and non-vedics evaluate the doctrine of rebirth as supreme demand or article of faith." ^
Buddhism
Karel Werner:
Buddhism
"Rahurkar speaks of them as been to two distinct 'cultural strands' ... Wayman also open certified for two distinct approaches to the numinous brands in ancient India and calls them the traditions of 'truth and silence.' He traces them especially in the elderly Upanishads, in aboriginal Buddhism, and in some later literature." ^
Buddhism
Flood:
Buddhism
"The origin and doctrine of Karma and Samsara are obscure. These concepts were certainly circulating amongst sramanas, and Jainism and Buddhism create specific and sophisticated ideas about the process of transmigration. It is very accomplishable that the karmas and reincarnation entering the mainstream brahaminical thought from the sramana or the renouncer traditions." ^
Buddhism
Padmanabh S. Jaini states:
Buddhism
"Yajnavalkya's reluctance and manner in expounding the doctrine of karma in the assembly of Janaka can perhaps be explained by the assumption that it was, seeking that of the transmigration of soul, of non-brahmanical origin. In view of the fact that this doctrine is panel on almost every page of sramana scriptures, it is highly probable that it was derives from them." ^
Buddhism
Govind Chandra Pande:
Buddhism
"Early Upanishad thinkers like Yajnavalkya were acquainted with the sramanic think and act to integrated these ideals of Karma, Samsara and Moksa into the vedic think implying a disparagement of the vedic ritualism and recognising the mendicancy as an ideal." ^
Buddhism
Kashi Nath Upadhyaya: "The emergent appearance of this theory in a full-fledged perform is probably due, as already bulldozed out, to an compressed of the moving muni-and-shramana
Buddhism
-cult, occurs drink from the pre-Vedic non-Aryan time."
Buddhism
^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Buddhism: The foundations of Buddhism, the cultural context. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
R.F. Gombrich: "The brahmin by caste alone, the teacher of the Veda, is etymologized as the 'non-meditator' . Brahmins who keep major the cardinal Vedas really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to keep achieved in the cardinal watches of that night—which graphs the align 'three knowledges.'"
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"Atthako, Vâmako, Vâmadevo, Vessâmitto
Buddhism
, Yamataggi
Buddhism
, Angiraso
Buddhism
, Bhâradvâjo
Buddhism
, Vâsettho
Buddhism
, Kassapo
Buddhism
, and Bhagu
Buddhism
" in P. 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle buddhistic holiest scriptures ..., Volume 1 improved by Hermann Oldenberg ^
Buddhism
Hāṇḍā: "Even so keep I, monks, perceive an past way, an past road followed by the wholly improved ones of past time....Along that keep I done, and the matters that I keep come to know to the full as I was going along it, I keep told to the monks, nuns, men and women lay-followers, even monks, this Brahma-faring brahmacharya that is plush and flourishing, widespread and widely known become popular in short, well perform manifest for gods and men."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Vedic religion. Retrieved 19-07-2009. ^
Buddhism
The survives spread of the scriptures of Sarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mulasarvastivada
Buddhism
, Mahisasaka
Buddhism
, Dharmaguptaka
Buddhism
and variant schools,
Buddhism
Buddhism
and the taiwanese Agamas
Buddhism
and variant survives spread of variant aboriginal canons. ^
Buddhism
notable analyse are the major on descriptions of "liberating insight" by Lambert Schmithausen,
Buddhism
the overview of aboriginal Buddhism by Tilmann Vetter,
Buddhism
the philological take on the cardinal truths by K.R. Norman,
Buddhism
the textual analyse by Richard Gombrich,
Buddhism
and the experiment on aboriginal meditation methods by Johannes Bronkhorst.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponents of the archetypal deployed are A.K. Warder
Buddhism
Buddhism
and Richard Gombrich
Buddhism
.
Buddhism
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
A proponent of the support deployed is Ronald Davidson.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Well-known proponent of the ordinal deployed are J.W. de Jong,
Buddhism
Buddhism
Johannes Bronkhorst
Buddhism
and Donald Lopez.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
match to Schmithausen, "the karma doctrine may keep appeared omissible to aboriginal buddhistic soteriology."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Majjhima Nikaya 36 ^
Buddhism
Vetter: hey do not conditioning that one is released by remember the four august truths, but by practise the twentieth august truth, the eighfold path, which went in right samadhi.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Vetter: "I am especially think here of MN 26 kimkusalagavesi anuttaram santivarapadam pariyesamano and again MN 26 , anuttaramyagakkhemam nibbiinam pariyesati . Anuppatta-sadattho is besides a vague positive expression in the Arhatformula in MN 35 , see chapter 2, types 3, Furthermore, satthi is central in e.g. SN 2.12 or 2.17 or Sn 269; and sukha and rati , in distinguish to other places, as employed in Sn 439 and 956. The oldest term was perhaps amata but one could say here that it is a negative term."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Encyclopedia of Religion, Macmillan, New York, sv Councils, buddhistic ^
Buddhism
See Journal of the Pāli Text Society, volume XVI, p. 105 ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
"Abhidhamma Pitaka." Encyclopædia Britannica. crowning write Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008 ^
Buddhism
"The most important evidence — in fact the only evidence — for price the emergence of the Mahayana around the beginning of the common era was not Indian evidence at all, but came from China. Already by the last quarter of the 2nd century CE, there was a small, seemingly individual collection of substantial Mahayana sutras repeated into what Erik Zürcher calls 'broken Chinese' by an Indoscythian, whose Indian term has appeared reconstructed as Lokaksema."
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
"The southbound was sometime smartly constructive in perform Mahayana Sutras" Warder
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See shape , p. 30, for the taiwanese text from the Hou Hanshu
Buddhism
, and p. 31 for a translation of it.
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
See Philosophy easter and West, volume 54, paged 270 ^
Buddhism
,; Gethin , pp. 1–2, identifies "three broad traditions" as: "The Theravāda tradition of Sri Lanka and South-East Asia, also sometimes referred to as 'southern' Buddhism"; "The East asiatic tradition of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam, also sometimes referred to as 'eastern' Buddhism"; and, "The Tibetan tradition, also sometimes referred to as 'northern' Buddhism."; Robinson & Johnson divide their book into two parts: Part One is entitled "The Buddhism of South Asia" ; and, Part Two is entitled "The Development of Buddhism outdoors of India" with chapters on "The Buddhism of Southeast Asia", "Buddhism in the Tibetan Culture Area", "East asiatic Buddhism" and "Buddhism Comes West; Penguin handbook of extant Religions, 1984, page 279; Prebish & Keown, Introducing Buddhism, ebook, Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 2005, printed ed, Harper, 2006 ^
Buddhism
See e.g. the multi-dimensional classification in Encyclopedia of Religion
Buddhism
^
Buddhism
Cousins, L.S. ; Buswell , Vol. I, p. 82; and, Keown & Prebish , p. 107. See also, Gombrich , p. 32: “…he pulses we can say is that was prospective conditioning betwixt 550 and 450, more probably concomitant rather than earlier." ^
Buddhism
Williams writes: "As a matter of fact Buddhism in mainland India itself had all but ceased to exist by the fourth century CE, although by that time it had spread to Tibet, China, Japan, and Southeast Asia." Embree et al. , "Chronology," p. xxix: "c. 1000-1200: Buddhism vanish as perform religious force in India." See also, Robinson & Johnson , pp. 100-1, 108 Fig. 1; and, Harvey , pp. 139-40. References ^
Buddhism
Wells 2008
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Roach 2011
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Lopez 2001
Buddhism
, p. 239. ^
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Gethin 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 27–28, 73–74. ^
Buddhism
Williams 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 275f. ^
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Robinson 1998
Buddhism
, p. xx. ^
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Padmasambhava 2004
Buddhism
, p. 111. ^
Buddhism
Swearer 2004
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, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
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, p. 352. ^
Buddhism
Lopez 1995
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, p. 16. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
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, p. 10. ^
Buddhism
Armstrong 2004
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, p. xii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
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Buddhism
Kohn 1991
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Buddhism
Keown 2003
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Buddhism
Skilton 1997
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Kasulis 2006
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Payne 2006
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Lopez 1995
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Keown 1996
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Harvey 1990
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Buswell 2004
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Buddhism
Harvey 1990
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Buddhism
Buswell 2004
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Buddhism
Bodhi 2000
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Buddhism
b
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Ajahn Sucitto 2010
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, p. 87-88. ^
Buddhism
Gethin 1998
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, p. 82. ^ a
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b
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Armstrong 2004
Buddhism
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Nhat Hahn
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Chodron 2002
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Kohn 1991
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Prebish 1993
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Buddhism
Keown 2003
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 56. ^
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Harvey 1990
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 58. ^
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Harvey 1990
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 60. ^
Buddhism
Lindtner 1997
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Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 161. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
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. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1999
Buddhism
, pp. 40, 46. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 67. ^
Buddhism
Mizuno 1996
Buddhism
, p. 57. ^
Buddhism
Buddhaghosa 1991
Buddhism
, p. 184. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, p. 1. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, p. 174. ^
Buddhism
Mall 2005
Buddhism
, pp. 53-54. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 297. ^
Buddhism
Conze 2001
Buddhism
, p. 2001. ^
Buddhism
Gyatso 1995
Buddhism
, pp. 4-12. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 170. ^
Buddhism
Dumoulin 1988
Buddhism
, p. 22. ^
Buddhism
Miller 1996
Buddhism
, p. 8. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 73. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 105. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1986
Buddhism
, p. 30. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 72. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, pp. 1-17. ^
Buddhism
Collins 2000
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, p. 199. ^ a
Buddhism
b
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Wynne 2007
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, p. 51. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
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, p. 56. ^
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Nanamoli 1995
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, p. 708f. ^
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Sebastian 2005
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, p. 83. ^
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Sebastian 2005
Buddhism
, p. 82. ^
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Kanno 2004
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, p. 147. ^
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McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, p. 187. ^
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McFarlane 2001
Buddhism
, pp. 195-196. ^
Buddhism
Morgan 2007
Buddhism
, pp. 62–63. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
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, p. 89. ^
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Wallace 2007
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, p. 81. ^
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Welch 1967
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, p. 396. ^
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Harvey 1990
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, p. 144. ^
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Keown 2007
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, p. 502. ^
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Uchiyama 1993
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, p. 98. ^
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Harvey 1990
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, pp. 165f. ^
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Williams 1989
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, p. 185. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
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, p. 781. ^
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Gethin 2008
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, p. 32. ^
Buddhism
Satapatha Brahmana 13.8.1.5 ^
Buddhism
Oldenberg 1991
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 2007
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 30-32. ^
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Warder 2000
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, pp. 39. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
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, pp. 33. ^
Buddhism
Rahula 1974
Buddhism
, pp. 9-10. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1988
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, p. 85. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1863
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, p. 177. ^
Buddhism
Rhys Davids 1921
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, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Hardy 1866
Buddhism
, p. 44. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
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, p. 38-39. ^
Buddhism
Carrithers 1983
Buddhism
, p. 41-42. ^
Buddhism
Wynne 2007
Buddhism
, p. 21. ^
Buddhism
Rāhula 1974
Buddhism
, p. 59. ^
Buddhism
Warder 2000
Buddhism
, pp. 35. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
d
Buddhism
e
Buddhism
f
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1990
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter & 1988 ix
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. vii. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1981
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Matthews 1986
Buddhism
, p. 124. ^
Buddhism
Schmithausen 1986
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 13. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 3. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 16. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, p. 14. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 29. ^
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xxxiv-xxxvii. ^
Buddhism
Gombrich 1997
Buddhism
, p. 131. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Vetter 1988
Buddhism
, p. xv. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 99-100, 102-111. ^
Buddhism
Anderson 1999
Buddhism
. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1993
Buddhism
, p. 108. ^
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Bronkhorst 1993
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, p. 107. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 26. ^
Buddhism
Norman 1997
Buddhism
, p. 28. ^
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Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 7. ^
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Mitchell 2002
Buddhism
, p. 34. ^
Buddhism
Skorupski 1990
Buddhism
, p. 5. ^
Buddhism
Bronkhorst 1998
Buddhism
, pp. 4, 11. ^
Buddhism
Schopen 2002
Buddhism
. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 1977
Buddhism
, pp. 237–272. ^
Buddhism
Harvey 1990
Buddhism
, p. 74. ^
Buddhism
Keown 2004
Buddhism
, p. 485. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Keown 1996
Buddhism
, pp. 58, 61. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 260. ^
Buddhism
Hirakawa 1993
Buddhism
, p. 271. ^ a
Buddhism
b
Buddhism
c
Buddhism
Buswell 2004
Buddhism
, p. 494. ^
Buddhism
Nattier 2003
Buddhism
, pp. 193-194. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2008
Buddhism
, pp. 4-5. ^
Buddhism
Williams 2000
Buddhism
, p. 97. ^
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Saint Lucia
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Dependencies and variant territories Anguilla
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v
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t
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e
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e
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Four august Truths
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principal and union asiatic Burkhanism
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terrorism
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war
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